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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389381

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 is spreading rapidly around the globe, adopting proper actions for confronting and protecting against this virus is an essential and unmet task. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoting molecules such as peroxides are detrimental to many viruses, including coronaviruses. In this paper, metal decorated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were evaluated for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) adsorption for potential use for designing viral inactivation surfaces. We employed first-principles methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the capture of an individual H2O2 molecule on pristine and metal (Pt, Pd, Ni, Cu, Rh, or Ru) decorated SWCNTs. Although the single H2O2 molecule is weakly physisorbed on pristine SWCNT, a significant improvement on its adsorption energy was found by utilizing metal functionalized SWCNT as the adsorbent. It was revealed that Rh-SWCNT and Ru-SWCNT systems demonstrate outstanding performance for H2O2 adsorption. Furthermore, we discovered through calculations that Pt- and Cu-decorated SWNCT-H2O2 systems show high potential for filters for virus removal and inactivation with a very long shelf-life (2.2 × 1012 and 1.9 × 108 years, respectively). The strong adsorption of metal decorated SWCNTs and the long shelf-life of these nanomaterials suggest they are exceptional candidates for designing personal protection equipment against viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Adsorption , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Density Functional Theory , Disinfectants/chemistry , Drug Stability , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Iron/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Platinum/chemistry , Platinum/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rhodium/chemistry , Rhodium/pharmacology , Ruthenium/chemistry , Ruthenium/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
3.
Electrophoresis ; 42(14-15): 1411-1418, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272178

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, chlorine-containing disinfectants have been widely used in nucleic acid amplification testing laboratories. Whether the use of disinfectants affect the results of viral nucleic acid amplification is unknown. We examined the impact of different hypochlorous acid (HOCl) concentrations on the quantitative results of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also explored the mechanisms and models of action of chlorine-containing disinfectants that affected the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that different HOCl concentrations and different action times had an impact on the SARS-CoV-2 results. High concentrations of ambient HOCl have a greater impact than low concentrations, and this effect will increase with the extension of the action time and with the increase in ambient humidity. Compared with the enzymes or the extracted RNA required for RT-PCR, the impact of HOCl on the SARS-CoV-2 detection is more likely to be caused by damage to primers and probes in the PCR system. The false negative result still existed after changing the ambient disinfectant to ethanol but not peracetic acid. The use of HOCl in the environment will have an unpredictable impact on the nucleic acid test results of SARS-CoV-2. In order to reduce the possibility of false negative of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and prevent the spread of epidemic disease, environmental disinfectants should be used at the beginning and end of the experiment rather than during the experimental operation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disinfectants/chemistry , Hypochlorous Acid/chemistry , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Humidity , Hypochlorous Acid/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 27-30, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261926

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, effective disinfection measures are needed, and guidance based on the methodological framework of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) may enable the choice of effective disinfectants on an immediate basis. This study aimed to elucidate whether disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' as specified in the European Standard EN 14476 as well as in the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases/Robert Koch Institute (DVV/RKI) guideline are effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Two commercially available formulations for surface disinfection and one formulation for hand disinfection were studied regarding their virucidal activity. Based on the data of this study the enveloped SARS-CoV-2 is at least equally susceptible compared to the standard test virus vaccinia used in the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines. Thus, chemical disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' based on the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines will be an effective choice to target enveloped SARS-CoV-2 as a preventive measure.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/classification , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 37-41, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198173

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the potential of olanexidine gluconate as environmental disinfectant against enveloped viruses in the suspension test and three non-porous surface tests. In the suspension test, olanexidine gluconate showed immediate virucidal activity. In addition, non-porous surface tests demonstrated that, although the immediate effect of aqueous formulations was weak, the final virucidal efficacy outcompeted that of ethanol for disinfection. Furthermore, the effectiveness of olanexidine gluconate persisted even after drying on environmental surfaces. This study demonstrated the potential usage of olanexidine gluconate formulations as an environmental disinfectant in the infection control of enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Biguanides/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glucuronates/pharmacology , Infection Control/methods , Viral Envelope/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Biguanides/chemistry , Cell Line , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/standards , Environmental Microbiology , Glucuronates/chemistry , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Viruses/classification
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 990-1002, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188608

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). We succeeded in preparing disinfectant cellulose-based wipes treated with antimicrobial and antiviral silver nanoparticles to be used for prevention of contamination and transmission of several pathogenic viruses and microbes to human in critical areas such as hospitals and healthcare centers especially coronavirus. In this work, the antimicrobial and antiviral activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared with four different techniques were investigated for the utilization as a disinfectant for cellulose-based wipes. These four methods are namely; 1) trisodium citrate with cotton yarn as a reducing agent, 2) preparing AgNP's using aqueous solution of PVA in the presence of glucose, 3) trisodium citrate with cotton fabric as a reducing agent, and 4) photochemical reaction of polyacrylic acid and silver nitrate solution. Polyester/viscose blended spunlace nonwoven fabrics as cellulose based fabrics were treated with the prepared silver nanoparticles to be used as surfaces disinfection wipes. The properties of the nonwoven fabrics were examined including thickness, tensile strength in dry and wet conditions in both machine direction (MD) and cross-machine direction (CMD), bursting strength, air permeability, water permeability and surface wettability. Characterization of the AgNPs was carried out in terms of UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, and Zeta potential analysis. The assessment of AgNPs active solutions for antimicrobial and antiviral activities was evaluated. The results obtained from the analyses of the AgNPs samples prepared with different techniques showed good uniformity and stability of the particles, as well uniform coating of the AgNPs on the fibers. Additionally, there is a significant effect of the AgNPs preparation method on their disinfectant performance that proved its effectiveness against coronavirus (MERS-CoV), S. aureus and B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, E. coli and P. mirabilis as Gram-negative bacteria, A. niger and C. albicans fungi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Citrates/chemistry , Cotton Fiber , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver Nitrate/chemistry
7.
Bioessays ; 43(6): e2000312, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184571

ABSTRACT

Biocidal agents such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde are able to inactivate several coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. In this article, an insight into one mechanism for the inactivation of these viruses by those two agents is presented, based on analysis of previous observations during electron microscopic examination of several members of the orthocoronavirinae subfamily, including the new virus SARS-CoV-2. This inactivation is proposed to occur through Schiff base reaction-induced conformational changes in the spike glycoprotein leading to its disruption or breakage, which can prevent binding of the virus to cellular receptors. Also, a new prophylactic and therapeutic measure against SARS-CoV-2 using acetoacetate is proposed, suggesting that it could similarly break the viral spike through Schiff base reaction with lysines of the spike protein. This measure needs to be confirmed experimentally before consideration. In addition, a new line of research is proposed to help find a broad-spectrum antivirus against several members of this subfamily.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ketone Bodies/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Glutaral/chemistry , Glutaral/pharmacology , Humans , Ketone Bodies/chemistry , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Ketosis/etiology , Ketosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/drug effects , Virion/pathogenicity
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186650

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. Purpose: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. Conclusion: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Masks , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Chick Embryo , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Dynamic Light Scattering , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Textiles , X-Ray Diffraction
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 36: 127808, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034180

ABSTRACT

Commercial disinfectants are routinely used to decontaminate surfaces where microbes are expected and unwelcome. Several disinfectants contain quaternary ammonium salts, or "quats", all being derived from ammonium. Quaternary alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride or bromide disinfectants are widely available. These compounds are effective in reducing or eliminating bacteria on contaminated nonporous surfaces. A unique benzyl derived boronium salt with strong detergent action has been developed. It demonstrated 4-8X greater antibacterial activity against 3 different bacteria when compared to an equal concentration of a commercial quant disinfectant solution containing alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Antibacterial effectiveness of each agent was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bromides/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Bromides/chemical synthesis , Bromides/chemistry , Disinfectants/chemical synthesis , Disinfectants/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemical synthesis , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorine/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
11.
J Hosp Infect ; 108: 142-145, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the current global pandemic, COVID-19. Because this virus is novel, little is known about its sensitivity to disinfection. METHODS: We performed suspension tests against SARS-CoV-2 using three commercially available quaternary ammonium compound (Quat) disinfectants and one laboratory-made 0.2% benzalkonium chloride solution. FINDINGS: Three of the four formulations completely inactivated the virus within 15 s of contact, even in the presence of a soil load or when diluted in hard water. CONCLUSION: Quats rapidly inactivate SARS-CoV-2, making them potentially useful for controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread in hospitals and the community.


Subject(s)
Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/classification , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/chemistry , Humans , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(46): 10374-10385, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919399

ABSTRACT

Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out with a view to investigating the stability of the SARS-CoV-2 exterior membrane with respect to two common disinfectants, namely, aqueous solutions of ethanol and n-propanol. We used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a model membrane material and did simulations on both gel and liquid crystalline phases of membrane surrounded by aqueous solutions of varying alcohol concentrations (up to 17.5 mol %). While a moderate effect of alcohol on the gel phase of membrane is observed, its liquid crystalline phase is shown to be influenced dramatically by either alcohol. Our results show that aqueous solutions of only 5 and 10 mol % alcohol already have significant weakening effects on the membrane. The effects of n-propanol are always stronger than those of ethanol. The membrane changes its structure, when exposed to disinfectant solutions; uptake of alcohol causes it to swell laterally but to shrink vertically. At the same time, the orientational order of lipid tails decreases significantly. Metadynamics and grand-canonical ensemble simulations were done to calculate the free-energy profiles for permeation of alcohol and alcohol/water solubility in the DPPC. We found that the free-energy barrier to permeation of the DPPC liquid crystalline phase by all permeants is significantly lowered by alcohol uptake. At a disinfectant concentration of 10 mol %, it becomes insignificant enough to allow almost free passage of the disinfectant to the inside of the virus to cause damage there. It should be noted that the disinfectant also causes the barrier for water permeation to drop. Furthermore, the shrinking of the membrane thickness shortens the gap needed to be crossed by penetrants from outside the virus into its core. The lateral swelling also increases the average distance between head groups, which is a secondary barrier to membrane penetration, and hence further increases the penetration by disinfectants. At alcohol concentrations in the disinfectant solution above 15 mol %, we reliably observe disintegration of the DPPC membrane in its liquid crystalline phase.


Subject(s)
1-Propanol/chemistry , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Membrane Fluidity/drug effects , Permeability/drug effects , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Envelope/drug effects
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240421, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841648

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microbial loading in aerosols produced after air-puff by non-contact tonometer (NCT) as well as the effect of alcohol disinfection on the inhibition of microbes and thus to provide suggestions for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in ophthalmic departments of hospitals or clinics during the great pandemics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in this study. A NIDEK NCT was used for intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement for patients who visited Department of Ophthalmology in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University during March 18-25 2020. After ultra-violate (UV) light disinfection, the room air was sampled for 5 minutes. Before and after alcohol disinfection, the air samples and nozzle surface samples were respectively collected by plate exposure method and sterile moist cotton swab technique after predetermined times of NCT air-puff. Microbial colony counts were calculated after incubation for 48 hours. Finally, mass spectrometry was performed for the accurate identification of microbial species. RESULTS: Increased microbial colonies were detected from air samples close to NCT nozzle after air-puff compared with air samples at a distance of 1 meter from the nozzle (p = 0.001). Interestingly, none microbes were detected on the surface of NCT nozzle. Importantly, after 75% alcohol disinfection less microbes were detected in the air beside the nozzle (p = 0.003). Microbial species identification showed more than ten strains of microbes, all of which were non-pathogenic. CONCLUSION: Aerosols containing microbes were produced by NCT air-puff in the ophthalmic consultation room, which may be a possible virus transmission route in the department of ophthalmology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Alcohol disinfection for the nozzle and the surrounding air was efficient at decreasing the microbes contained in the aerosols and theoretically this prevention measure could also inhibit the virus. This will give guidance for the prevention of virus transmission and protection of hospital staff and patients.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Alcohols/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Aerosols/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Ophthalmology/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Hosp Infect ; 107: 45-49, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has greatly increased the frequency of disinfecting surfaces in public places, causing a strain on the ability to obtain disinfectant solutions. An alternative is to use plain alcohols (EtOH and IPA) or sodium hypochlorite (SH). AIM: To determine the efficacy of various concentrations of EtOH, IPA and SH on a human coronavirus (HCoV) dried on to surfaces using short contact times. METHODS: High concentrations of infectious HCoV were dried on to porcelain and ceramic tiles, then treated with various concentrations of the alcohols for contact times of 15 s, 30 s and 1 min. Three concentrations of SH were also tested. Reductions in titres were measured using the tissue culture infectious dose 50 assay. FINDINGS: Concentrations of EtOH and IPA from 62% to 80% were very efficient at inactivating high concentrations of HCoV dried on to tile surfaces, even with a 15-s contact time. Concentrations of 95% dehydrated the virus, allowing infectious virus to survive. The dilutions of SH recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1/10 and 1/50) were efficient at inactivating high concentrations of HCoV dried on to tile surfaces, whereas a 1/100 dilution had substantially lower activity. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple concentrations of EtOH, IPA and SH efficiently inactivated infectious HCoV on hard surfaces, typical of those found in public places. Often no remaining infectious HCoV could be detected.


Subject(s)
2-Propanol/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Ceramics , Dental Porcelain , Disinfectants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Surface Properties
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111116, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741186

ABSTRACT

Disinfectant quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats) have diverse uses in a variety of consumer and commercial products, particularly cleaning products. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, they have become a primary tool to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus on surfaces. Disinfectant Quats have very low vapor pressure, and following the use phase of the products in which they are found, disposal is typically "down-the-drain" to wastewater treatment systems. Consequently, the potential for the greatest environmental effect is to the aquatic environment, from treated effluent, and potentially to soils, which might be amended with wastewater biosolids. Among the earliest used and still common disinfectant Quats are the alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) compounds and the dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) compounds. They are cationic surfactants often found in consumer and commercial surface cleaners. Because of their biocidal properties, disinfectant Quats are heavily regulated for human and environmental safety around the world. Consequently, there is a robust database of information regarding the ecological hazards and environmental fate of ADBAC and DDAC; however, some of the data presented are from unpublished studies that have been submitted to and reviewed by regulatory agencies (i.e., EPA and European Chemicals Agency) to support antimicrobial product registration. We summarize the available environmental fate data and the acute and chronic aquatic ecotoxicity data for freshwater species, including algae, invertebrates, fish, and plants using peer-reviewed literature and unpublished data submitted to and summarized by regulatory agencies. The lower limit of the range of the ecotoxicity data for disinfectant Quats tends to be lower than that for other surface active agents, such as nonionic or anionic surfactants. However, ecotoxicity is mitigated by environmental fate characteristics, the data for which we also summarize, including high biodegradability and a strong tendency to sorb to wastewater biosolids, sediment, and soil. As a result, disinfectant Quats are largely removed during wastewater treatment, and those residues discharged in treated effluent are likely to rapidly bind to suspended solids or sediments, thus mitigating their toxicity.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/toxicity , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , Biodegradation, Environmental , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ecotoxicology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/pharmacology , Water Purification/methods
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/standards , Disinfectants/toxicity , Drug Compounding , Ethanol/chemistry , Hand Disinfection/instrumentation , Humans , Methanol/chemistry , Methanol/toxicity , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
18.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(9): 1461-1466, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652506

ABSTRACT

The surgeon needs to have an inexpensive, available, nontoxic, and practical disinfectant that is effective in sanitizing against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence for using hypochlorous acid in the office setting on a daily basis. The method used to assemble recommendations was a review of the literature including evidence for this solution when used in different locations and industries other than the oral-maxillofacial clinic facility. The results indicate that this material can be used with a high predictability for disinfecting against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Hypochlorous Acid/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dental Offices , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgery, Oral
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 530(1): 1-3, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641528

ABSTRACT

Alcohol-based disinfectant shortage is a serious concern in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2-inactivating efficacy of acidic EW for use as an alternative disinfectant. The quick virucidal effect of acidic EW depended on the concentrations of contained-FAC. The effect completely disappeared in acidic EW in which FAC was lost owing to long-time storage after generation. In addition, the virucidal activity increased proportionately with the volume of acidic EW mixed with the virus solution when the FAC concentration in EW was same. These findings suggest that the virucidal activity of acidic EW against SARS-CoV-2 depends on the amount of FAC contacting the virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Acids/chemistry , Acids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Chlorine/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Electrolysis/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water/chemistry , Water/pharmacology
20.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2498-2510, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595840

ABSTRACT

Pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) gives ample reason to generally review coronavirus (CoV) containment. For establishing some preliminary views on decontamination and disinfection, surrogate CoVs have commonly been assessed. This review serves to examine the existing science in regard to CoV containment generically and then to translate these findings into timely applications for COVID-19. There is widespread dissemination of CoVs in the immediate patient environment, and CoVs can potentially be spread via respiratory secretions, urine, and stool. Interpretations of the spread however must consider whether studies examine for viral RNA, virus viability by culture, or both. Presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and post-14 day virus excretion from patients may complicate the epidemiology. Whereas droplet spread is accepted, there continues to be controversy over the extent of possible airborne spread and especially now for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CoVs are stable in body secretions and sewage at reduced temperatures. In addition to temperature, dryness or relative humidity, initial viral burden, concomitant presence of bioburden, and the type of surface can all affect stability. Generalizing, CoVs can be susceptible to radiation, temperature extremes, pH extremes, peroxides, halogens, aldehydes, many solvents, and several alcohols. Whereas detergent surfactants can have some direct activity, these agents are better used as complements to a complex disinfectant solution. Disinfectants with multiple agents and adverse pH are more likely to be best active at higher water temperatures. Real-life assessments should be encouraged with working dilutions. The use of decontamination and disinfection should be balanced with considerations of patient and caregiver safety. Processes should also be balanced with considerations for other potential pathogens that must be targeted. Given some CoV differences and given that surrogate testing provides experimental correlates at best, direct assessments with SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 are required.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/drug effects , Decontamination , Disinfectants/chemistry , Environmental Exposure/prevention & control , Sewage/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Radiation
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