Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 142
Filter
Add filters

Year range
2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1): 125, 2020 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745681

ABSTRACT

Incidents of viral outbreaks have increased at an alarming rate over the past decades. The most recent human coronavirus known as COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) has already spread around the world and shown R0 values from 2.2 to 2.68. However, the ratio between mortality and number of infections seems to be lower in this case in comparison to other human coronaviruses (such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)). These outbreaks have tested the limits of healthcare systems and have posed serious questions about management using conventional therapies and diagnostic tools. In this regard, the use of nanotechnology offers new opportunities for the development of novel strategies in terms of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 and other viral infections. In this review, we discuss the use of nanotechnology for COVID-19 virus management by the development of nano-based materials, such as disinfectants, personal protective equipment, diagnostic systems and nanocarrier systems, for treatments and vaccine development, as well as the challenges and drawbacks that need addressing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disinfection/methods , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
3.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 18-21, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740461

ABSTRACT

Considering the new coronavirus epidemic (Covid-19), the Brazilian Society of Nephrology, represented by the Peritoneal Steering Committee, in agreement with the and the Dialysis Department, developed a series of recommendations for good clinical practices for peritoneal dialysis (PD) clinics, to be considered during the period of the Covid-19 epidemic. We aim to minimize the disease spread, protecting patients and staff, and ensuring the quality of the treatment provided and adequate follow-up for PD patients. The recommendations suggested at this moment must be adapted to each clinic's reality and the conditions of the structural and human resources, dependent on the adequate financial provision of the public health system for its full implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peritoneal Dialysis/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Peritoneal Dialysis/instrumentation , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical , Telemedicine/legislation & jurisprudence , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Urology Department, Hospital/standards
4.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 15-17, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740460

ABSTRACT

Dialysis units are environments potentially prone to the spread of Covid-19. Patients cannot suspend treatment, and they often have comorbidities, which assigns them a higher risk and worse prognosis. The Brazilian Society of Nephrology prepared this document of good practices, whose technical recommendations deal with general measures that can be implemented to reduce the risk of transmission and prevent the spread of the disease in the unit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/standards , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Societies, Medical/standards , Symptom Assessment
7.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(9): 619-625, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offer behavioral guidance to prevent the spread of infectious diseases like COVID-19. Cleaning (e.g., cleaning surfaces, washing and sanitizing hands) and containing (e.g., covering coughs, keeping distance from others, especially sick people) behaviors are recommended. PURPOSE: To develop the Clean and Contain Measure, a brief measure of compliance with CDC recommendations for prevention of infectious disease, and validate the measure in individuals experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and social media. RESULTS: In Study 1 (N = 97), exploratory factor analysis revealed two scales: (a) five items assessing cleaning behaviors and (b) four items assessing containing behaviors. Simple structure was obtained and alpha coefficients for both scales were >.83. In Studies 2 (N = 204) and 3 (N = 527), confirmatory factor analysis verified the identical factor structure found in Study 1. All loadings were statistically significant at p < .001. Alpha coefficients for both scales were >.84 for Studies 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: Our measure is a reliable and valid indicator of compliance with cleaning and containing health behaviors that help to prevent the spread of diseases like COVID-19. Future research should replicate construct validity in more diverse samples and continue to refine items, examine construct validity, including predictive and discriminant validity, and improve the measure for future use. With continued use and refinement, this measure could allow health officials and researchers to accurately assess compliance with important infection prevention behavior guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disinfection , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
8.
ESMO Open ; 5(4)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 appeared in late 2019, causing a pandemic spread. This led to a reorganisation of oncology care in order to reduce the risk of spreading infection between patients and healthcare staff. Here we analysed measures taken in major oncological units in Europe and the USA. METHODS: A 46-item survey was sent by email to representatives of 30 oncological centres in 12 of the most affected countries. The survey inquired about preventive measures established to reduce virus spread, patient education and processes employed for risk reduction in each oncological unit. RESULTS: Investigators from 21 centres in 10 countries answered the survey between 10 April and 6 May 2020. A triage for patients with cancer before hospital or clinic visits was conducted by 90.5% of centres before consultations, 95.2% before day care admissions and in 100% of the cases before overnight hospitalisation by means of phone calls, interactive online platforms, swab test and/or chest CT scan. Permission for caregivers to attend clinic visits was limited in many centres, with some exceptions (ie, for non-autonomous patients, in the case of a new diagnosis, when bad news was expected and for terminally ill patients). With a variable delay period, the use of personal protective equipment was unanimously mandatory, and in many centres, only targeted clinical and instrumental examinations were performed. Telemedicine was implemented in 76.2% of the centres. Separated pathways for COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative patients were organised, with separate inpatient units and day care areas. Self-isolation was required for COVID-19-positive or symptomatic staff, while return to work policies required a negative swab test in 76.2% of the centres. CONCLUSION: Many pragmatic measures have been quickly implemented to deal with the health emergency linked to COVID-19, although the relative efficacy of each intervention should be further analysed in large observational studies.


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Disinfection , Europe/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Triage , United States/epidemiology , Visitors to Patients
10.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(9): 2730-2746, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730928

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted health care systems all over the world. Elective surgical procedures have been postponed and/or cancelled. Consensus is, therefore, required related to the factors that need to be in place before elective surgery, including hip and knee replacement surgery, which is restarted. Entirely new pathways and protocols need to be worked out. METHODS: A panel of experts from the European Hip Society and European Knee Association have agreed to a consensus statement on how to reintroduce elective arthroplasty surgery safely. The recommendations are based on the best available evidence and have been validated in a separate survey. RESULTS: The guidelines are based on five themes: modification and/or reorganisation of hospital wards. Restrictions on orthopaedic wards and in operation suite(s). Additional disinfection of the environment. The role of ultra-clean operation theatres. Personal protective equipment enhancement. CONCLUSION: Apart from the following national and local guidance, protocols need to be put in place in the patient pathway for primary arthroplasty to allow for a safe return.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Anthropology, Medical , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Europe , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/standards , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedics , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Bacteria/drug effects , Disinfection/methods , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Norovirus/drug effects
12.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 566-571, 2020 Aug 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729756

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has had a serious impact in the world. In the absence of vaccines and therapeutic drugs, disinfection has become an important technical means to block the spread of the virus. By analyzing the characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we studied a series of disinfection technologies for COVID-19. During the outbreak of COVID-19, Jinan Second Center for Disease Control and Prevention disinfected the houses of the cases to be investigated in a community. The effectiveness of the disinfection technology was verified through the process of disinfection preparation, sampling before disinfection, field disinfection, sampling after disinfection and evaluation of disinfection effect. Compared the data before and after disinfection, the killing rate of the total bacterial colonies in the air and on the surface of the object was more than or equal to 90%, and no SARS-CoV-2 was detected after disinfection. The results show that the disinfection effect of the disinfection technology meets the standard. Finally, through the analysis of the wrong way of disinfection and the harm of over disinfection, the importance of scientific disinfection and precise disinfection are emphasized, and the research has a good guiding value for prevention and control of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Disinfection , Humans
13.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716812

ABSTRACT

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Masks/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Betacoronavirus , Efficiency , Humans , Safety/standards
15.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 73-78, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714534

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a substantial change in eye care and clinical practice. There has been conflicting information and weak evidence on the virus's transmission through tears. Yet, virus detection on cornea and conjunctiva surface as a gateway for infection is not well-studied. Moreover, there have been no reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through tonometry to date. Thus, this uncertainty has urged this review on evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on tonometer use in the COVID-19 era. The aim of this article is to provide ophthalmologists with recommendations for tonometry practice based on current evidence and best practice guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Betacoronavirus , Conjunctiva/virology , Cornea/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Ophthalmology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tears/virology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713169

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, and several other microorganisms, may be present in nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions in patients treated in dental practices, so an appropriate clinical behavior is required in order to avoid the dangerous spread of infections. COVID-19 could also be spread when patients touches a contaminated surface with infected droplets and then touch their nose, mouth, or eyes. It is time to consider a dental practice quite similar to a hospital surgery room, where particular attention should be addressed to problems related to the spreading of infections due to air and surface contamination. The effectiveness of conventional cleaning and disinfection procedures may be limited by several factors; first of all, human operator dependence seems to be the weak aspect of all procedures. The improvement of these conventional methods requires the modification of human behavior, which is difficult to achieve and sustain. As alternative sterilization methods, there are some that do not depend on the operator, because they are based on devices that perform the entire procedure on their own, with minimal human intervention. In conclusion, continued efforts to improve the traditional manual disinfection of surfaces are needed, so dentists should consider combining the use of proper disinfectants and no-touch decontamination technologies to improve sterilization procedures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Offices/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sterilization/methods , Betacoronavirus , Dental Offices/standards , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sterilization/standards
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 63(3): 350-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706335

ABSTRACT

Declared as a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 has brought about a dramatic change in the working of different laboratories across the country. Diagnostic laboratories testing different types of samples play a vital role in the treatment management. Irrespective of their size, each laboratory has to follow strict biosafety guidelines. Different sections of the laboratory receive samples that are variably infectious. Each sample needs to undergo a proper and well-designed processing system so that the personnel involved are not infected and also their close contacts. It takes a huge effort so as to limit the risk of exposure of the working staff during the collection, processing, reporting or dispatching of biohazard samples. Guidelines help in preventing the laboratory staff and healthcare workers from contracting the disease which has a known human to human route of transmission and high rate of mortality. A well-knit approach is the need of the hour to combat this fast spreading disease. We anticipate that the guidelines described in this article will be useful for continuing safe work practices by all the laboratories in the country.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Specimen Handling/methods , Betacoronavirus , Disinfection/methods , Guidelines as Topic , Hazardous Substances , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Laboratories/standards , Pathologists/standards , Waste Management/methods
18.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 608-613, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696815

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which first occurred in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. These days, in China, chest CT is used for diagnosis of COVID-19, as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Because of contacting with a large number of suspected or probable cases closely during chest CT examination, radiographers are easily infected with COVID-19. This article included the rearrangement of CT examination room in fever clinic, the rearrangement of human resources in radiology department, and the drafting of new operating procedures for radiologists who carry out CT examination on COVID-19 patients. This article also introduced the emergency management procedures of the department of radiology during the outbreak, and the experience of infection prevention for the staff of the department of radiology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control Practitioners/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiologists/organization & administration , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL