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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 783832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591474

ABSTRACT

Reports of COVID-19 cases potentially attributed to fomite transmission led to the extensive use of various disinfectants to control viral spread. Alternative disinfectants, such as essential oils, have emerged as a potential antimicrobial. Four essential oil blends were tested on three different surfaces inoculated with a coronavirus surrogate, bacteriophage Phi 6, and a bacterial indicator, Staphylococcus aureus. Log10 concentration reductions were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software. Data collected in this study show that the application of dilute essential oil disinfectants using a spray delivery device is an effective way to reduce concentrations of bacterial and viral microorganisms on ceramic, stainless steel, and laminate surfaces. Surrogate viruses were reduced up to 6 log10 PFU and bacterial were reduced up to 4 log10 CFU. Although surfaces are no longer considered a high risk fomite for COVID-19 transmission, the disinfection of microorganisms on surfaces remains an important consideration for high touch areas in hospitals, waiting rooms, etc. The application of spray disinfectants, based on essential oil blends, provides a rapid and effective means to reduce microbial contamination on high-touched surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Oils, Volatile , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495720

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. Method: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. Results: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. Conclusion: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Formaldehyde/pharmacology , Gamma Rays , Glutaral/pharmacology , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/drug effects , Ultraviolet Rays
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444182

ABSTRACT

Recently, and considering the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a growing consensus that the disinfection of surfaces contaminated with pathogenic viral particles is essential. Chemical disinfectant sprays are effective at preventing the spread of infectious human noroviruses (Hu-NoVs) in healthcare and public areas. We assessed the virucidal activity of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) spray on fomite surfaces. A multivariate statistical assessment that combined a response surface methodology (RSM) and a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was performed to define the optimal parameters of, and correlations among, experimental conditions. Spraying SAEW disinfectant (oxidation-reduction potential: 1123 mV, pH range: 5.12, available chlorine concentration: 33.22 ppm) resulted in the successful decontamination of Hu-NoV, with a 4-log reduction in viral particles on polyvinyl chloride, stainless steel, ceramic tile, and glass surfaces. Our experimental data revealed optimized treatment conditions for decontaminating Hu-NoV GI.6 and GII.4, using the numerical multiple optimized method (spraying rate: 218 mL/min, spraying time: 4.9 s, spraying distance: 0.9 m). These findings offer significant insights for designing optimal strategic control practices to prevent infectious disease, particularly Hu-NoV, transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443838

ABSTRACT

Although research has shown that the COVID-19 disease is most likely caused by airborne transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, disinfection of potentially contaminated surfaces is also recommended to limit the spread of the disease. Use of electrostatic sprayers (ESS) and foggers to rapidly apply disinfectants over large areas or to complex surfaces has emerged with the COVID-19 pandemic. ESSs are designed to impart an electrostatic charge to the spray droplets with the goal of increasing deposition of the droplets onto surfaces, thereby promoting more efficient use of the disinfectant. The purpose of this research was to evaluate several spray parameters for different types of sprayers and foggers, as they relate to the application of disinfectants. Some of the parameters evaluated included the spray droplet size distribution, the electrostatic charge, the ability of the spray to wrap around objects, and the loss of disinfectant chemical active ingredient due to the spray process. The results show that most of the devices evaluated for droplet size distribution had an average volume median diameter ≥ 40 microns, and that four out of the six ESS tested for charge/mass produced sprays of at least 0.1 mC/kg. A minimal wrap-around effect of the spray deposition onto a cylindrical object was observed. The loss of disinfectant active ingredient to the air due to spraying was minimal for the two disinfectants tested, and concurrently, the active ingredient concentrations of the liquid disinfectants sprayed and collected 3 feet (1 meter) away from the spray nozzle do not decrease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Static Electricity , Surface Properties/drug effects
5.
Int J Pharm ; 609: 121139, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439347

ABSTRACT

Emergent diseases caused by viral and bacterial infections have proven to be a current and future challenge. The occurrence of these diseases is usually accompanied by the lack of vaccines and dedicated therapies leaving prevention as the best strategy to adopt. In that context, and apart from confinement and physical distancing measures, an increase in hygiene actions, namely hand and surface cleaning and disinfection can reduce the infection spread originated from our day-to-day routines. However, during crisis situations the high disinfectants demand can very likely lead to having them running out of stock. This impels many individuals and companies to produce their own disinfectants. Here, we explore the main components of a disinfection formulation, both for hand-rub and surface cleaning. Alcohol and non-alcohol based formulations are described, including the possibility to fine tune the properties of the final product in order to increase public acceptance while maintaining product efficacy. The action mechanisms of the main active principles are also described conjugating information from experimental and theoretical data. Overall, the main aspects to develop a disinfectant formulation are addressed, as well as their function, helping formulation developers to better understand the impact of their choices.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Ethanol , Humans
6.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 177-180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438814

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/analysis , Ethanol/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Viruses/growth & development
7.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 129-135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438813

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of disinfectants. As a raw material for next-generation disinfectants, scallop shell-derived calcium oxide (CaO) has been revealed to exhibit significant virucidal and microbicidal activities and is compatible with living tissues and the environment. This minireview summarizes recent progress in the development of disinfectants from scallop shell-CaO, focusing especially on studies of clinical and daily use applications. We describe the preparation, basic characteristics, and virucidal and microbicidal activities of scallop shell-CaO disinfectants. Furthermore, their applications in the disinfection of contaminated masks and the treatment of infected wounds are briefly introduced.


Subject(s)
Animal Shells/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Oxides/pharmacology , Pectinidae/chemistry , Animals , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/trends , Humans
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1313-1320, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417243

ABSTRACT

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease as well as an airborne disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) could survive on dental materials shipped to dental laboratories. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the number of bacilli held on the prosthetic material and the effect of chemical disinfection agents on various prosthetic materials that were shipped to dental laboratory of TB patient. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of three study groups, and a control group. 10 mm x 2 mm disc-shaped (n = 18 for each group, n = 72 in total) nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and dental ceramic (DC) samples were prepared. After exposure to MTB 24 hours in a 37°C incubator, six samples for each group (PMMA), Ni-Cr alloy and a control group DC samples) were exposed to three disinfectants; 10 minutes into 2% glutaraldehyde, 10 minutes into 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 1 minute into alcohol-based disinfectant after vortexed in distilled water. Colony forming units (CFU/ml) were calculated per milliliters. Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis method was used, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The bacteria count for six Ni-Cr alloy disc-shaped specimens were recorded as 40, 10, 8, 6, 5, and 4 CFU/ml, respectively. Intensity of the colonies were found to be lower in other groups. 5 CFU/ml were detected on a single PMMA sample in the control group, and 40 CFU/ml were detected on one of the dental ceramic sample. No MTB uptake was observed on any sample in the 2% glutaraldehyde and 5% NaOCl disinfectant study groups. In alcohol-based disinfectant group, 1 CFU/ml was observed on Ni-Cr alloy sample. The effect of prosthetic materials used in this experimental study were not statistically significant on the CFU (p = 0.293). However, the disinfectants use was statistically significant on the number of colonies (p = 0.004). Conclusion: NaOCl and glutaraldehyde appeared to be more effective than alcohol-based disinfectant in removing MTB from Ni-Cr alloy, PMMA and dental ceramic surfaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Tuberculosis , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties
9.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410351

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity and virucidal mechanisms of ozonated water (OW) with those of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and 70% ethanol (EtOH). SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity was evaluated in a virus solution containing 1%, 20% or 40% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with OW, SAEW or EtOH at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:9, 1:19 or 1:99 for a reaction time of 20 s. EtOH showed the strongest virucidal activity, followed by SAEW and OW. Even though EtOH potently inactivated the virus despite the 40% FBS concentration, virus inactivation by OW and SAEW decreased in proportion to the increase in FBS concentration. Nevertheless, OW and SAEW showed potent virucidal activity with 40% FBS at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:99. Real-time PCR targeting the viral genome revealed that cycle threshold values in the OW and SAEW groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, suggesting that OW and SAEW disrupted the viral genome. Western blotting analysis targeting the recombinant viral spike protein S1 subunit showed a change in the specific band into a ladder upon treatment with OW and SAEW. OW and SAEW may cause conformational changes in the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(19): e0109821, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403023

ABSTRACT

A novel and robust approach to evaluate the antiviral activity of coatings was developed, assessing three commercially available leave-on surface coating products for efficacy against human coronaviruses (HCoVs) HCoV-229E and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The assessment is based on three criteria that reflect real-life settings, namely, (i) immediate antiviral effect, (ii) effect after repeated cleaning of the coated surface, and (iii) antiviral activity in the presence of organic material. The results showed that only a copper compound-based coating successfully met all three criteria. A quaternary ammonium compound-based coating did not meet the second criterion, and a coating based on reactive oxygen species showed no antiviral effect. Moreover, the study demonstrated that HCoV-229E is a relevant SARS-CoV-2 surrogate for such experiments. This new approach allows benchmarking of currently available antiviral coatings and future coating developments to avoid unjustified claims. The deployment of efficient antiviral coatings can offer an additional measure to mitigate the risk of transmission of respiratory viruses like SARS-CoV-2 or influenza viruses from high-touch surfaces. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is transmitted mainly person-to-person through respiratory droplets, while the contribution of fomite transmission is less important than suspected at the beginning of the pandemic. Nevertheless, antiviral-coating solutions can offer an additional measure to mitigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from high-touch surfaces. The deployment of antiviral coatings is not new, but what is currently lacking is solid scientific evidence of the efficacy of commercially available self-disinfecting surfaces under real-life conditions. Therefore, we developed a novel, robust approach to evaluate the antiviral activity of such coatings, applying strict quality criteria to three commercially available products to test their efficacies against SARS-CoV-2. We also showed that HCoV-229E is a relevant surrogate for such experiments. Our approach will also bring significant benefit to the evaluation of the effects of coatings on the survival of nonenveloped viruses, which are known to be more tolerant to desiccation and disinfectants and for which high-touch surfaces play an important role.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1390138

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


RESUMO Um dado alarmante revelado por publicações a respeito dos agentes desinfetantes: o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para desinfecção de superfícies contaminadas por coronavírus. Trata-se de uma constatação que reclama imediata divulgação, uma vez que essa substância é amplamente usada para degermação de mãos e antebraços dos cirurgiões e auxiliares e na antissepsia dos pacientes, em procedimentos minimamente invasivos, comumente em ambientes hospitalares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os diferentes desinfetantes usados para desinfecção em diversas superfícies em revisão de trabalhos mundiais. Foram pesquisados trabalhos científicos na BVS (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde), PubMed, Medline e Anvisa (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Foram estudados os seguintes agentes: álcool 62-71%, peróxido de hidrogênio 0,5%, hipoclorito de sódio 0,1%, cloreto de benzancônio 0,05-0,2%, iodo povidina 10% e digluconato de clorexidina 0,02%, em superfícies de metal, alumínio, madeira, papel, vidro, plástico, PVC, silicone, látex (luvas), avental descartável, cerâmica e teflon. Os estudos demonstraram que o digluconato de clorexidina é ineficaz para a inativação de alguns subtipos de coronavírus, sugerindo que também seja ineficaz contra o novo coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Disinfection , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389381

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 is spreading rapidly around the globe, adopting proper actions for confronting and protecting against this virus is an essential and unmet task. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoting molecules such as peroxides are detrimental to many viruses, including coronaviruses. In this paper, metal decorated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were evaluated for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) adsorption for potential use for designing viral inactivation surfaces. We employed first-principles methods based on the density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the capture of an individual H2O2 molecule on pristine and metal (Pt, Pd, Ni, Cu, Rh, or Ru) decorated SWCNTs. Although the single H2O2 molecule is weakly physisorbed on pristine SWCNT, a significant improvement on its adsorption energy was found by utilizing metal functionalized SWCNT as the adsorbent. It was revealed that Rh-SWCNT and Ru-SWCNT systems demonstrate outstanding performance for H2O2 adsorption. Furthermore, we discovered through calculations that Pt- and Cu-decorated SWNCT-H2O2 systems show high potential for filters for virus removal and inactivation with a very long shelf-life (2.2 × 1012 and 1.9 × 108 years, respectively). The strong adsorption of metal decorated SWCNTs and the long shelf-life of these nanomaterials suggest they are exceptional candidates for designing personal protection equipment against viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Adsorption , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Density Functional Theory , Disinfectants/chemistry , Drug Stability , Humans , Iron/chemistry , Iron/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Platinum/chemistry , Platinum/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rhodium/chemistry , Rhodium/pharmacology , Ruthenium/chemistry , Ruthenium/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 575: 36-41, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370449

ABSTRACT

Air spaces and material surfaces in a pathogen-contaminated environment can often be a source of infection to humans, and disinfection has become a common intervention focused on reducing the contamination levels. In this study, we examined the efficacy of SAIW, a unique electrolyzed water with chlorine-free, high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen, and low oxygen reduction potential, for the inactivation of several viruses and bacteria. Infectivity assays revealed that initial viral titers of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, human coronavirus, feline calicivirus, and canine parvovirus, were reduced by 2.9- to 5.5-log10 within 30 s of SAIW exposure. Similarly, the culturability of three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Legionella) dropped down by 1.9- to 4.9-log10 within 30 s of SAIW treatment. Mechanistically, treatment with SAIW was found to significantly decrease the binding and subsequent entry efficiencies of SARS-CoV-2 on Vero cells. Finally, we showed that this chlorine-free electrolytic ion water had no acute inhalation toxicity in mice, demonstrating that SAIW holds promise for a safer antiviral and antibacterial disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Water/pharmacology , Animals , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Calicivirus, Feline/growth & development , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colony Count, Microbial , Electrolysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 1, Human/growth & development , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/growth & development , Legionella/drug effects , Legionella/growth & development , Mice , Parvovirus, Canine/drug effects , Parvovirus, Canine/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella/growth & development , Skin/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load
15.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 142: 107894, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330658

ABSTRACT

Extensive amounts of chlorine disinfectants have been applied to wastewater system since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which inevitably affects the pollutant degradation via interfering with electron transfer mediated by electroactive bacteria. Herein, the response of electroactive biofilm (EAB) to chronic chlorine exposure was investigated. Results showed the EAB formed without exposure (EAB-0) exhibited a 53% and 123% higher current output than that formed with 0.1 mg L-1 (EAB-0.1) and 0.5 mg L-1 (EAB-0.5) chlorine, respectively. The chronic chlorine exposure of EAB boosted the contents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 by over secretion of extracellular polysaccharides. The EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 also presented lower electron exchange capacities (EECs) of EPS, coincided with reduced relative abundance of Geobacter from 61% in EAB-0 to 52% in EAB-0.5. This study provided new insights into the application of engineered EAB for wastewater treatment in a disinfection environment.


Subject(s)
Biofilms/drug effects , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Extracellular Polymeric Substance Matrix/metabolism , Time Factors
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323256

ABSTRACT

Surface disinfection is part of a larger mitigation strategy to prevent the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Research evaluating the time, nature, and extent of surface disinfection of replication-competent viruses is needed. We evaluated the efficacy of two disinfectants against a replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 surrogate on three common public surfaces. Vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein (VSV-GFP) was our replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 surrogate. Disinfection occurred using Super Sani-Cloth Germicidal Disposable Wipes and Oxivir Tb spray per manufacturer instructions to test the efficacy at reducing the presence, viability, and later replication of VSV-GFP on stainless steel, laminate wood, and porcelain surfaces using standardized methods after recovery and toxicity testing. During the main trials, we placed 100 µL spots of VSV-GFP at viral titers of 108, 107, and 106 PFU/mL on each surface prior to disinfection. Trials were completed in triplicate and post-disinfection measurements on each surface were compared to the measurements of non-disinfected surfaces. Disinfectants were considered efficacious when ≥3-log10 reduction in the number of infectious VSV-GFP virus units was observed on a given surface during all trials. Both disinfectants produced a ≥3.23-log10 reduction in infectious VSV-GFP virus unit numbers, with all trials showing no viable, replication-competent VSV-GFP present on any tested surface. The two disinfectants eliminated the presence, viability, and later replication of VSV-GFP, our SARS-CoV-2 surrogate, on all surfaces. This information suggests that, if following manufacturer instructions, overcleaning surfaces with multiple disinfectant solutions may be unnecessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Vesicular Stomatitis , Animals , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1252-1255, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disinfection of contaminated or potentially contaminated surfaces has become an integral part of the mitigation strategies for controlling coronavirus disease 2019. Whilst a broad range of disinfectants are effective in inactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), application of disinfectants has a low throughput in areas that receive treatments. Disinfection of large surface areas often involves the use of reactive microbiocidal materials, including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, chlorine dioxide, and hydrogen peroxide vapor. Albeit these methods are highly effective in inactivating SARS-CoV-2, the deployment of these approaches creates unacceptable health hazards and precludes the treatment of occupied indoor spaces using existing disinfection technologies. In this study, the feasibility of using dry hydrogen peroxide (DHP) in inactivating SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated surfaces in large indoor spaces was evaluated. METHODS: Glass slides were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with DHP between 5 and 25 ppb for up to 24 hours. Residual infectious virus samples were eluted from three replicates at each time point and titrated in African green monkey VeroE6 cells. RESULTS: In comparison with the observed relatively high stability of SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated glass slides (control group), residual infectious titers of glass slides inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 were significantly reduced after receiving 120 minutes of DHP treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The accelerated decay of SARS-CoV-2 on contaminated glass slides suggests that treatment with DHP can be an effective surface disinfection method for occupied indoor spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Ter ; 172(4): 268-270, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304847

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide ever since its emergen-ce in December 2019. The current evidence indicates that the virus remains viable in aerosols for hours and on fomites for few days. A little information is available on the topic, the present communication reviews the perseverance and distribution of the novel coronavirus in the aerosol and on various inanimate surfaces so that the appropriate safety measures can be undertaken and the virus protection guidelines may be framed accordingly.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Safety Management/methods , Humans
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
J Chem Phys ; 154(24): 245101, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293030

ABSTRACT

Ethanol is highly effective against various enveloped viruses and can disable the virus by disintegrating the protective envelope surrounding it. The interactions between the coronavirus envelope (E) protein and its membrane environment play key roles in the stability and function of the viral envelope. By using molecular dynamics simulation, we explore the underlying mechanism of ethanol-induced disruption of a model coronavirus membrane and, in detail, interactions of the E-protein and lipids. We model the membrane bilayer as N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine lipids and the coronavirus E-protein. The study reveals that ethanol causes an increase in the lateral area of the bilayer along with thinning of the bilayer membrane and orientational disordering of lipid tails. Ethanol resides at the head-tail region of the membrane and enhances bilayer permeability. We found an envelope-protein-mediated increase in the ordering of lipid tails. Our simulations also provide important insights into the orientation of the envelope protein in a model membrane environment. At ∼25 mol. % of ethanol in the surrounding ethanol-water phase, we observe disintegration of the lipid bilayer and dislocation of the E-protein from the membrane environment.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/physiology , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Permeability
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