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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , /prevention & control , Chlorine/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
2.
Euro Surveill ; 26(3)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041841

ABSTRACT

When facing an emerging virus outbreak such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a quick reaction time is key to control the spread. It takes time to develop antivirals and vaccines, and implement vaccination campaigns. Therefore, preventive measures such as rapid isolation of cases and identification and early quarantine of cases' close contacts-as well as masks, physical distancing, hand hygiene, surface disinfection and air control-are crucial to reduce the risk of transmission. In this context, disinfectants and antiseptics with proven efficacy against the outbreak virus should be used. However, biocidal formulations are quite complex and may include auxiliary substances such as surfactants or emollients in addition to active substances. In order to evaluate disinfectants' efficacy objectively, meaningful efficacy data are needed. Therefore, the European Committee for Standardisation technical committee 216 'Chemical disinfectants and antiseptics' Working Group 1 (medical area) has developed standards for efficacy testing. The European tiered approach grades the virucidal efficacy in three levels, with corresponding marker test viruses. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, disinfectants with proven activity against vaccinia virus, the marker virus for the European claim 'active against enveloped viruses', should be used to ensure effective hygiene procedures to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/standards , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfectants/standards , Preventive Medicine/standards , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 23(4): 647-650, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041011

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses present a considerable concern for humans and animals. The current world- wide pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus showed many gaps in understanding of coronaviruses spread and transmission. Because of lack of effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 the only preventive measures are represented by wearing protective masks and gloves thus limiting potential risk of contact with the airborne virus. Inversely, the limited time of protective function of the masks presents another drawback of their use. Therefore, the application of disinfection agent dispersed on the surface of protective masks may enhance their effectivity and safety of their application. The aim of the study was to examine the virucidal efficacy of low-concentra- ted sodium hypochlorite dispersed using ultrasonic humidifier on the surface of surgery masks. The study was conducted using SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus, namely porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) representing a model with similar biophysical properties and genomic structure to human coronaviruses. Five different concentrations of the disinfectant with different content of sodium hypochlorite were selected for the study. A final concentration of 0.228 g/L sodium hypochlorite effectively inactivated the PED virus and may support the biosafety of masks usage.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Masks/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Humidifiers , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Ultrasonics , Vero Cells
4.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(174): 20200798, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010697

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has become a worldwide threat affecting millions of people, causing respiratory system related problems that can end up with extremely serious consequences. As the infection rate rises significantly and this is followed by a dramatic increase in mortality, the whole world is struggling to accommodate change and is trying to adapt to new conditions. While a significant amount of effort is focused on developing a vaccine in order to make a game-changing anti-COVID-19 breakthrough, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is also developing mutations rapidly as it transmits just like any other virus and there is always a substantial chance of the invented antibodies becoming ineffective as a function of time, thus failing to inhibit virus-to-cell binding efficiency as the spiked protein keeps evolving. Hence, controlling the transmission of the virus is crucial. Therefore, this review summarizes the viability of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces under different conditions while addressing the current state of known chemical disinfectants for deactivation of the coronaviruses. The review attempts to bring together a wide spectrum of surface-virus-cleaning agent interactions to help identify material selection for inanimate surfaces that have frequent human contact and cleaning procedures for effective prevention of COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
/virology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , /physiology , /prevention & control , Disinfection , Humans , Surface Properties
5.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(1): 31-54, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997782

ABSTRACT

Although extensive research is being done to combat SARS-CoV-2, we are yet far away from a robust conclusion or strategy. With an increased amount of vaccine research, nanotechnology has found its way into vaccine technology. Researchers have explored the use of various nanostructures for delivering the vaccines for enhanced efficacy. Apart from acting as delivery platforms, multiple studies have shown the application of inorganic nanoparticles in suppressing the growth as well as transmission of the virus. The present review gives a detailed description of various inorganic nanomaterials which are being explored for combating SARS-CoV-2 along with their role in suppressing the transmission of the virus either through air or by contact with inanimate surfaces. The review further discusses the use of nanoparticles for development of an antiviral coating that may decrease adhesion of SARS-CoV-2. A separate section has been included describing the role of nanostructures in biosensing and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The role of nanotechnology in providing an alternative therapeutic platform along with the role of radionuclides in SARS-CoV-2 has been described briefly. Based on ongoing research and commercialization of this nanoplatform for a viral disease, the nanomaterials show the potential in therapy, biosensing, and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /drug therapy , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , /drug effects , Animals , /therapy , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Radiopharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Respiratory Protective Devices , /immunology
6.
F1000Res ; 9: 674, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902997

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability to protect workers and healthcare professionals from infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is of great concern. Hospitals, nursing homes and employers are adopting infection control strategies based on guidance from leading public health organizations such as the CDC, OSHA, FDA, and other government bodies. Certain hard surface disinfectants are effective against SARS-CoV-2 but are not suitable for use on skin or personal protective equipment (PPE) that comes into contact with skin. Furthermore, near-ubiquitous alcohol-based hand sanitizers are acceptable for use on skin, but they are not suitable for use on PPE. PPE, especially masks, are also commonly being used for longer durations than normal. There is a need for new products and techniques that can effectively disinfect PPE during wear time without having detrimental effects on surrounding skin. Clyraguard spray is a novel copper iodine complex designed to be used on non-critical PPE. Methods: In this study, the Clyraguard copper iodine complex was tested for its ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in solution. Results: These data indicate the product to be effective in reducing SARS-CoV-2 titers in a time-dependent manner, with the virus being reduced below the detection limits within 30 minutes. Conclusions: These results suggest that Clyraguard may be an effective tool for mitigating cross-contamination of non-critical PPE that may come into contact with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Iodine/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral
7.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 843-848, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890253

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a broad use of chemical disinfectants in order to sterilize public spaces and prevent contamination. This paper surveys the chemicals that are effective in deactivating the virus and their mode of action. It presents the different chemical classes of disinfectants and identifies the chemical features of these compounds that pertain to their biocidal activity, relevant to surface/water disinfection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans
8.
Structure ; 28(11): 1218-1224.e4, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872505

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted from the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019. Currently, multiple efforts are being made to rapidly develop vaccines and treatments to fight COVID-19. Current vaccine candidates use inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses; therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of inactivated SARS-CoV-2. We have genetically and structurally characterized ß-propiolactone-inactivated viruses from a propagated and purified clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are found, most spikes appear nail shaped, thus resembling a postfusion state, where the S1 protein of the spike has disassociated from S2. Cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map that closely matches the overall structure of the SARS-CoV postfusion spike and its corresponding glycosylation site. Our findings have major implications for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, especially those using inactivated viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Propiolactone/pharmacology , Virion/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Electron Microscope Tomography , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virion/ultrastructure
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 124-129, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788986

ABSTRACT

An alarming fact was revealed by recent publications concerning disinfectants: chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by the new coronavirus. This is a finding that requires immediate disclosure since this substance is widely used for the disinfection of hands and forearms of surgeons and auxiliaries and in the antisepsis of patients in minimally invasive procedures commonly performed in hospital environments. The objective of this study is to compare the different disinfectants used for disinfection on several surfaces, in a review of worldwide works. Scientific studies were researched in the BVS (Virtual Health Library), PubMed, Medline, and ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency) databases. The following agents were studied: alcohol 62-71%, hydrogen peroxide 0.5%, sodium hypochlorite 0.1%, benzalkonium chloride 0.05-0.2%, povidone-iodine 10%, and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.02%, on metal, aluminum, wood, paper, glass, plastic, PVC, silicone, latex (gloves), disposable gowns, ceramic, and Teflon surfaces. Studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate is ineffective for inactivating some coronavirus subtypes, suggesting that it is also ineffective to the new coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
11.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(7): 349-359, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740148

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and lung failure, is caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to high transmission rates from individual to individual, it has progressed to a pandemic. However, indirect transmission from inanimate objects or surfaces that have come in contact with a patient poses an even more significant threat as it is difficult to trace the source of infection in these cases. Therefore, these surfaces and objects require disinfection with chemicals having potent viricidal activity. These include alcohols, aldehydes, quaternary ammonium compounds, chlorhexidine, and chlorine-based disinfectants, among others. They vary in their viricidal activity depending on their structure, concentrations, and mechanism of action. Several studies have looked into these agents and the transmission of the virus related to it. Moreover, certain viricides, if used as constituents of commercially available oral disinfectants, can further aid in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia and maintain oral hygiene. However, these chemicals are not entirely free of potential hazards. In this review, we have compiled and critically appraised some commonly used viricidal agents in healthcare settings and the role they can play in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Bacteria/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Norovirus/drug effects
13.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115176, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713149

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 disease, a severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Its main transmission pathway is through large respiratory droplets, as well as direct and indirect contact. Copper in different formats has been used in research and clinical settings to reduce the risk of bacterial and viral contamination. Therefore, this review aims to search for evidence about the biocidal properties of copper over the Coronaviridae family. A literature review was performed using PubMed and Ovid servers without date or language restrictions. The search was carried out on March 7, 2020, using the following search terms: [Copper] Coronavirus OR CoV OR SARS OR MERS OR Influenza. Copper destroys the replication and propagation abilities of SARS-CoV, influenza, and other respiratory viruses, having high potential disinfection in hospitals, communities, and households. Copper can eliminate pathogenic organisms such as coronavirus bacterial strains, influenza virus, HIV, and fungi after a short period of exposure. Copper seems to be an effective and low-cost complementary strategy to help reduce the transmission of several infectious diseases by limiting nosocomial infectious transmission. Copper oxide or nanocompounds may be used as filters, face masks, clothing, and hospital common surfaces to reduce viruses and bacterial incubation.


Subject(s)
Copper/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1592-1595, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712728

ABSTRACT

Infection control instructions call for use of alcohol-based hand rub solutions to inactivate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We determined the virucidal activity of World Health Organization-recommended hand rub formulations, at full strength and multiple dilutions, and of the active ingredients. All disinfectants demonstrated efficient virus inactivation.


Subject(s)
Alcohols/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Virus Inactivation , Humans , World Health Organization
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/standards , Disinfectants/toxicity , Drug Compounding , Ethanol/chemistry , Hand Disinfection/instrumentation , Humans , Methanol/chemistry , Methanol/toxicity , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , World Health Organization
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 530(1): 1-3, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641528

ABSTRACT

Alcohol-based disinfectant shortage is a serious concern in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2-inactivating efficacy of acidic EW for use as an alternative disinfectant. The quick virucidal effect of acidic EW depended on the concentrations of contained-FAC. The effect completely disappeared in acidic EW in which FAC was lost owing to long-time storage after generation. In addition, the virucidal activity increased proportionately with the volume of acidic EW mixed with the virus solution when the FAC concentration in EW was same. These findings suggest that the virucidal activity of acidic EW against SARS-CoV-2 depends on the amount of FAC contacting the virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Acids/chemistry , Acids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chlorine/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Electrolysis/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Water/chemistry , Water/pharmacology
18.
Clin Anat ; 33(6): 975-976, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596132

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV-2/COVID-19) is a highly contagious and deadly disease caused by a virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. Researchers working in histopathology laboratories, dealing with morbid samples, are particularly vulnerable to infection unless they have very strong immunity. Hence, a proper precautionary protocol is required for the safety of the laboratory staff. The current review highlights the biological and physical agents that can be used to inactivate the virus and disinfect the surrounding environment in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Histology , Laboratories/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Pathology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Pathology Department, Hospital/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
19.
Electrophoresis ; 41(13-14): 1137-1151, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-434211

ABSTRACT

The material properties of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its proteins are discussed. We review the viral structure, size, rigidity, lipophilicity, isoelectric point, buoyant density and centrifugation conditions, stability against pH, temperature, UV light, gamma radiation, and susceptibility to various chemical agents including solvents and detergents. Possible inactivation, downstream, and formulation conditions are given including suitable buffers and some first ideas for quality-control methods. This information supports vaccine development and discussion with competent authorities during vaccine approval and is certainly related to drug-targeting strategies and hygienics. Several instructive tables are given, including the pI and grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) of SARS-CoV-1 and -2 proteins in comparison. SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 are similar in many regards, so information can often be derived. Both are unusually stable, but sensitive at their lipophilic membranes. However, since seemingly small differences can have strong effects, for example, on immunologically relevant epitope settings, unevaluated knowledge transfer from SARS-CoV-1 to SARS-CoV-2 cannot be advised. Published knowledge regarding downstream processes, formulations and quality assuring methods is, as yet, limited. However, standard approaches employed for other viruses and vaccines seem to be feasible including virus inactivation, centrifugation conditions, and the use of adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Electrophoresis , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Isoelectric Point , Ultraviolet Rays , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 6(7): 1553-1557, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-264801

ABSTRACT

A novel virus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from Wuhan, China in late 2019. Since then, the virus has quickly spread worldwide, leading the World Health Organization to declare it as a pandemic; by the end of April 2020, the number of cases exceeded 3 million. Due to the high infectivity rate, SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to contain, making disinfectant protocols vital, especially for essential, highly trafficked areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, and delivery centers. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, best practices to slow the spread rely on good hand hygiene, including proper handwashing practices as well as the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. However, they provide warning against sanitizing products containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which has sparked concern in both the scientific community as well as the general public as BAC, a common quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), is ubiquitous in soaps and cleaning wipes as well as hospital sanitation kits. This viewpoint aims to highlight the outdated and incongruous data in the evaluation of BAC against the family of known coronaviruses and points to the need for further evaluation of the efficacy of QACs against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Sanitation/methods , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Membrane Lipids , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Treatment Outcome , Virus Replication/drug effects
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