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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19934, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133627

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we synthesized Ag/ZnO composite colloidal nanoparticles and the surface of nanoparticles was improved by amodiaquine ligand. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using the XRD diffraction pattern, FT-IR Spectroscopy, TEM image, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of the synthesized colloid were examined on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus hirae bacteria, and Candida Albicans and form spore aspergillus fungi, also influenza, herpes simplex, and covid 19 viruses. The results indicate more than 7 log removal of the bacteria, fungi, and viruses by synthesized colloid with a concentration of 15 µg/L (Ag)/50 µg/ml (ZnO). This removal for covid 19 virus is from 3.2 × 108 numbers to 21 viruses within 30 s. Also, irritation and toxicity tests of the synthesized colloid show harmless effects on human cells and tissues. These colloidal nanoparticles were used as mouthwash solution and their clinical tests were done on 500 people infected by the coronavirus. The results indicate that by washing their mouth and nose three times on day all patients got healthy at different times depending on the depth of the disease. Almost all people with no signs of infection and using this solution as a mouthwash didn't infect by the virus during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Amodiaquine/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli
2.
Water Res ; 227: 119342, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106149

ABSTRACT

Glutaraldehyde and didecyldimethylammonium bromide (GD) is a disinfectant widely used to prevent African swine fever (ASF) in livestock farms. However, the effect of residual GD on the activated sludge microbial ecology of receiving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains largely unknown. In this study, seven simulated systems were established to research the effects of GD on WWTPs and reveal the underlying mechanisms of microecological responses to GD at different concentrations. Both the nitrogen and carbon removal rates decreased with increasing GD concentrations, and nitrogen metabolism was inhibited more obviously, but the inhibition weakened with increasing stress duration. Microorganisms activated their SoxRS systems to promote ATP synthesis and electron transfer to support the hydrolysis and efflux of GD by producing a small number of ROS when exposed to GD at less than 1 mg/L. The overproduction of ROS led to a decrease of antioxidant and nitrogen removal enzyme activities, and upregulation of the porin gene increased the risk of GD entering the intracellular space upon exposure to GD at concentrations higher than 1 mg/L. Some denitrifiers survived via resistance and their basic capabilities of sugar metabolism and nitrogen assimilation. Notably, low concentrations of disinfectants could promote vertical and horizontal transfer of multiple resistance genes, especially aminoglycosides, among microorganisms, which might increase not only the adaptation capability of denitrifiers but also the risk to ecological systems. Therefore, the risks of disinfectants targeting ASF on ecology and health as well as the effects of disinfectant residuals from the COVID-19 epidemic should receive more attention.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Water Purification , Swine , Animals , Sewage , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glutaral/pharmacology , Livestock , Reactive Oxygen Species , Nitrogen
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273937, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039403

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the limited supply of personal protective equipment during the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, recent studies demonstrate that gaseous H2O2 is an effective decontaminant of N95 filtering facepiece respirators to enable reuse of these items in a clinical setting. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the Arca Aerosolized Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination System (Arca), a novel aerosolized H2O2 decontamination system, using biologic indicator testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Arca produces and circulates H2O2 aerosol inside of a sealed stainless steel chamber. The Arca's decontamination efficacy was evaluated in 8 decontamination trials with 2 H2O2 concentrations (3% and 12%) and 4 decontamination cycle durations (45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes). Efficacy was evaluated by testing: 1) the concentration in parts per million (ppm) of H2O2 produced inside the chamber and the concentration in ppm of H2O2 vented from the chamber, and 2) the decontamination of Mesa Biologic Indicator filter strips (BI) inoculated with Geobacillus Stearothermophilus. Control tests were conducted by submerging BI strips in 3mL of 3% and 12% H2O2 for 120 minutes (negative controls) and by not exposing one BI strip to H2O2 (positive control). RESULTS: Greater than 5000 ppm of H2O2 was detected on the concentration strips inside the chamber for each of the eight decontamination trials. No vented H2O2 was detected on the external concentration strips after any decontamination trial. No growth was observed for any of the negative controls after seven days. The positive control was positive for growth. CONCLUSION: The Arca Aerosolized Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination System is effective at decontaminating bacterial G. Stearothermophilus at a cycle time of 45 minutes utilizing 6mL of 3% H2O2 solution.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Geobacillus stearothermophilus , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2 , Stainless Steel
4.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(6): 1639-1644, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019532

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of accelerated hydrogen peroxide® wipes (HPW) for decontamination of the chimpanzee adenovirus AZD1222 vaccine strain used in the production of recombinant COVID-19 vaccine in a pharmaceutical industry. Two matrices were tested on stainless-steel (SS) and low-density-polyethylene (LDP) surfaces: formulated recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (FCV) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The samples were spiked, dried and the initial inoculum, possible residue effect (RE) and titre reduction after disinfection with HPW were determined. No RE was observed. The disinfection procedure with HPW resulted in complete decontamination the of AZD1222 adenovirus strain in FCV (≥7·46 and ≥7·49 log10 infectious unit [IFU] ml-1 for SS and LDP carriers respectively) and API (≥8·79 and ≥8·78 log10 IFU ml-1 for SS and LDP carriers respectively). In conclusion, virucidal activity of HPW was satisfactory against the AZD1222 adenovirus strain and can be a good option for disinfection processes of SS and LPD surfaces in pharmaceutical industry facilities during recombinant COVID-19 vaccine production. This procedure is simple and can be also applied on safety unit cabins and sampling bags made of LDP as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Decontamination/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Stainless Steel , Drug Industry
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(37): 42483-42493, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016531

ABSTRACT

Microbial adhesion and contamination on shared surfaces can lead to life-threatening infections with serious impacts on public health, economy, and clinical practices. The traditional use of chemical disinfectants for sanitization of surfaces, however, comes with its share of health risks, such as hazardous effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, carcinogenicity, as well as environmental toxicity. To address this, we have developed a nonleaching quaternary small molecule (QSM)-based sprayable coating which can be fabricated on a wide range of surfaces such as nylon, polyethylene, surgical mask, paper, acrylate, and rubber in a one-step, photocuring technique. This contact-active coating killed pathogenic bacteria and fungi including drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans within 15-30 min of contact. QSM coatings withstood multiple washes, highlighting their durability. Interestingly, the coated surfaces exhibited rapid killing of pathogens, leading to the prevention of their transmission upon contact. The coating showed membrane disruption of bacterial cells in fluorescence and electron microscopic investigations. Along with bacteria and fungi, QSM-coated surfaces also showed the complete killing of high loads of influenza (H1N1) and SARS-CoV-2 viruses within 30 min of exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a coating for multipurpose materials applied in high-touch public places, hospital equipment, and clinical consumables, rapidly killing drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, influenza virus, and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Acrylates/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Fungi , Humans , Nylons/pharmacology , Polyethylenes/pharmacology , Rubber , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 851(Pt 2): 158284, 2022 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004486

ABSTRACT

Fungal pathogens contribute to significant disease burden globally; however, the fact that fungi are eukaryotes has greatly complicated their role in fungal-mediated infections and alleviation. Antifungal drugs are often toxic to host cells and there is increasing evidence of adaptive resistance in animals and humans. Existing fungal diagnostic and treatment regimens have limitations that has contributed to the alarming high mortality rates and prolonged morbidity seen in immunocompromised cohorts caused by opportunistic invasive infections as evidenced during HIV and COVID-19 pandemics. There is a need to develop real-time monitoring and diagnostic methods for fungal pathogens and to create a greater awareness as to the contribution of fungal pathogens in disease causation. Greater information is required on the appropriate selection and dose of antifungal drugs including factors governing resistance where there is commensurate need to discover more appropriate and effective solutions. Popular azole fungal drugs are widely detected in surface water and sediment due to incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plants where they are resistant to microbial degradation and may cause toxic effects on aquatic organisms such as algae and fish. UV has limited effectiveness in destruction of anti-fungal drugs where there is increased interest in the combination approaches such as novel use of pulsed-plasma gas-discharge technologies for environmental waste management. There is growing interest in developing alternative and complementary green eco-biocides and disinfection innovation. Fungi present challenges for cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of reusable medical devices such as endoscopes where they (example, Aspergillus and Candida species) can be protected when harboured in build-up biofilm from lethal processing. Information on the efficacy of established disinfection and sterilization technologies to address fungal pathogens including bottleneck areas that present high risk to patients is lacking. There is a need to address risk mitigation and modelling to inform efficacy of appropriate intervention technologies that must consider all contributing factors where there is potential to adopt digital technologies to enable real-time analysis of big data, such as use of artificial intelligence and machine learning. International consensus on standardised protocols for developing and reporting on appropriate alternative eco-solutions must be reached, particularly in order to address fungi with increasing drug resistance where research and innovation can be enabled using a One Health approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Mycoses , Animals , Humans , Antifungal Agents , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/prevention & control , Azoles , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Water , Fungi
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13019, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004796

ABSTRACT

The development of new approaches for the decontamination of surfaces is important to deal with the processes related to exposure to contaminated surfaces. Therefore, was evaluated the efficacy of a disinfection technology using ozonized water (0.7-0.9 ppm of O3) on the surfaces of garments and accessories of volunteers, aiming to reduce the spread of microbial pathogens in the workplace and community. A Log10 microbial reduction of 1.72-2.40 was observed between the surfaces tested. The microbial reductions remained above 60% on most surfaces, and this indicated that the disinfection technology was effective in microbial log reduction regardless of the type of transport used by the volunteers and/or their respective work activities. In association with the evaluation of efficacy, the analysis of the perception of use (approval percentage of 92.45%) was fundamental to consider this technology as an alternative for use as a protective barrier, in conjunction with other preventive measures against microbiological infections, allowing us to contribute to the availability of proven effective devices against the spread of infectious agents in the environment.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Disinfection , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Perception , Technology , Water
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994051

ABSTRACT

Hand sanitizers are used as an alternative to hand washing to reduce the number of viable microorganisms when soap and water are not readily available. This study aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial effectiveness of commercially available hand sanitizers and those commonly used in healthcare and community settings. A mapping exercise was done to select and procure different hand sanitizers (n = 18) from retailers. Five microorganisms implicated in hospital-acquired infections were selected and tested against each hand sanitizer: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-one volunteers were recruited to do a handprint before and after applying the hand sanitizer. Only four out of eighteen hand sanitizers (22%) were effective against all tested bacterial species, and an equal number (22%) were completely ineffective. Seven hand sanitizers with a label claim of 99.99% were only effective against E. coli. Only five hand sanitizers (27%) effectively reduced bacteria on participants' hands. This study showed that only a fifth of hand sanitizers were effective against selected microorganisms. The findings raise a concern about the effectiveness of hand sanitizers and their role in infection, prevention, and control if not well regulated.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , Bacteria , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Humans , Soaps , South Africa
9.
Eye Contact Lens ; 48(9): 362-368, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of commonly used contact lens disinfectants against severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: The efficacy of five disinfectant solutions against SARS-CoV-2 was tested in the presence and absence of contact lenses (CLs). Three types of unused CLs (hard gas permeable, soft hydrogel, and soft silicone hydrogel) and worn silicone hydrogel CLs were tested. Contact lenses were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and disinfected at various times, with and without rubbing and rinsing, as per manufacturer's instructions. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viability polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viral infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, respectively. RESULTS: In the presence of SARS-CoV-2-infected CLs, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected when disinfectant solutions were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. When SARS-Co-V2-infected CLs were disinfected without the rub-and-rinse step, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected at almost each time interval with each disinfecting solution tested for both new and worn CLs. In the absence of CLs, viable SARS-CoV-2 was detected with all disinfectant solutions except Menicon Progent at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: Disinfectant solutions effectively disinfect CLs from SARS-CoV-2 if manufacturer's instructions are followed. The rub-and-rinse regimen is mainly responsible for disinfection. The viability PCR may be useful to indicate potential infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Lens Solutions/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogels , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicones
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 116: 16-20, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271690

ABSTRACT

Besides conventional prevention measures, no-touch technologies based on gaseous systems have been introduced in hospital hygiene for room disinfection. The whole-room disinfectant device Sterisafe Pro, which creates ozone as a biocidal agent, was tested for its virucidal efficacy based on Association Française de Normalisation Standard NF T 72-281:2014. All test virus titres were reduced after 150 and 300 min of decontamination, with mean reduction factors ranging from 2.63 (murine norovirus) to 3.94 (simian virus 40). These results will help to establish realistic conditions for virus inactivation, and assessment of the efficacy of ozone technology against non-enveloped and enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Ozone , Animals , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Hygiene , Mice , Ozone/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation
11.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979408

ABSTRACT

The pandemic due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a serious global public health issue. Besides the high transmission rate from individual to individual, indirect transmission from inanimate objects or surfaces poses a more significant threat. Since the start of the outbreak, the importance of respiratory protection, social distancing, and chemical disinfection to prevent the spread of the virus has been the prime focus for infection control. Health regulatory organizations have produced guidelines for the formulation and application of chemical disinfectants to manufacturing industries and the public. On the other hand, extensive literature on the virucidal efficacy testing of microbicides for SARS-CoV-2 has been published over the past year and a half. This review summarizes the studies on the most common chemical disinfectants and their virucidal efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, including the type and concentration of the chemical disinfectant, the formulation, the presence of excipients, the exposure time, and other critical factors that determine the effectiveness of chemical disinfectants. In this review, we also critically appraise these disinfectants and conduct a discussion on the role they can play in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(3): 304-313, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935880

ABSTRACT

The experience of COVID19 pandemic has demonstrated the real concern of biological agents dispersed in the air and surfaces environments. Therefore, the need of a fast and large-scale disinfection method has arisen for prevention of contagion. COUNTERFOG® is an innovative technology developed for large-scale decontamination of air and surfaces. The objective of this study is to assess experimentally the effectiveness of COUNTERFOG® in disinfecting viral-contaminated surfaces. We also aim to measure the necessary time to disinfect said surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were contaminated with bacteriophage φ29 and disinfected using COUNTERFOG® SDR-F05A+, which uses a sodium hypochlorite solution at different concentrations and for different exposure times. A log reduction over 6 logs of virus titer is obtained in 1 min with 1.2% sodium hypochlorite when the application is direct; while at a radial distance of 5 cm from the point of application the disinfection reaches a reduction of 5.5 logs in 8 min. In the same way, a higher dilution of the sodium hypochlorite concentration (0.7% NaOCl) requires more exposure time (16 min) to obtain the same log reduction (> 6 logs). COUNTERFOG® creates, in a short time and at a distance of 2 m from the point of application, a thin layer of disinfectant that covers the surfaces. The selection of the concentration and exposure time is critical for the efficacy of disinfection. These tests demonstrate that a concentration between 0.7- 1.2% sodium hypochlorite is enough for a fast and efficient ɸ29 phage inactivation. The fact that ɸ29 phage is more resistant to disinfection than SARS-CoV-2 sustains this disinfection procedure.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Decontamination/methods , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
13.
J Vis Exp ; (184)2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924334

ABSTRACT

This protocol provides an example of a laboratory process for conducting laundering studies that generate data on viral disinfection. While the protocol was developed for research during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is intended to be a framework, adaptable to other virus disinfection studies; it demonstrates the steps for preparing the test virus, inoculating the test material, assessing visual and integrity changes to the washed items due to the laundering process, and quantifying the reduction in viral load. Additionally, the protocol outlines the necessary quality control samples for ensuring the experiments are not biased by contamination and measurements/observations that should be recorded to track the material integrity of the personal protective equipment (PPE) items after multiple laundering cycles. The representative results presented with the protocol use the Phi6 bacteriophage inoculated onto cotton scrub, denim, and cotton face-covering materials and indicate that the hot water laundering and drying process achieved over a 3-log (99.9%) reduction in viral load for all samples (a 3-log reduction is the disinfectant performance metric in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Product Performance Test Guideline 810.2200). The reduction in viral load was uniform across different locations on the PPE items. The results of this viral disinfection efficacy testing protocol should help the scientific community explore the effectiveness of home laundering for other types of test viruses and laundering procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Laundering , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Laundering/methods , Water
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11365, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921712

ABSTRACT

Modern human activity is profoundly changing our relationship with microorganisms with the startling rise in the rate of emerging infectious diseases. Nipah virus together with Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2 are prominent examples. Since COVID-19 and the West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, different chemical disinfectants have been developed for preventing the direct spread of viruses and their efficacy has also been evaluated. However, there are currently no published efficacy studies for the chemical disinfection of Nipah virus. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of three disinfectants (Micro-Chem Plus detergent disinfectant cleaner, FWD and Medical EtOH) against Nipah virus was evaluated in quantitative suspension tests including. Our results showed that the > 4 log reduction achieved for all products in inactivating Nipah virus in 15 s. Even, 19% ethanol was able to inactivate Nipah virus when applied for at least 8 min contact time. Comparative analysis displayed virucidal efficacy of each of the evaluated disinfectants against SARS-CoV-2, Ebola virus and Nipah virus, with only minor differences in working concentrations and contact times required for complete inactivation. We expect that our study can assist in decontamination in healthcare settings and high level biosafety laboratories and can be beneficial to control for emerging enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Ebolavirus , Nipah Virus , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911479

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the relevance of proper disinfection procedures and renewed interest in developing novel disinfectant materials as a preventive strategy to limit SARS-CoV-2 contamination. Given its widely known antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, also named Tea tree oil (TTO), is recognized as a potential effective and safe natural disinfectant agent. In particular, the proposed antiviral activity of TTO involves the inhibition of viral entry and fusion, interfering with the structural dynamics of the membrane and with the protein envelope components. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated the virucidal effects of TTO against the feline coronavirus (FCoVII) and the human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), both used as surrogate models for SARS-CoV-2. Then, to atomistically uncover the possible effects exerted by TTO compounds on the outer surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virion, we performed Gaussian accelerated Molecular Dynamics simulations of a SARS-CoV-2 envelope portion, including a complete model of the Spike glycoprotein in the absence or presence of the three main TTO compounds (terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, and 1,8-cineole). The obtained results allowed us to hypothesize the mechanism of action of TTO and its possible use as an anti-coronavirus disinfectant agent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Melaleuca , Tea Tree Oil , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Melaleuca/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea Tree Oil/chemistry , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911401

ABSTRACT

The virucidal activity of a series of cationic surfactants differing in the length and number of hydrophobic tails (at the same hydrophilic head) and the structure of the hydrophilic head (at the same length of the hydrophobic n-alkyl tail) was compared. It was shown that an increase in the length and number of hydrophobic tails, as well as the presence of a benzene ring in the surfactant molecule, enhance the virucidal activity of the surfactant against SARS-CoV-2. This may be due to the more pronounced ability of such surfactants to penetrate and destroy the phospholipid membrane of the virus. Among the cationic surfactants studied, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide was shown to be the most efficient as a disinfectant, its 50% effective concentration (EC50) being equal to 0.016 mM. Two surfactants (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and benzalkonium chloride) can deactivate SARS-CoV-2 in as little as 5 s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269850, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910664

ABSTRACT

The incidence of hospital- and community-acquired infections has been dramatically increased worldwide. Accordingly, hands hygiene and the use of disinfectants have been increased leading to the expansion in hand sanitizers production to meet public demand. This study was conducted to assess the efficiency of common disinfectants in the market of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in inhibiting the microbial growth during the time of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Five bacterial strains of commonly hospital-acquired infections (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) (ATCC reference strains and clinical isolates) were examined for their susceptibility against 18 disinfectants collected from the Saudi market. The tested 18 disinfectants were broadly clustered into different groups based on their active chemical composition as following: 12 products contained alcohol, 2 products had chlorhexidine, 3 products contained mixed concentration of alcohol/chlorhexidine and 1 product had a mixture of chlorhexidine/Hexamidine/Chlorocresol. By measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), our results revealed that all the 18 disinfectants have reduced the microbial growth of all the tested strains. Generally, the MICs and the MBCs for the clinical strains are higher than those of the reference strains. Taken together, our findings showed that all tested products have high disinfectants' killing rate against microbes of different origins, which suggest the high quality of these disinfectants and the good surveillance practice by the local authorities in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Humans , Sterilization
18.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(8): 841-848, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908719

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, our reliance on disinfectants and sanitizers and the use thereof has grown. While this may protect human health, it may be selecting for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, including those that are not only capable of growth in the presence of disinfectants but also thrive using this as an energy source. Furthermore, there is a growing concern in emerging nosocomial pathogens, which have shown resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. This rise in resistance has led to the investigation of various mechanisms behind resistance, such as biofilms, efflux pumps, and mobile genetic elements. Although many resistance mechanisms have been identified, it was discovered that some potentially pathogenic microbes could metabolize these compounds, which remains an avenue for further investigation. Investigating alternative metabolic pathways in microorganisms capable of growth using disinfectants as their sole carbon and energy source may provide insight into the metabolism of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC)-based antimicrobials. Many of the metabolic reactions proposed include hydroxylation, N-dealkylation, N-demethylation, and ß-oxidation of QACs. If clear metabolic pathways and reactions are elucidated, possible alternative approaches to QACs may be advised. Alternatively, this may provide opportunities for biodegradation of the compounds that adversely affect the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
19.
Metallomics ; 14(7)2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901217

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by human coronaviruses that include SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although their primary mode of transmission is through contaminated respiratory droplets from infected carriers, the deposition of expelled virus particles onto surfaces and fomites could contribute to viral transmission. Here, we use replication-deficient murine leukemia virus (MLV) pseudoviral particles expressing SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein on their surface. These surrogates of native coronavirus counterparts serve as a model to analyze the S-mediated entry into target cells. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) nanofibers that are combined with copper (Cu) exhibit strong antimicrobial properties. S-pseudovirions that are exposed to CMC-Cu nanoparticles (30 s) display a dramatic reduction in their ability to infect target Vero E6 cells, with ∼97% less infectivity as compared to untreated pseudovirions. In contrast, addition of the Cu chelator tetrathiomolybdate protects S-pseudovirions from CMC-Cu-mediated inactivation. When S-pseudovirions were treated with a hydrogen peroxide-based disinfectant (denoted SaberTM) used at 1:250 dilution, their infectivity was dramatically reduced by ∼98%. However, the combined use of SaberTM and CMC-Cu is the most effective approach to restrict infectivity of SARS-CoV-2-S, SARS-CoV-S, and MERS-CoV-S pseudovirions in Vero E6 cell assays. Together, these results show that cellulosic Cu nanoparticles enhance the effectiveness of diluted SaberTM sanitizer, setting up an improved strategy to lower the risk of surface- and fomite-mediated transmission of enveloped respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nanoparticles , Copper/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 125: 75-91, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895195

ABSTRACT

Disinfectants and antiseptics are important weapons to reduce the number of micro-organisms and thus limit the number of infections. Different methods of antimicrobial activity testing, often not standardized, without appropriate controls and not validated, are applied. To address these issues, several European Standards (EN) have been developed, describing the test methods to determine whether chemical disinfectants or antiseptic products have appropriate bactericidal, sporicidal, mycobactericidal or tuberculocidal activity; fungicidal or yeasticidal activity; or virucidal activity. In this narrative review, the 17 ENs concerning evaluation of the above-mentioned antimicrobial activity of preparations dedicated to the medical area are briefly reviewed, together with recent publications on this topic. Suspension and carrier tests have been performed in clean and dirty conditions simulating the medical area. In addition, a wide range of applications of these standards has been presented in the research of biocides for hand antisepsis, surfaces disinfection, including airborne disinfection as well as medical device and medical textile disinfection. The role of normative documents in the investigation of antimicrobial activity of disinfectants and antiseptics to limit infections has been underestimated. This narrative review aims to persuade researchers to conduct antimicrobial activity testing in line with validated ENs and highlights an existing gap in ongoing research. It also aims to raise awareness of the wide range of biocidal activity tests with standardized methods in the medical area. We also pay attention to the recently developed European Pharmacopoeia monography concerning the testing of bactericidal and fungicidal activity of antiseptics classified as medicinal products.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Disinfectants , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans
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