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2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 33, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081336

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has challenged the availability of traditional surface disinfectants. It has also stimulated the production of ultraviolet-disinfection robots by companies and institutions. These robots are increasingly advocated as a simple solution for the immediate disinfection of rooms and spaces of all surfaces in one process and as such they seem attractive to hospital management, also because of automation and apparent cost savings by reducing cleaning staff. Yet, there true potential in the hospital setting needs to be carefully evaluated. Presently, disinfection robots do not replace routine (manual) cleaning but may complement it. Further design adjustments of hospitals and devices are needed to overcome the issue of shadowing and free the movement of robots in the hospital environment. They might in the future provide validated, reproducible and documented disinfection processes. Further technical developments and clinical trials in a variety of hospitals are warranted to overcome the current limitations and to find ways to integrate this novel technology in to the hospitals of to-day and the future.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disinfection/instrumentation , Disinfection/methods , Hospitals , Robotics/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , /virology , Disinfectants , Humans , Pandemics , /radiation effects
3.
Cir Cir ; 89(1): 4-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077009

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak have major implications in conventional surgical practice. As the number of patients with this diagnosis is rising, the infection risk for the surgical staff will be higher. Few publications have addressed the surgical management of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Objective: To assess recommendations for care of patients and surgical team during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (April 2020) were searched the key words "COVID-19", "PROTOCOL" and "SURGERY". Relevant recommendations, guidelines and cases series were checked for the most accurate information for apply to our center. Results: We found 379 papers that included the key words. A total of 25 papers were included in the manuscript based in the pertinence of the recommendations. Three major topics were selected: perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative. Conclusion: As an attempt to regulate the surgical team approach, we present recommendations to preserve patients and surgical staff safety with high quality standards of care through reproducible strategies applicable in most hospital centers.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Pandemics , Aerosols , Air Pollution, Indoor , Appointments and Schedules , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Mexico , Occupational Exposure , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolation , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel, Hospital , Recovery Room , Sterilization/methods , Surgical Equipment
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2418, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054060

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is currently a global pandemic, and there are limited laboratory studies targeting pathogen resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of selected disinfection products and methods on the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory. We used quantitative suspension testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfectant/method. Available chlorine of 250 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L required 20 min, 5 min, and 0.5 min to inactivate SARS-CoV-2, respectively. A 600-fold dilution of 17% concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (283 mg/L) and the same concentration of di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride required only 0.5 min to inactivate the virus efficiently. At 30% concentration for 1 min and 40% and above for 0.5 min, ethanol could efficiently inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Heat takes approximately 30 min at 56 °C, 10 min above 70 °C, or 5 min above 90 °C to inactivate the virus. The chlorinated disinfectants, Di-N-decyl dimethyl ammonium bromide/chloride, ethanol, and heat could effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory test. The response of SARS-CoV-2 to disinfectants is very similar to that of SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , /prevention & control , Chlorine/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology
5.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042658

ABSTRACT

The newly identified pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, led to an atypical pneumonia-like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak called coronavirus disease 2019 (abbreviated as COVID-19). Currently, nearly 77 million cases have been confirmed worldwide with the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases in the United States. Individuals are getting vaccinated with recently approved vaccines, which are highly protective in suppressing COVID-19 symptoms but there will be a long way before the majority of individuals get vaccinated. In the meantime, safety precautions and effective disease control strategies appear to be vital for preventing the virus spread in public places. Due to the longevity of the virus on smooth surfaces, photocatalytic properties of "self-disinfecting/cleaning" surfaces appear to be a promising tool to help guide disinfection policies for controlling SARS-CoV-2 spread in high-traffic areas such as hospitals, grocery stores, airports, schools, and stadiums. Here, we explored the photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 (TNPs) as induced by the UV radiation, towards virus deactivation. Our preliminary results using a close genetic relative of SAR-CoV-2, HCoV-NL63, showed the virucidal efficacy of photoactive TNPs deposited on glass coverslips, as examined by quantitative RT-qPCR and virus infectivity assays. Efforts to extrapolate the underlying concepts described in this study to SARS-CoV-2 are currently underway.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , /radiation effects , Titanium/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , /virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Titanium/chemistry , Ultraviolet Rays , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 11, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs) treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invasive ventilation poses a high risk for aerosol and droplet formation. Surface contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or bacteria can result in nosocomial transmission. METHODS: Two tertiary care COVID-19 intensive care units treating 53 patients for 870 patient days were sampled after terminal cleaning and preparation for regular use to treat non-COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 176 swabs were sampled of defined locations covering both ICUs. No SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) was detected. Gram-negative bacterial contamination was mainly linked to sinks and siphons. Skin flora was isolated from most swabbed areas and Enterococcus faecium was detected on two keyboards. CONCLUSIONS: After basic cleaning with standard disinfection measures no remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected. Bacterial contamination was low and mainly localised in sinks and siphons.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Aerosols/analysis , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/growth & development , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /isolation & purification , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 206-210, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007445

ABSTRACT

The extremely rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in more than 1 million reported deaths of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ability of infectious particles to persist on environmental surfaces is potentially considered a factor for viral spreading. Therefore, limiting viral diffusion in public environments should be achieved with correct disinfection of objects, tissues, and clothes. This study proves how two widespread disinfection systems, short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C) and ozone (O3), are active in vitro on different commonly used materials. The development of devices equipped with UV-C, or ozone generators, may prevent the virus from spreading in public places.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Ozone/pharmacology , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Humans , /isolation & purification , /radiation effects
8.
Health Phys ; 120(2): 123-130, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Healthcare-associated infections are a major public health concern for both patients and medical personnel. This has taken on greater urgency during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Radiation Personal Protective Equipment (RPPE) may contribute to risks of microbial contamination. This possibility was tested in 61 personal or shared-use lead aprons and thyroid collars at Columbia Presbyterian Irving Medical Center. Fifty percent tested positive for either bacterial or fungal contamination, mostly around the neckline of lead vests and thyroid collars. Repeated testing of garments some weeks to months later confirmed continued presence of microbial contamination. The possibility that hospital-approved disinfection agents could degrade the radio-protective features of these garments was also examined. Samples of identical construction to garments in regular use were subjected to either daily or weekly wipes with hypochlorite or alcohol-based hospital-approved cleaning agents for 6 mo. A third group of samples was maintained in contact with the cleaning agents for 6 mo. All samples were fluoroscoped four times during the study. None demonstrated any degradation in radioprotection. All samples were photographed monthly. Physical degradation of the outer plastic covering by concentrated hypochlorite and limited mechanical damage around stitched seams of the samples cleaned daily with alcohol was noted. Based on the high prevalence of microbial contamination, regular cleaning and disinfection protocols should be implemented. Regular cleaning with medical-facility-approved cleaning and disinfecting agents is likely to be effective at reducing the microbial load and unlikely to result in significant reduction in radioprotective properties of these garments.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Protective Clothing/microbiology , Radiation Protection , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(49): e432, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993333

ABSTRACT

Hospitals need to find a safe and rapid method for respiratory specimen collection as the number of patients suspicious for coronavirus disease -2019 (COVID-19) rapidly grows. Applied with significant infection control and prevention measures, a respiratory specimen collection booth was newly designed. The new respiratory specimen collection booth not only increased COVID-19 testing cases but also decreased personal protective equipment consumption.


Subject(s)
/instrumentation , /diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , /epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Design , Hospitals , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242474, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is global shortage of Personal Protective Equipment due to COVID-19 pandemic. N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators (N95-FFRs) provide respiratory protection against respiratory pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. There is scant literature on reprocessing methods which can enable reuse of N95-FFRs. AIM: We conducted this study to evaluate research done, prior to COVID-19 pandemic, on various decontamination methods for reprocessing of N95-FFRs. METHODS: We searched 5 electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, Crossref, Ovid, ScienceDirect) and 1 Grey literature database (OpenGrey). We included original studies, published prior to year 2020, which had evaluated any decontamination method on FFRs. Studies had evaluated a reprocessing method against parameters namely physical changes, user acceptability, respirator fit, filter efficiency, microbicidal efficacy and presence of chemical residues post-reprocessing. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found 7887 records amongst which 17 original research articles were finally included for qualitative analysis. Overall, 21 different types of decontamination or reprocessing methods for N95-FFRs were evaluated. Most commonly evaluated method for reprocessing of FFRs was Ultraviolet (Type-C) irradiation (UVGI) which was evaluated in 13/17 (76%) studies. We found published literature was scant on this topic despite warning signs of pandemic of a respiratory illness over the years. Promising technologies requiring expeditious evaluation are UVGI, Microwave generated steam (MGS) and based on Hydrogen peroxide vapor. Global presence of technologies, which have been given Emergency use authorisation for N95-FFR reprocessing, is extremely limited. Reprocessing of N95-FFRs by MGS should be considered for emergency implementation in resource limited settings to tackle shortage of N95-FFRs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IDENTIFIER: PROSPERO, PROSPERO ID: CRD42020189684, (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020189684).


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Reuse , Masks , Respiratory Protective Devices , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Safety , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Microwaves , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Steam , Ultraviolet Rays
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(6): 6909-6927, 2020 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907612

ABSTRACT

A mathematical model is proposed that incorporates the key routes of COVID-19 resurgence: human-to-human transmission and indirect transmission by inhaling infectious aerosols or contacting public facilities with the virus. The threshold condition for the disease invasion is established, and the relationships among the basic reproduction number, peak value and final size are formulated. The model is validated by matching the model with the data on cases of COVID-19 resurgence in April of 2020 from Heilongjiang province in China, which indicates that the predictive values from the mathematical model fit the real data very well. Based upon the computations from the model and analytical formulae, we reveal how the indirect transmission from environmental pathogens contribute to the disease outbreak and how the input of asymptomatic individuals affect the disease spread. These findings highlight the importance of mass detection and environmental disinfection in the control of COVID resurgence.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , /transmission , Disinfection/methods , Algorithms , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Disease Outbreaks , Disinfectants , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Infection Control , Inhalation , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment/methods
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902634

ABSTRACT

Since its beginning at the end of 2019, the pandemic spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) caused more than one million deaths in only nine months. The threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases exists as an imminent threat to human health. It is essential to implement adequate hygiene best practices to break the contagion chain and enhance society preparedness for such critical scenarios and understand the relevance of each disease transmission route. As the unconscious hand-face contact gesture constitutes a potential pathway of contagion, in this paper, the authors present a prototype system based on low-cost depth sensors able to monitor in real-time the attitude towards such a habit. The system records people's behavior to enhance their awareness by providing real-time warnings, providing for statistical reports for designing proper hygiene solutions, and better understanding the role of such route of contagion. A preliminary validation study measured an overall accuracy of 91%. A Cohen's Kappa equal to 0.876 supports rejecting the hypothesis that such accuracy is accidental. Low-cost body tracking technologies can effectively support monitoring compliance with hygiene best practices and training people in real-time. By collecting data and analyzing them with respect to people categories and contagion statistics, it could be possible to understand the importance of this contagion pathway and identify for which people category such a behavioral attitude constitutes a significant risk.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Wearable Electronic Devices , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfection/economics , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/economics , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
13.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 167, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We performed an environmental sampling study to investigate the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 by COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positive status of clinical samples. METHODS: We sampled the air from rooms for nine COVID-19 patients with illness or positive PCR > 30 days, before and after nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabbing and before and after nebulization treatment. We also sampled patients' surroundings and healthcare workers' personal protection equipment (PPE) in a non-ICU ward. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by PCR. RESULTS: Eighty-eight samples were collected from high-touch surfaces and floors in patient rooms and toilets, with only the bedsheets of two patients and one toilet positive for SARS-CoV-2. All air samples (n = 34) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Fifty-five samples collected from PPE were all negative. CONCLUSION: Contamination of near-patient surroundings was uncommon for COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positive status if environmental cleaning/disinfection were performed rigorously. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was unlikely in these non-ICU settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification
14.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(3): E301-E303, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881537

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 emergency has imposed new disinfection and sanitation measures of work environments also to beauty and health professional workers and in this context ozone shows growing interest. Ozone has proven to be highly effective in killing bacteria, fungi, and molds and inactivating viruses both on the surfaces and suspended in the air. Ozone is proven to be effective also for the inactivation of the SARS virus, while for the novel SARS-CoV-2 it is supposed that it be equally effective but specific studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , Ozone/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
15.
Food Environ Virol ; 12(4): 361-366, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871571

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus, Alphacoronavirus 1, was used to investigate the persistence of coronavirus dried on a plastic carrier at 4 °C. Techniques of wet wiping, with or without disinfectant saturation, were employed to evaluate their effectiveness in the elimination of the virus. If not wiped, the loss of infectivity of the virus on plastic surfaces was, on average, 0.93 log10 (i.e. 83%) per day of storage at 4 °C. Wiping with water-saturated material reduced the initial virus titre on the plastic carrier by 2.4 log10 (99.6%); the same results were achieved through wiping with bactericidal wipes containing ethanol. Wipes saturated with a combination of disinfectant agents (didecyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide) decreased the virus titre still more efficiently, by 3.8 log10 (99.98%) and also significantly prevented further transfer of the virus to a secondary surface through wiping. Thus SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential via contaminated plastic packaging and food may be efficiently eliminated by wet-wiping, especially when wipes saturated with specific disinfectants are used.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Fomites/virology , Food Packaging , Food Safety , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plastics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Refrigeration , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants , Ethanol , Food Storage/methods , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Water
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868677

ABSTRACT

Wearing face masks is highly recommended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care workers and for the general public. The demand for high quality face masks has seen an upsurge in the recent times, leading to exploration of alternative economic and easily available options, without compromising on the quality. Particle removal from air in terms of capture efficiency of the filter media or the face mask is a crucial parameter for testing and quality assurance. Short-term reusability of the face masks is also an important aspect as the demand for masks will potentially outstrip the supply in future. Sterilization Wraps, which are used to wrap sterile surgical instruments, have shown a promising performance in terms of removal of particles from air. In this study, we evaluate the particle filtration characteristics of face masks made of 2 different metric weights [45 and 60 gram per square metre (GSM)] respectively, using locally available Sterilization Wraps. The aerosol filtration characteristics were also studied after sterilisation by different techniques such as heat with 50% humidity (thermal treatment), ethylene oxide (ETO), steam and radiation dose of 30kGy. We found that 60 GSM face mask had particle capture efficiency of 94% for total particles greater than 0.3 microns and this capture efficiency was maintained even after sterilisation with ETO and thermal treatment. The cost of producing these masks was 30 US cents/mask at our institute. Our study suggests that sterilization wrap material made of non-woven polypropylene spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fibres could be an appropriate readily available inexpensive material for making face masks or N95 respirators.


Subject(s)
Masks/standards , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Textiles/standards , Aerosols/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Ethylene Oxide/chemistry , Filtration/standards , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Polypropylenes/chemistry
17.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(4): 1935-1954, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866078

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic highlighted that workplaces may serve as a hub of disease transmission if proper precautions are not enacted. The Centers for Disease Control recommends several strategies for decreasing the spread of illnesses in the workplace, including a) promoting proper hand hygiene, b) cleaning and sanitizing the work area, c) encouraging sick employees to stay home, d) personal protective equipment, and, e) social distancing. Research suggests that instructions are often not sufficient to change work behaviors, and behavioral interventions may be needed. Thus, the present paper reviews existing research that informs the implementation of behavioral strategies to reduce the spread of disease in the workplace, and makes recommendations for organizations to protect employees, clients, and customers. Intervention components such as training, prompts, the reduction of response effort, clear workplace policies, feedback, and consequences are discussed, and practical recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sick Leave , Workplace/organization & administration
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042045, 2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs), cloth masks resulted in a higher risk of respiratory infections compared with medical masks. This was the only published RCT of cloth masks at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To do a post hoc analysis of unpublished data on mask washing and mask contamination from the original RCT to further understand poor performance of the two-layered cotton cloth mask used by HCWs in that RCT. SETTING: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of 607 HCWs aged ≥18 years working full time in selected high-risk wards, who used a two-layered cloth mask and were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing medical masks and cloth masks. INTERVENTION: Washing method for cloth masks (self-washing or hospital laundry). A substudy of contamination of a sample of 15 cloth and medical masks was also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURE: Infection rate over 4 weeks of follow up and viral contamination of masks tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Viral contamination with rhinovirus was identified on both used medical and cloth masks. Most HCW (77% of daily washing) self-washed their masks by hand. The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04). There was no significant difference in infection between HCW who wore cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry compared with medical masks (p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-reported method of washing, we showed double the risk of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses if masks were self-washed by hand by HCWs. The majority of HCWs in the study reported hand-washing their mask themselves. This could explain the poor performance of two layered cloth masks, if the self-washing was inadequate. Cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry were as protective as medical masks. Both cloth and medical masks were contaminated, but only cloth masks were reused in the study, reiterating the importance of daily washing of reusable cloth masks using proper method. A well-washed cloth mask can be as protective as a medical mask. TRIAL RESGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000887077.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Male , Masks/classification , Masks/standards , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Vietnam/epidemiology
19.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(20): 3177-3179, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802916

ABSTRACT

Several lines of evidence suggest the role of air-conditioning systems in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the likelihood of novel coronavirus to take refuge inside a microbial Trojan horse, that is, Acanthamoeba, can further enhance possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the environment. Here we propose the use of various disinfection strategies that can be employed using filters with antimicrobial fabricated surfaces or using UV irradiation to achieve germicidal properties for removal of pathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and amoebae in the ventilation systems.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , Air Filters/virology , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Disinfection/methods , Humans
20.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200260, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to develop a protocol of recommendations for facing dissemination of COVID-19 in Brazilian Nursing Homes. METHOD: a study of experts' recommendations using a structured form applied through the Delphi Technique, obtaining 100% agreement among professionals after four rounds of analysis. The population comprised six nurses members of the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem). RESULTS: the protocol was structured in a nucleus of nursing interventions to face the spread of COVID-19 in Nursing Homes, consisting of 8 actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the protocol can help nurse managers to organize assistance to face the pandemic, which can be adaptable to each reality, making training nurses and health teams easier.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Assessment/methods , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delphi Technique , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Family , Female , Geriatric Nursing , Health Education , Humans , Male , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Middle Aged , Mortuary Practice/methods , Nursing Assessment/organization & administration , Nursing Assessment/standards , Occupational Health , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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