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1.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286740, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234001

ABSTRACT

Apart from aerosols, contaminated surfaces with SARS-CoV-2 virus are the significant carriers of virus transmission. The disinfection and sanitization of the indoor and outdoor places are one among the powerful and effective strategies to avoid the surface-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) through frequent touch and physical contact. Electrostatic spraying is one of the effective and efficient methods to apply the liquid-based sprays on surfaces to be disinfected or sanitized. This technique covers the directly exposed and obscured surfaces uniformly and reaches to hidden areas of the target. In this paper, the design and performance parameters of a motorized pressure-nozzle based handheld electrostatic disinfection device were optimized and the chargeability of ethanol (C2H5OH), formaldehyde (CH2O), glutaraldehyde (C5H8O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), phenol (C6H5OH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been critically investigated. The chargeability indicator for disinfectants was presented in terms of the charge-to-mass ratio. The significant value of the charge-to-mass ratio of 1.82 mC/kg was achieved at an applied voltage of 2.0 kV, the liquid flow rate and pressure of 28 ml/min and 5 MPa, respectively. The experimental results are well aligned to the proposed theoretical context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide , Static Electricity , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(6): e0023723, 2023 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317494

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus are global threats to human health. The application of effective virucidal agents, which contribute to the inactivation of viruses on hands and environmental surfaces, is important to facilitate robust virus infection control measures. Naturally derived virucidal disinfectants have attracted attention owing to their safety and eco-friendly properties. In this study, we showed that multiple Japanese Saxifraga species-derived fractions demonstrated rapid, potent virucidal activity against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain and multiple variant strains, IAV, and two human norovirus surrogates: feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV). Condensed tannins were identified as active chemical constituents that play a central role in the virucidal activities of these fractions. At a concentration of 25 µg/mL, the purified condensed tannin fraction Sst-2R induced significant reductions in the viral titers of the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, IAV, and FCV (reductions of ≥3.13, ≥3.00, and 2.50 log10 50% tissue culture infective doses [TCID50]/mL, respectively) within 10 s of reaction time. Furthermore, at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, Sst-2R induced a reduction of 1.75 log10 TCID50/mL in the viral titers of MNV within 1 min. Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that Sst-2R produced structural abnormalities in viral structural proteins and envelopes, resulting in the destruction of viral particles. Furthermore, Saxifraga species-derived fraction-containing cream showed virucidal activity against multiple viruses within 10 min. Our findings indicate that Saxifraga species-derived fractions containing condensed tannins can be used as disinfectants against multiple viruses on hands and environmental surfaces. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2, IAV, and norovirus are highly contagious pathogens. The use of naturally derived components as novel virucidal/antiviral agents is currently attracting attention. We showed that fractions from extracts of Saxifraga species, in the form of a solution as well as a cream, exerted potent, rapid virucidal activities against SARS-CoV-2, IAV, and surrogates of human norovirus. Condensed tannins were found to play a central role in this activity. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the purified condensed tannin fraction at a concentration that exhibited some extent of virucidal activity was lower than that of 70% ethanol or 2,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution, which are popular virucidal disinfectants. Our study suggests that Saxifraga species-derived fractions containing condensed tannins can be used on hands and environmental surfaces as safe virucidal agents against multiple viruses.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Influenza A virus , Norovirus , Proanthocyanidins , SARS-CoV-2 , Saxifragaceae , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Norovirus/drug effects , Proanthocyanidins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saxifragaceae/chemistry , Tannins
3.
J Water Health ; 21(5): 537-546, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307201

ABSTRACT

Disinfectants, especially air disinfectants, are necessary to prevent the potential spread of pathogens (bacteria and viruses) in the pandemic era and minimize the spread of pathogens. Some of the commercial disinfectant products that are often used generally contain chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas. This study tested the effectiveness of two different commercial disinfectants, a liquid stick disinfectant and a powder disinfection card, to carry out the disinfection of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. These two disinfectants were used as a medium for releasing chlorine dioxide gas which has a much stronger bactericidal effect. In the form of liquid stick, ClO2 is more effective in the disinfection process rather than in the form of powder. The effectiveness of the liquid disinfectant in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria is influenced by the temperature and the area of the open space covered. Considering that the release from both disinfectants used is very small (0.002 ppmv/h), it takes a small area to ensure that the disinfection process runs effectively.


Subject(s)
Chlorine Compounds , Disinfectants , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Chlorine/pharmacology , Powders , Oxides/pharmacology , Chlorine Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfection , Bacteria
4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 12(1): 32, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the substantial increase in the use of disinfectants containing quaternary ammonion compounds (QACs) in healthcare and community settings during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is increased concern that heavy use might cause bacteria to develop resistance to QACs or contribute to antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the mechanisms of QAC tolerance and resistance, laboratory-based evidence of tolerance and resistance, their occurrence in healthcare and other real-world settings, and the possible impact of QAC use on antibiotic resistance. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database. The search was limited to English language articles dealing with tolerance or resistance to QACs present in disinfectants or antiseptics, and potential impact on antibiotic resistance. The review covered the period from 2000 to mid-Jan 2023. RESULTS: Mechanisms of QAC tolerance or resistance include innate bacterial cell wall structure, changes in cell membrane structure and function, efflux pumps, biofilm formation, and QAC degradation. In vitro studies have helped elucidate how bacteria can develop tolerance or resistance to QACs and antibiotics. While relatively uncommon, multiple episodes of contaminated in-use disinfectants and antiseptics, which are often due to inappropriate use of products, have caused outbreaks of healthcare-associated infections. Several studies have identified a correlation between benzalkonium chloride (BAC) tolerance and clinically-defined antibiotic resistance. The occurrence of mobile genetic determinants carrying multiple genes that encode for QAC or antibiotic tolerance raises the concern that widespread QAC use might facilitate the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Despite some evidence from laboratory-based studies, there is insufficient evidence in real-world settings to conclude that frequent use of QAC disinfectants and antiseptics has promoted widespread emergence of antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory studies have identified multiple mechanisms by which bacteria can develop tolerance or resistance to QACs and antibiotics. De novo development of tolerance or resistance in real-world settings is uncommon. Increased attention to proper use of disinfectants is needed to prevent contamination of QAC disinfectants. Additional research is needed to answer many questions and concerns related to use of QAC disinfectants and their potential impact on antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 453: 131428, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306613

ABSTRACT

The propagation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is constantly paralyzing our healthcare systems. In addition to the pressure of antibiotic selection, the roles of non-antibiotic compounds in disseminating antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are a matter of great concerns. This study aimed to explore the impact of different disinfectants on the horizontal transfer of ARGs and their underlying mechanisms. First, the effects of different kinds of disinfectants on the conjugative transfer of RP4-7 plasmid were evaluated. Results showed that quaternary ammonium salt, organic halogen, alcohol and guanidine disinfectants significantly facilitated the conjugative transfer. Conversely, heavy-metals, peroxides and phenols otherwise displayed an inhibitory effect. Furthermore, we deciphered the mechanism by which guanidine disinfectants promoted conjugation, which includes increased cell membrane permeability, over-production of ROS, enhanced SOS response, and altered expression of conjugative transfer-related genes. More critically, we also revealed that guanidine disinfectants promoted bacterial energy metabolism by enhancing the activity of electron transport chain (ETC) and proton force motive (PMF), thus promoting ATP synthesis and flagellum motility. Overall, our findings reveal the promotive effects of disinfectants on the transmission of ARGs and highlight the potential risks caused by the massive use of guanidine disinfectants, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Genes, Bacterial , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Guanidines , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Plasmids/genetics
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 882: 163598, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296671

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, chemicals from excessive consumption of pharmaceuticals and disinfectants i.e., antibiotics, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), and trihalomethanes (THMs), flowed into the urban environment, imposing unprecedented selective pressure to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To decipher the obscure character pandemic-related chemicals portrayed in altering environmental AMR, 40 environmental samples covering water and soil matrix from surroundings of Wuhan designated hospitals were collected on March 2020 and June 2020. Chemical concentrations and antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) profiles were revealed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and metagenomics. Selective pressure from pandemic-related chemicals ascended by 1.4-5.8 times in March 2020 and then declined to normal level of pre-pandemic period in June 2020. Correspondingly, the relative abundance of ARGs under increasing selective pressure was 20.1 times that under normal selective pressure. Moreover, effect from QACs and THMs in aggravating the prevalence of AMR was elaborated by null model, variation partition and co-occurrence network analyses. Pandemic-related chemicals, of which QACs and THMs respectively displayed close interaction with efflux pump genes and mobile genetic elements, contributed >50 % in shaping ARG profile. QACs bolstered the cross resistance effectuated by qacEΔ1 and cmeB to 3.0 times higher while THMs boosted horizon ARG transfer by 7.9 times for initiating microbial response to oxidative stress. Under ascending selective pressure, qepA encoding quinolone efflux pump and oxa-20 encoding ß-lactamases were identified as priority ARGs with potential human health risk. Collectively, this research validated the synergistic effect of QACs and THMs in exacerbating environmental AMR, appealing for the rational usage of disinfectants and the attention for environmental microbes in one-health perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disinfection , Pandemics , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Genes, Bacterial
7.
Microbiome ; 11(1): 64, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the extent to which the public transportation environment, such as in subways, may be important for the transmission of potential pathogenic microbes among humans, with the possibility of rapidly impacting large numbers of people. For these reasons, sanitation procedures, including massive use of chemical disinfection, were mandatorily introduced during the emergency and remain in place. However, most chemical disinfectants have temporary action and a high environmental impact, potentially enhancing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of the treated microbes. By contrast, a biological and eco-sustainable probiotic-based sanitation (PBS) procedure was recently shown to stably shape the microbiome of treated environments, providing effective and long-term control of pathogens and AMR spread in addition to activity against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Our study aims to assess the applicability and impact of PBS compared with chemical disinfectants based on their effects on the surface microbiome of a subway environment. RESULTS: The train microbiome was characterized by both culture-based and culture-independent molecular methods, including 16S rRNA NGS and real-time qPCR microarray, for profiling the train bacteriome and its resistome and to identify and quantify specific human pathogens. SARS-CoV-2 presence was also assessed in parallel using digital droplet PCR. The results showed a clear and significant decrease in bacterial and fungal pathogens (p < 0.001) as well as of SARS-CoV-2 presence (p < 0.01), in the PBS-treated train compared with the chemically disinfected control train. In addition, NGS profiling evidenced diverse clusters in the population of air vs. surface while demonstrating the specific action of PBS against pathogens rather than the entire train bacteriome. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here provide the first direct assessment of the impact of different sanitation procedures on the subway microbiome, allowing a better understanding of its composition and dynamics and showing that a biological sanitation approach may be highly effective in counteracting pathogens and AMR spread in our increasingly urbanized and interconnected environment. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Microbiota , Probiotics , Railroads , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sanitation/methods , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Disinfectants/pharmacology
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(12): 16253-16265, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247947

ABSTRACT

Surface-mediated transmission of pathogens is a major concern with regard to the spread of infectious diseases. Current pathogen prevention methods on surfaces rely on the use of biocides, which aggravate the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and pose harmful health effects. In response, a bifunctional and substrate-independent spray coating is presented herein. The bifunctional coating relies on wrinkled polydimethylsiloxane microparticles, decorated with biocidal gold nanoparticles to induce a "repel and kill" effect against pathogens. Pathogen repellency is provided by the structural hierarchy of the microparticles and their surface chemistry, whereas the kill mechanism is achieved using functionalized gold nanoparticles embedded on the microparticles. Bacterial tests with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveal a 99.9% reduction in bacterial load on spray-coated surfaces, while antiviral tests with Phi6─a bacterial virus often used as a surrogate to SARS-CoV-2─demonstrate a 98% reduction in virus load on coated surfaces. The newly developed spray coating is versatile, easily applicable to various surfaces, and effective against various pathogens, making it suitable for reducing surface contamination in frequently touched, heavy traffic, and high-risk surfaces.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants , Metal Nanoparticles , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Gold/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
9.
New Microbiol ; 46(1): 60-64, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288297

ABSTRACT

In this study we evaluated the antiviral activity of the Silver Barrier® disinfectant against SARSCoV-2. Silver Barrier® showed time- and concentration-dependent antiviral activity against SARSCoV-2. After 5 min contact time, Silver Barrier® at 0.002% showed a strong inhibitory effect (p<0.001), with a 2-fold reduction of viral genome copy numbers, and a robust suppression (94%) of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Considering the effects obtained in solution and within a very short time, Silver Barrier® stands as an excellent new candidate for the disinfection of work environments, especially at the healthcare level, where there are people at high risk of serious illnesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfectants/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Silver/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(9)2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271418

ABSTRACT

The environmental control of microbial pathogens currently relies on compounds that do not exert long-lasting activity on surfaces, are impaired by soil, and contribute to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. This study presents the scientific development and characterization of GS-2, a novel, water-soluble ammonium carboxylate salt of capric acid and L-arginine that demonstrates activity against a range of bacteria (particularly Gram-negative bacteria), fungi, and viruses. In real-world surface testing, GS-2 was more effective than a benzalkonium chloride disinfectant at reducing the bacterial load on common touch-point surfaces in a high-traffic building (average 1.6 vs. 32.6 CFUs recovered from surfaces 90 min after application, respectively). Toxicology testing in rats confirmed GS-2 ingredients were rapidly cleared and posed no toxicities to humans or animals. To enhance the time-kill against Gram-positive bacteria, GS-2 was compounded at a specific ratio with a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol, to produce a water-based antimicrobial solution. This GS-2 with thymol formulation could generate a bactericidal effect after five minutes of exposure and a viricidal effect after 10 min of exposure. Further testing of the GS-2 and thymol combination on glass slides demonstrated that the compound retained bactericidal activity for up to 60 days. Based on these results, GS-2 and GS-2 with thymol represent a novel antimicrobial solution that may have significant utility in the long-term reduction of environmental microbial pathogens in a variety of settings.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Anti-Infective Agents , Disinfectants , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Arginine , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes , Rats , Soil , Thymol , Water
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1016938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246739

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During COVID-19, some front-line personnel experienced varying degrees of eye discomfort due to the use of goggles repeatedly disinfected with chlorine-containing disinfectant. Methods: The eye damage information of 276 front-line personnel who used goggles in a hospital from October 1, 2021, to December 1, 2021, was collected by filling out a questionnaire. To study the effect of chlorinated disinfectants on goggles, we immersed the goggles in the same volume of water and chlorinated disinfectant buckets. We tested the light transmittance, color and texture, and airtightness of the goggles at different times (1, 3, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 268 h). In addition, we detected where chlorinated disinfectant remained in the goggles by using disinfectant concentration test paper. Results: 60 (21.82%) people experienced dry eyes, stinging pain, photophobia and tearing, conjunctival congestion, eyelid redness, and swelling. After treatment or rest, the patient's ocular symptoms were significantly relieved within 3 days. With the extension of disinfection time, the light transmission of the lenses gradually decreased, and the light transmission reduced when immersion occurred at 216 h. After 72 h of disinfection, the color of the goggle frame began to change to light yellow, the texture gradually became hard and brittle, and the color became significantly darker at 268 h of disinfection. The airtightness of the goggles began to decrease after 168 h of disinfection, the airtightness decreased substantially at 268 h, and the shape changed significantly. In addition, the concentration test paper results show that the disinfection solution mainly resides in the goggle frame seam and goggles' elastic bands' bundle. Conclusions: Repeated chlorine disinfectant disinfection will reduce the effectiveness of goggles protection and damage front-line personnel's eye health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Chlorine , Eye Protective Devices , Immersion , COVID-19/prevention & control
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 871: 162035, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236822

ABSTRACT

Aerosols are an important route for the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Since the 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the large-scale use of disinfectants has effectively prevented the spread of environmental microorganisms, but studies regarding the antibiotic resistance of airborne bacteria remain limited. This study focused on four functional urban areas (commercial areas, educational areas, residential areas and wastewater treatment plant) to study the variations in ARG abundances, bacterial community structures and risks to human health during the COVID-19 pandemic in aerosol. The results indicated the abundance of ARGs during the COVID-19 period were up to approximately 13-fold greater than before the COVID-19 period. Large-scale disinfection resulted in a decrease in total bacterial abundance. However, chlorine-resistant bacteria tended to be survived. Among the four functional areas, the diversity and abundance of aerosol bacteria were highest in commercial aera. Antibiotic susceptibility assays suggested elevated resistance of isolated bacteria to several tested antibiotics due to disinfection exposure. The potential exposure risks of ARGs to human health were 2 times higher than before the COVID-19 pandemic, and respiratory intake was the main exposure route. The results highlighted the elevated antibiotic resistance of bacteria in aerosols that were exposed to disinfectants after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides theoretical guidance for the rational use of disinfectants and control of antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Pandemics , Genes, Bacterial , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279027, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224465

ABSTRACT

Iodine-V ((C26H39N4O15)x * (I2)y) demonstrates an in vitro virucidal activity by deactivating SARS-CoV-2 viral titers. It combines elemental iodine (I2) and fulvic acid (C14H12O8), forming a clathrate compound. The antiviral properties of Iodine-V reduce viral load in the air to inhibit viral transmission indoors. This antiviral property was applied to form a disinfectant solution called SAFEAIR-X Aerosol. The current study evaluates the antiviral efficacy of Iodine-V in aerosol form in a prototype called SAFEAIR-X Aerosol. The experiment measured the antiviral efficacy of SAFEAIR-X following exposure to the Vaccinia virus (VACV) samples as a confirmed surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. The SAFEAIR-X showed 96% effectiveness, with 2 seconds of spraying duration and 60 seconds of contact time releasing less than 0.0001 ppm of iodine into the air, and a log reduction value of 1.50 at 60 seconds in 2 out of 3 tests was observed. Therefore, this study demonstrates SAFEAIR-X aerosol as a potential indoor surface and air disinfectant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Iodine , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Iodine/pharmacology , Vaccinia virus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Antiviral Agents
14.
Biocontrol Sci ; 27(4): 223-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202199

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major burden for health care systems worldwide, and is a threat to our daily lives. Various effective ingredients against SARS-CoV-2 were already reported, however, since products contain various ingredients, it is also important to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available disinfectants per se. In this study, the virucidal efficacy of forty-eight commercially available products were evaluated according to the standardized suspension method EN 14476 and the following results were obtained: Alcohol-based disinfectants, hand soaps, wet wipes, alkaline cleaners, quaternary ammonium compound sanitizers and oxygen bleach had great virucidal efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are among the most susceptible of pathogens to formulated microbicidal actives and detergents, but as the results of this study showed, it is also necessary to pay attention to the concentration at the time of use and the required contact time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
15.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(1): e0169922, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161796

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a threat to human health. Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) has recently been suggested to demonstrate virucidal activity. Many types of AEW with different pH values, generated by the electrolysis of different chemicals, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrochloric acid, are commercially available. In this study, we compared the virucidal activities of these types of AEW against SARS-CoV-2, including the ancestral strain and variant Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron strains. Virus solution (viral titer, 6.9 log10 50% tissue culture infective dose [TCID50]/mL) was mixed with AEW (free available chlorine concentration, 34.5 ppm) at mixing ratios of 1:9, 1:19, and 1:49. At mixing ratios of 1:9 and 1:19, AEW with a pH of 2.8 showed stronger virucidal activities than AEW with a pH of 4.1 to 6.5 against the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain in 20 s. From the strongest to the weakest virucidal activity, the AEW pH levels were as follows: pH 2.8, pH 4.1 to 5.4, pH 6.4 to 6.5. At a ratio of 1:49, the viral titers of viruses treated with all AEW solutions at pH 2.8 to 6.5 were almost below the detection limit, which was 1.25 log10 TCID50/mL. The virus inactivation efficiency of AEW was reduced in the presence of fetal bovine serum and other substances contained in the virus solution used in this study. AEW with pH values of 2.8 to 6.5 showed virucidal activity against all of the tested SARS-CoV-2 strains, including the ancestral and variant strains. These results provide useful knowledge for the effective application of AEW as a SARS-CoV-2 disinfectant. IMPORTANCE Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) demonstrates virucidal activity against multiple viruses. Since AEW exhibits low toxicity, is inexpensive, and is environmentally friendly, it can be a useful disinfectant against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the pH values of currently available AEW products vary, the impact of different pH values on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation has not previously been evaluated in detail. In this study, we compared the virucidal activities of multiple AEW solutions with different pH values, under the same experimental conditions. We found that AEW solutions with lower pH values demonstrated more potent virucidal activity. Also, we showed that the extent of virus inactivation by the AEW was based on the balance of the abundance of free available chlorine, virus, and other organic substances in the mixture. AEW exhibited rapid virucidal activity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains. This study demonstrated the usefulness of AEW as a disinfectant which can be applied to the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Chlorine/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Water/chemistry , Acids , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19934, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133627

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we synthesized Ag/ZnO composite colloidal nanoparticles and the surface of nanoparticles was improved by amodiaquine ligand. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using the XRD diffraction pattern, FT-IR Spectroscopy, TEM image, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of the synthesized colloid were examined on E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus hirae bacteria, and Candida Albicans and form spore aspergillus fungi, also influenza, herpes simplex, and covid 19 viruses. The results indicate more than 7 log removal of the bacteria, fungi, and viruses by synthesized colloid with a concentration of 15 µg/L (Ag)/50 µg/ml (ZnO). This removal for covid 19 virus is from 3.2 × 108 numbers to 21 viruses within 30 s. Also, irritation and toxicity tests of the synthesized colloid show harmless effects on human cells and tissues. These colloidal nanoparticles were used as mouthwash solution and their clinical tests were done on 500 people infected by the coronavirus. The results indicate that by washing their mouth and nose three times on day all patients got healthy at different times depending on the depth of the disease. Almost all people with no signs of infection and using this solution as a mouthwash didn't infect by the virus during the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disinfectants , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Amodiaquine/pharmacology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli
17.
Water Res ; 227: 119342, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106149

ABSTRACT

Glutaraldehyde and didecyldimethylammonium bromide (GD) is a disinfectant widely used to prevent African swine fever (ASF) in livestock farms. However, the effect of residual GD on the activated sludge microbial ecology of receiving wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) remains largely unknown. In this study, seven simulated systems were established to research the effects of GD on WWTPs and reveal the underlying mechanisms of microecological responses to GD at different concentrations. Both the nitrogen and carbon removal rates decreased with increasing GD concentrations, and nitrogen metabolism was inhibited more obviously, but the inhibition weakened with increasing stress duration. Microorganisms activated their SoxRS systems to promote ATP synthesis and electron transfer to support the hydrolysis and efflux of GD by producing a small number of ROS when exposed to GD at less than 1 mg/L. The overproduction of ROS led to a decrease of antioxidant and nitrogen removal enzyme activities, and upregulation of the porin gene increased the risk of GD entering the intracellular space upon exposure to GD at concentrations higher than 1 mg/L. Some denitrifiers survived via resistance and their basic capabilities of sugar metabolism and nitrogen assimilation. Notably, low concentrations of disinfectants could promote vertical and horizontal transfer of multiple resistance genes, especially aminoglycosides, among microorganisms, which might increase not only the adaptation capability of denitrifiers but also the risk to ecological systems. Therefore, the risks of disinfectants targeting ASF on ecology and health as well as the effects of disinfectant residuals from the COVID-19 epidemic should receive more attention.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Water Purification , Swine , Animals , Sewage , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glutaral/pharmacology , Livestock , Reactive Oxygen Species , Nitrogen
18.
Food Microbiol ; 110: 104164, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068988

ABSTRACT

Since the first SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Wuhan, China, there has been continued concern over the link between SARS-CoV-2 transmission and food. However, there are few studies on the viability and removal of SARS-CoV-2 contaminating food. This study aimed to evaluate the viability of SARS-CoV-2 on food matrices, depending on storage temperature, and inactivate the virus contaminating food using disinfectants. Two SARS-CoV-2 strains (L and S types) were used to contaminate lettuce, chicken, and salmon, which were then stored at 20,4 and -40 °C. The half-life of SARS-CoV-2 at 20 °C was 3-7 h but increased to 24-46 h at 4 °C and exceeded 100 h at -40 °C. SARS-CoV-2 persisted longer on chicken or salmon than on lettuce. Treatment with 70% ethanol for 1 min inactivated 3.25 log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 inoculated on lettuce but not on chicken and salmon. ClO2 inactivated up to 2 log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 on foods. Peracetic acid was able to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 from all foods. The virucidal effect of all disinfectants used in this study did not differ between the two SARS-CoV-2 strains; therefore, they could also be effective against other SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study demonstrated that the viability of SARS-CoV-2 can be extended at 4 and -40 °C and peracetic acid can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 on food matrices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Animals , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Salmon , SARS-CoV-2 , Lettuce , Chickens , Ethanol , Seafood , Disinfectants/pharmacology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273937, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039403

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In response to the limited supply of personal protective equipment during the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, recent studies demonstrate that gaseous H2O2 is an effective decontaminant of N95 filtering facepiece respirators to enable reuse of these items in a clinical setting. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the Arca Aerosolized Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination System (Arca), a novel aerosolized H2O2 decontamination system, using biologic indicator testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Arca produces and circulates H2O2 aerosol inside of a sealed stainless steel chamber. The Arca's decontamination efficacy was evaluated in 8 decontamination trials with 2 H2O2 concentrations (3% and 12%) and 4 decontamination cycle durations (45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes). Efficacy was evaluated by testing: 1) the concentration in parts per million (ppm) of H2O2 produced inside the chamber and the concentration in ppm of H2O2 vented from the chamber, and 2) the decontamination of Mesa Biologic Indicator filter strips (BI) inoculated with Geobacillus Stearothermophilus. Control tests were conducted by submerging BI strips in 3mL of 3% and 12% H2O2 for 120 minutes (negative controls) and by not exposing one BI strip to H2O2 (positive control). RESULTS: Greater than 5000 ppm of H2O2 was detected on the concentration strips inside the chamber for each of the eight decontamination trials. No vented H2O2 was detected on the external concentration strips after any decontamination trial. No growth was observed for any of the negative controls after seven days. The positive control was positive for growth. CONCLUSION: The Arca Aerosolized Hydrogen Peroxide Decontamination System is effective at decontaminating bacterial G. Stearothermophilus at a cycle time of 45 minutes utilizing 6mL of 3% H2O2 solution.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Geobacillus stearothermophilus , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2 , Stainless Steel
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(6): 1639-1644, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019532

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of accelerated hydrogen peroxide® wipes (HPW) for decontamination of the chimpanzee adenovirus AZD1222 vaccine strain used in the production of recombinant COVID-19 vaccine in a pharmaceutical industry. Two matrices were tested on stainless-steel (SS) and low-density-polyethylene (LDP) surfaces: formulated recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (FCV) and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The samples were spiked, dried and the initial inoculum, possible residue effect (RE) and titre reduction after disinfection with HPW were determined. No RE was observed. The disinfection procedure with HPW resulted in complete decontamination the of AZD1222 adenovirus strain in FCV (≥7·46 and ≥7·49 log10 infectious unit [IFU] ml-1 for SS and LDP carriers respectively) and API (≥8·79 and ≥8·78 log10 IFU ml-1 for SS and LDP carriers respectively). In conclusion, virucidal activity of HPW was satisfactory against the AZD1222 adenovirus strain and can be a good option for disinfection processes of SS and LPD surfaces in pharmaceutical industry facilities during recombinant COVID-19 vaccine production. This procedure is simple and can be also applied on safety unit cabins and sampling bags made of LDP as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Decontamination/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Stainless Steel , Drug Industry
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