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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1252-1256, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478143

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the role of environmental cleaning in controlling infection transmission in hospitals. However, cleaning practice remains inadequate. An important component of effective cleaning is to obtain feedback on actual cleaning practice. This study aimed to evaluate the cleaning process quality from an implementation perspective. METHODOLOGY: An observational study was conducted in a tertiary public hospital in Wuhan, China and 92 cleaning processes of units housing patients with multidrug-resistant organism infections were recorded. The bed unit cleaning quality and floor cleaning quality were measured by six and five process indicators respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the cleaning quality. RESULTS: For bed unit cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of cleaning sequence, adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 35.9%, 71.7%, 89.7%, 11.5%, 65.4%, and 48.7%, respectively. For floor cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 13.4%, 50.0%, 35.5%, 11.0%, and 36.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cleaning staff showed poor environmental cleaning quality, especially the floor cleaning quality. The findings can help reveal deficiencies in cleaning practices, raise awareness of these deficiencies, and inform targeted strategies to improve cleaning quality and hospital safety.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , China , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disinfection/standards , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, Teaching , Infection Control/standards , Tertiary Care Centers
2.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
4.
Natl Med J India ; 33(6): 349-357, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332193

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 infection has placed health systems under unprecedented strain and foresight for preparedness is the key factor to avert disaster. Every facility that provides obstetric service needs a certain level of preparedness to be able to handle at least Covid-suspect pregnant women awaiting test reports, who need to be managed as Covid-positive patients till reports are available. Thus, these facilities need to have triage areas and Covid-suspect labour rooms. Healthcare facilities can have designated areas for Covid-positive patients or have referral linkages with designated Covid-positive hospitals. Preparation includes structural reorganization with setting up a Covid-suspect and Covid-positive facility in adequate space, as well as extensive training of staff about infection control practices and rational use of personal protective equipment (PPE). A systematic approach involving five essential steps of making standard operating procedures, infrastructural reorganization for a triage area and a Covid-suspect labour ward, procurement of PPE, managing the personnel and instituting appropriate infection control practices can ensure uninterrupted services to patients without compromising the safety of healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Triage/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Female , Health Personnel/education , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital/standards , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Occupational Stress/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Postnatal Care/organization & administration , Postnatal Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Triage/standards
5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282631

ABSTRACT

Several of the human-pathogenic arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever and have to be handled under biosafety level 4 conditions, including Lassa virus. Rapid and safe inactivation of specimens containing these viruses is fundamental to enable downstream processing for diagnostics or research under lower biosafety conditions. We established a protocol to test the efficacy of inactivation methods using the low-pathogenic Morogoro arenavirus as surrogate for the related highly pathogenic viruses. As the validation of chemical inactivation methods in cell culture systems is difficult due to cell toxicity of commonly used chemicals, we employed filter devices to remove the chemical and concentrate the virus after inactivation and before inoculation into cell culture. Viral replication in the cells was monitored over 4 weeks by using indirect immunofluorescence and immunofocus assay. The performance of the protocol was verified using published inactivation methods including chemicals and heat. Ten additional methods to inactivate virus in infected cells or cell culture supernatant were validated and shown to reduce virus titers to undetectable levels. In summary, we provide a robust protocol for the validation of chemical and physical inactivation of arenaviruses in cell culture, which can be readily adapted to different inactivation methods and specimen matrices.


Subject(s)
Arenavirus/physiology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells
6.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 551-555, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a zoonotic viral infection that originated in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. It was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization shortly thereafter. This pandemic is going to have a lasting impact on the functioning of pathology laboratories due to the frequent handling of potentially infectious samples by the laboratory personnel. To deal with this unprecedented situation, various national and international guidelines have been put forward outlining the precautions to be taken during sample processing from a potentially infectious patient. PURPOSE: Most of these guidelines are centered around laboratories that are a part of designated COVID 19 hospitals. However, proper protocols need to be in place in all laboratories, irrespective of whether they are a part of COVID 19 hospital or not as this would greatly reduce the risk of exposure of laboratory/hospital personnel. As part of a laboratory associated with a rural cancer hospital which is not a dedicated COVID 19 hospital, we aim to present our institute's experience in handling pathology specimens during the COVID 19 era. CONCLUSION: We hope this will address the concerns of small to medium sized laboratories and help them build an effective strategy required for protecting the laboratory personnel from risk of exposure and also ensure smooth and optimum functioning of the laboratory services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Services/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Cancer Care Facilities/standards , Clinical Laboratory Services/standards , Decontamination/methods , Decontamination/standards , Developing Countries , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Hospitals, Rural/organization & administration , Hospitals, Rural/standards , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/standards , Medical Laboratory Personnel/organization & administration , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Specimen Handling/standards , Tertiary Care Centers/standards , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 27-30, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261926

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, effective disinfection measures are needed, and guidance based on the methodological framework of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) may enable the choice of effective disinfectants on an immediate basis. This study aimed to elucidate whether disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' as specified in the European Standard EN 14476 as well as in the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases/Robert Koch Institute (DVV/RKI) guideline are effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Two commercially available formulations for surface disinfection and one formulation for hand disinfection were studied regarding their virucidal activity. Based on the data of this study the enveloped SARS-CoV-2 is at least equally susceptible compared to the standard test virus vaccinia used in the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines. Thus, chemical disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' based on the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines will be an effective choice to target enveloped SARS-CoV-2 as a preventive measure.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/classification , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
8.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(6): 265-275, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228372

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a high demand for respiratory protection among health care workers in hospitals, especially surgical N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). To aid in alleviating that demand, a survey of commercially available filter media was conducted to determine whether any could serve as a substitute for an N95 FFR while held in a 3D-printed mask (Stopgap Surgical Face Mask from the NIH 3D Print Exchange). Fourteen filter media types and eight combinations were evaluated for filtration efficiency, breathing resistance (pressure drop), and liquid penetration. Additional testing was conducted to evaluate two filter media disinfection methods in the event that the filters were reused in a hospital setting. Efficiency testing was conducted in accordance with the procedures established for approving an N95 FFR. One apparatus used a filter-holding device and another apparatus employed a manikin head to which the 3D-printed mask could be sealed. The filter media and combinations exhibited collection efficiencies varied between 3.9% and 98.8% when tested with a face velocity comparable to that of a standard N95 FFR at the 85 L min-1 used in the approval procedure. Breathing resistance varied between 10.8 to >637 Pa (1.1 to > 65 mm H2O). When applied to the 3D-printed mask efficiency decreased by an average of 13% and breathing resistance increased 4-fold as a result of the smaller surface area of the filter media when held in that mask compared to that of an N95 FFR. Disinfection by dry heat, even after 25 cycles, did not significantly affect filter efficiency and reduced viral infectivity by > 99.9%. However, 10 cycles of 59% vaporized H2O2 significantly (p < 0.001) reduced filter efficiency of the media tested. Several commercially available filter media were found to be potential replacements for the media used to construct the typical cup-like N95 FFR. However, their use in the 3D-printed mask demonstrated reduced efficiency and increased breathing resistance at 85 L min-1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Materials Testing/standards , N95 Respirators/virology , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Equipment Failure Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 37-41, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198173

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the potential of olanexidine gluconate as environmental disinfectant against enveloped viruses in the suspension test and three non-porous surface tests. In the suspension test, olanexidine gluconate showed immediate virucidal activity. In addition, non-porous surface tests demonstrated that, although the immediate effect of aqueous formulations was weak, the final virucidal efficacy outcompeted that of ethanol for disinfection. Furthermore, the effectiveness of olanexidine gluconate persisted even after drying on environmental surfaces. This study demonstrated the potential usage of olanexidine gluconate formulations as an environmental disinfectant in the infection control of enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Biguanides/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glucuronates/pharmacology , Infection Control/methods , Viral Envelope/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , Biguanides/chemistry , Cell Line , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/standards , Environmental Microbiology , Glucuronates/chemistry , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Viruses/classification
10.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110241

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The corona virus pandemic rendered most live education this spring term impossible. Many classes were converted into e-learning formats. But not all learning content and outcomes can readily be transferred into digital space. Project outline: Emergency medicine teaching relies on hands-on simulation training. Therefore, we had to devise a catalogue of measures, that would enable us to offer simulation training for Advanced Life Support. Summary of work: Strict hygienic rules including disinfection of hands, wearing personal protective gear at all times and disinfection of equipment were implemented. Group size and number of staff was reduced, introducing fixed student teams accompanied by the same teacher. Only large rooms with good ventilation were used. Under these conditions, we were allowed to carry out core Advanced Life Support simulations. Other content had to be transferred to online platforms. Discussion: Heeding general hygiene advise and using personal protective gear, a central cluster of simulations was carried out. Students and staff adhered to rules without complaint. No infections within faculty or student body were reported. Conclusion: It seems feasible to conduct core simulations under strict hygienic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Emergency Medicine/education , Physical Distancing , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Naphthoquinones , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pyrans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 17(5): 284-289, 2021 May.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997480

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound is a widely implemented imaging modality in rheumatology practice that implies a great interaction between patient and professional. The COVID-19 pandemic requires a change in our clinical practice, through the adoption of new strategies that allow comprehensive care for our patients, guaranteeing the safety of both patients and healthcare professionals. OBJETIVE: Our objective was to develop practical recommendations, agreed among a panel of experts, on the use and safety of rheumatological ultrasound during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a narrative review of the available literature. Based on the literature review, we produced preliminary recommendations that were subsequently agreed among a panel of experts using the Delphi methodology with a 1-5 Likert scale. Agreement for each recommendation was considered if 75% of the panel members scored the item ≥4 on the Likert scale. RESULTS: 5 overarching principles and 28 recommendations were issued and agreed among the panel. Group consensus was achieved in 100% of items. CONCLUSIONS: The document provides useful information about preventive measures in the practice of ultrasound in rheumatology in times of a COVID-19 pandemic based on the experience and literature available to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Rheumatology/methods , Ultrasonography , COVID-19/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Gels , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Microscopic Angioscopy/instrumentation , Microscopic Angioscopy/methods , Oils , Personal Protective Equipment , Rheumatic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods
14.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(5): 603-608, 2020 Oct 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish reuse process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: The procedure of pretreatment, storage, recovery, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods, which were used in the treatment of COVID-19 infection patients was established in Central Sterile Supply Department of the hospital. The cleaning and disinfection effects of the protective hoods after treatment were examined by magnifying glass method, residual protein detection method, real-time PCR, and agar pour plate method. RESULTS: Twenty five used protective hoods underwent totally 135 times of washing, disinfecting and sterilizing procedures. After washing, all the protein residue tests and COVID-19 nucleic acid tests showed negative results. After sterilizing, all the protective hoods met sterility requirement. All the tested protective hoods were undamaged after reprocessing. CONCLUSIONS: The established reuse procedures for used positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods are safe.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection , Equipment Reuse , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sterilization , Air Filters/standards , Air Filters/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sterilization/standards
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19659, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922273

ABSTRACT

There are increased risks of contracting COVID-19 in hospitals and long-term care facilities, particularly for vulnerable groups. In these environments aerosolised coronavirus released through breathing increases the chance of spreading the disease. To reduce aerosol transmissions, the use of low dose far-UVC lighting to disinfect in-room air has been proposed. Unlike typical UVC, which has been used to kill microorganisms for decades but is carcinogenic and cataractogenic, recent evidence has shown that far-UVC is safe to use around humans. A high-fidelity, fully-coupled radiation transport and fluid dynamics model has been developed to quantify disinfection rates within a typical ventilated room. The model shows that disinfection rates are increased by a further 50-85% when using far-UVC within currently recommended exposure levels compared to the room's  ventilation alone. With these magnitudes of reduction, far-UVC lighting could be employed to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission before the onset of future waves, or the start of winter when risks of infection are higher. This is particularly significant in poorly-ventilated spaces where other means of reduction are not practical, in addition social distancing can be reduced without increasing the risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Air Conditioning , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Models, Statistical , Ventilation
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8896812, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The control of biological hazard risk in health care and dental clinic environments represents a critical point in relation to the Covid-19 infection outbreak and international public health emergency. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the scientific literature on the no-touch disinfection procedures in dental clinics aiming to limit transmission via airborne particles or fomites using no-touch procedures for environmental decontamination of dental clinics. METHODS: An electronic database literature search was performed to retrieve research papers about Covid-19 and no-touch disinfection topics including full-length articles, editorials, commentaries, and outbreak studies. A total of 86 papers were retrieved by the electronic research. RESULTS: No clinical article about the decontamination of a dental clinic during the Covid-19 pandemic was detected. About the topic of hospital decontamination, we found different no-touch disinfection procedures used in hospital against highly resistant organisms, but no data were found in the search for such procedures with respect to SARS-CoV-2: (1) aerosolized hydrogen peroxide, (2) H2O2 vapor, (3) ultraviolet C light, (4) pulsed xenon, and (5) gaseous ozone. One paper was retrieved concerning SARS-CoV-2; 32 documents focused on SARS and MERS. The cleaning and disinfection protocol of health care and dental clinic environment surfaces are essential elements of infection prevention programs, especially during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The decontamination technique that best suits the needs of the dental clinic is peroxide and hypochlorous which can be sprayed via a device at high turbine speed with the ability of producing small aerosol particles, recommendable also for their low cost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Dental Clinics/methods , Disinfection/methods , Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Databases, Factual , Dental Clinics/standards , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , Xenon
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908896

ABSTRACT

Microbiological surveillance carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of endoscope reprocessing does not include the research of viruses, although endoscopes may be associated with the transmission of viral infections. This paper reports the experience of the University Hospital of Pisa in managing the risk from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during an endoscopy. A review of the reprocessing procedure was conducted to assess whether improvement actions were needed. To verify the reprocessing efficacy, a virological analysis was conducted both before and after the procedure. Five bronchoscopes and 11 digestive endoscopes (6 gastroscopes and 5 colonoscopes) were sampled. The liquid samples were subjected to concentration through the use of the Macrosep Advance Centrifugal Devices (PALL Life Sciences, Port Washington, NY, USA) and subsequently analyzed using the cobas® SARS-CoV-2 Test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), together with eSwab 490 CE COPAN swabs (COPAN, Brescia, Italy), which were used to sample surfaces. In accordance with the first ordinance regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency issued by the Tuscany Region in March 2020, a procedure dedicated to the management of the COVID-19 emergency in endoscopic practices was prepared, including the reprocessing of endoscopes. The virological analysis carried out on samples collected from endoscopes after reprocessing gave negative results, as well as on samples collected on the endoscopy column surfaces and the two washer-disinfectors that were dedicated to COVID-19 patients. The improvement in endoscope reprocessing implemented during the COVID-19 emergency was effective in ensuring the absence of SARS-CoV-2, thus reducing the risk of infections after an endoscopy on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868677

ABSTRACT

Wearing face masks is highly recommended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care workers and for the general public. The demand for high quality face masks has seen an upsurge in the recent times, leading to exploration of alternative economic and easily available options, without compromising on the quality. Particle removal from air in terms of capture efficiency of the filter media or the face mask is a crucial parameter for testing and quality assurance. Short-term reusability of the face masks is also an important aspect as the demand for masks will potentially outstrip the supply in future. Sterilization Wraps, which are used to wrap sterile surgical instruments, have shown a promising performance in terms of removal of particles from air. In this study, we evaluate the particle filtration characteristics of face masks made of 2 different metric weights [45 and 60 gram per square metre (GSM)] respectively, using locally available Sterilization Wraps. The aerosol filtration characteristics were also studied after sterilisation by different techniques such as heat with 50% humidity (thermal treatment), ethylene oxide (ETO), steam and radiation dose of 30kGy. We found that 60 GSM face mask had particle capture efficiency of 94% for total particles greater than 0.3 microns and this capture efficiency was maintained even after sterilisation with ETO and thermal treatment. The cost of producing these masks was 30 US cents/mask at our institute. Our study suggests that sterilization wrap material made of non-woven polypropylene spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fibres could be an appropriate readily available inexpensive material for making face masks or N95 respirators.


Subject(s)
Masks/standards , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Textiles/standards , Aerosols/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Ethylene Oxide/chemistry , Filtration/standards , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Polypropylenes/chemistry
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042045, 2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs), cloth masks resulted in a higher risk of respiratory infections compared with medical masks. This was the only published RCT of cloth masks at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To do a post hoc analysis of unpublished data on mask washing and mask contamination from the original RCT to further understand poor performance of the two-layered cotton cloth mask used by HCWs in that RCT. SETTING: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of 607 HCWs aged ≥18 years working full time in selected high-risk wards, who used a two-layered cloth mask and were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing medical masks and cloth masks. INTERVENTION: Washing method for cloth masks (self-washing or hospital laundry). A substudy of contamination of a sample of 15 cloth and medical masks was also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURE: Infection rate over 4 weeks of follow up and viral contamination of masks tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Viral contamination with rhinovirus was identified on both used medical and cloth masks. Most HCW (77% of daily washing) self-washed their masks by hand. The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04). There was no significant difference in infection between HCW who wore cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry compared with medical masks (p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-reported method of washing, we showed double the risk of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses if masks were self-washed by hand by HCWs. The majority of HCWs in the study reported hand-washing their mask themselves. This could explain the poor performance of two layered cloth masks, if the self-washing was inadequate. Cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry were as protective as medical masks. Both cloth and medical masks were contaminated, but only cloth masks were reused in the study, reiterating the importance of daily washing of reusable cloth masks using proper method. A well-washed cloth mask can be as protective as a medical mask. TRIAL RESGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000887077.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Male , Masks/classification , Masks/standards , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
20.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(2): 587-589, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808319

ABSTRACT

Locally made, washable and reusable personal protective equipment (PPE), used in combination with N95 masks that were reused safely, has proven to be a viable alternative to disposable gowns and caps for hospital staff in low- and middle-income countries. Muhimbili University Hospital's children's cancer ward in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, developed locally made PPE and created rigorous cleaning and disinfecting protocols, when the daily use of imported, disposable materials were not an option. These items continue to protect staff, children and parents. The novel PPE approach was able to prevent staff from becoming infected during the pandemic despite the fact that several parents, and subsequently their children, became infected with Covid-19 during cancer treatment at the facility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Personnel, Hospital , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Masks/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Tanzania
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