Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908896

ABSTRACT

Microbiological surveillance carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of endoscope reprocessing does not include the research of viruses, although endoscopes may be associated with the transmission of viral infections. This paper reports the experience of the University Hospital of Pisa in managing the risk from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during an endoscopy. A review of the reprocessing procedure was conducted to assess whether improvement actions were needed. To verify the reprocessing efficacy, a virological analysis was conducted both before and after the procedure. Five bronchoscopes and 11 digestive endoscopes (6 gastroscopes and 5 colonoscopes) were sampled. The liquid samples were subjected to concentration through the use of the Macrosep Advance Centrifugal Devices (PALL Life Sciences, Port Washington, NY, USA) and subsequently analyzed using the cobas® SARS-CoV-2 Test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), together with eSwab 490 CE COPAN swabs (COPAN, Brescia, Italy), which were used to sample surfaces. In accordance with the first ordinance regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency issued by the Tuscany Region in March 2020, a procedure dedicated to the management of the COVID-19 emergency in endoscopic practices was prepared, including the reprocessing of endoscopes. The virological analysis carried out on samples collected from endoscopes after reprocessing gave negative results, as well as on samples collected on the endoscopy column surfaces and the two washer-disinfectors that were dedicated to COVID-19 patients. The improvement in endoscope reprocessing implemented during the COVID-19 emergency was effective in ensuring the absence of SARS-CoV-2, thus reducing the risk of infections after an endoscopy on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Italy
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240398, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868677

ABSTRACT

Wearing face masks is highly recommended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care workers and for the general public. The demand for high quality face masks has seen an upsurge in the recent times, leading to exploration of alternative economic and easily available options, without compromising on the quality. Particle removal from air in terms of capture efficiency of the filter media or the face mask is a crucial parameter for testing and quality assurance. Short-term reusability of the face masks is also an important aspect as the demand for masks will potentially outstrip the supply in future. Sterilization Wraps, which are used to wrap sterile surgical instruments, have shown a promising performance in terms of removal of particles from air. In this study, we evaluate the particle filtration characteristics of face masks made of 2 different metric weights [45 and 60 gram per square metre (GSM)] respectively, using locally available Sterilization Wraps. The aerosol filtration characteristics were also studied after sterilisation by different techniques such as heat with 50% humidity (thermal treatment), ethylene oxide (ETO), steam and radiation dose of 30kGy. We found that 60 GSM face mask had particle capture efficiency of 94% for total particles greater than 0.3 microns and this capture efficiency was maintained even after sterilisation with ETO and thermal treatment. The cost of producing these masks was 30 US cents/mask at our institute. Our study suggests that sterilization wrap material made of non-woven polypropylene spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fibres could be an appropriate readily available inexpensive material for making face masks or N95 respirators.


Subject(s)
Masks/standards , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Textiles/standards , Aerosols/chemistry , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Ethylene Oxide/chemistry , Filtration/standards , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Polypropylenes/chemistry
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042045, 2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs), cloth masks resulted in a higher risk of respiratory infections compared with medical masks. This was the only published RCT of cloth masks at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To do a post hoc analysis of unpublished data on mask washing and mask contamination from the original RCT to further understand poor performance of the two-layered cotton cloth mask used by HCWs in that RCT. SETTING: 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: A subgroup of 607 HCWs aged ≥18 years working full time in selected high-risk wards, who used a two-layered cloth mask and were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial comparing medical masks and cloth masks. INTERVENTION: Washing method for cloth masks (self-washing or hospital laundry). A substudy of contamination of a sample of 15 cloth and medical masks was also conducted. OUTCOME MEASURE: Infection rate over 4 weeks of follow up and viral contamination of masks tested by multiplex PCR. RESULTS: Viral contamination with rhinovirus was identified on both used medical and cloth masks. Most HCW (77% of daily washing) self-washed their masks by hand. The risk of infection was more than double among HCW self-washing their masks compared with the hospital laundry (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 4.00); p=0.04). There was no significant difference in infection between HCW who wore cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry compared with medical masks (p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Using self-reported method of washing, we showed double the risk of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses if masks were self-washed by hand by HCWs. The majority of HCWs in the study reported hand-washing their mask themselves. This could explain the poor performance of two layered cloth masks, if the self-washing was inadequate. Cloth masks washed in the hospital laundry were as protective as medical masks. Both cloth and medical masks were contaminated, but only cloth masks were reused in the study, reiterating the importance of daily washing of reusable cloth masks using proper method. A well-washed cloth mask can be as protective as a medical mask. TRIAL RESGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000887077.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Disinfection/statistics & numerical data , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Male , Masks/classification , Masks/standards , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Vietnam/epidemiology
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200260, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to develop a protocol of recommendations for facing dissemination of COVID-19 in Brazilian Nursing Homes. METHOD: a study of experts' recommendations using a structured form applied through the Delphi Technique, obtaining 100% agreement among professionals after four rounds of analysis. The population comprised six nurses members of the Scientific Department of Gerontological Nursing of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem). RESULTS: the protocol was structured in a nucleus of nursing interventions to face the spread of COVID-19 in Nursing Homes, consisting of 8 actions. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: the protocol can help nurse managers to organize assistance to face the pandemic, which can be adaptable to each reality, making training nurses and health teams easier.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Homes for the Aged , Nursing Assessment/methods , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delphi Technique , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Family , Female , Geriatric Nursing , Health Education , Humans , Male , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Middle Aged , Mortuary Practice/methods , Nursing Assessment/organization & administration , Nursing Assessment/standards , Occupational Health , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
5.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
6.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 18-21, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740461

ABSTRACT

Considering the new coronavirus epidemic (Covid-19), the Brazilian Society of Nephrology, represented by the Peritoneal Steering Committee, in agreement with the and the Dialysis Department, developed a series of recommendations for good clinical practices for peritoneal dialysis (PD) clinics, to be considered during the period of the Covid-19 epidemic. We aim to minimize the disease spread, protecting patients and staff, and ensuring the quality of the treatment provided and adequate follow-up for PD patients. The recommendations suggested at this moment must be adapted to each clinic's reality and the conditions of the structural and human resources, dependent on the adequate financial provision of the public health system for its full implementation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peritoneal Dialysis/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Care Team , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Peritoneal Dialysis/instrumentation , Peritoneal Dialysis/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical , Telemedicine/legislation & jurisprudence , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Urology Department, Hospital/standards
7.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 15-17, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740460

ABSTRACT

Dialysis units are environments potentially prone to the spread of Covid-19. Patients cannot suspend treatment, and they often have comorbidities, which assigns them a higher risk and worse prognosis. The Brazilian Society of Nephrology prepared this document of good practices, whose technical recommendations deal with general measures that can be implemented to reduce the risk of transmission and prevent the spread of the disease in the unit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/standards , Urology Department, Hospital/standards , Brazil , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Masks , Nephrology/standards , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Isolation/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Societies, Medical/standards , Symptom Assessment
10.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(9): 2730-2746, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730928

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted health care systems all over the world. Elective surgical procedures have been postponed and/or cancelled. Consensus is, therefore, required related to the factors that need to be in place before elective surgery, including hip and knee replacement surgery, which is restarted. Entirely new pathways and protocols need to be worked out. METHODS: A panel of experts from the European Hip Society and European Knee Association have agreed to a consensus statement on how to reintroduce elective arthroplasty surgery safely. The recommendations are based on the best available evidence and have been validated in a separate survey. RESULTS: The guidelines are based on five themes: modification and/or reorganisation of hospital wards. Restrictions on orthopaedic wards and in operation suite(s). Additional disinfection of the environment. The role of ultra-clean operation theatres. Personal protective equipment enhancement. CONCLUSION: Apart from the following national and local guidance, protocols need to be put in place in the patient pathway for primary arthroplasty to allow for a safe return.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Anthropology, Medical , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Europe , Hospital Units/organization & administration , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/standards , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedics , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(1): 163-175, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716812

ABSTRACT

Inadequate supply of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for healthcare workers during a pandemic such as the novel coronavirus outbreak (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to synthesize existing data on the effectiveness of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for N95 FFR decontamination. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42020176156) was conducted on UVGI in N95 FFRs using Embase, Medline, Global Health, Google Scholar, WHO feed, and MedRxiv. Two reviewers independently determined eligibility and extracted predefined variables. Original research reporting on function, decontamination, or mask fit following UVGI were included. Thirteen studies were identified, comprising 54 UVGI intervention arms and 58 N95 models. FFRs consistently maintained certification standards following UVGI. Aerosol penetration averaged 1.19% (0.70-2.48%) and 1.14% (0.57-2.63%) for control and UVGI arms, respectively. Airflow resistance for the control arms averaged 9.79 mm H2O (7.97-11.70 mm H2O) vs 9.85 mm H2O (8.33-11.44 mm H2O) for UVGI arms. UVGI protocols employing a cumulative dose >20,000 J/m2 resulted in a 2-log reduction in viral load. A >3-log reduction was observed in seven UVGI arms using >40,000 J/m2. Impact of UVGI on fit was evaluated in two studies (16,200; 32,400 J/m2) and no evidence of compromise was found. Our findings suggest that further work in this area (or translation to a clinical setting) should use a cumulative UV-C dose of 40,000 J/m2 or greater, and confirm appropriate mask fit following decontamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Masks/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Ultraviolet Rays , Betacoronavirus , Efficiency , Humans , Safety/standards
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713169

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, and several other microorganisms, may be present in nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions in patients treated in dental practices, so an appropriate clinical behavior is required in order to avoid the dangerous spread of infections. COVID-19 could also be spread when patients touches a contaminated surface with infected droplets and then touch their nose, mouth, or eyes. It is time to consider a dental practice quite similar to a hospital surgery room, where particular attention should be addressed to problems related to the spreading of infections due to air and surface contamination. The effectiveness of conventional cleaning and disinfection procedures may be limited by several factors; first of all, human operator dependence seems to be the weak aspect of all procedures. The improvement of these conventional methods requires the modification of human behavior, which is difficult to achieve and sustain. As alternative sterilization methods, there are some that do not depend on the operator, because they are based on devices that perform the entire procedure on their own, with minimal human intervention. In conclusion, continued efforts to improve the traditional manual disinfection of surfaces are needed, so dentists should consider combining the use of proper disinfectants and no-touch decontamination technologies to improve sterilization procedures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Offices/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sterilization/methods , Betacoronavirus , Dental Offices/standards , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sterilization/standards
13.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 608-613, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696815

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which first occurred in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. These days, in China, chest CT is used for diagnosis of COVID-19, as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Because of contacting with a large number of suspected or probable cases closely during chest CT examination, radiographers are easily infected with COVID-19. This article included the rearrangement of CT examination room in fever clinic, the rearrangement of human resources in radiology department, and the drafting of new operating procedures for radiologists who carry out CT examination on COVID-19 patients. This article also introduced the emergency management procedures of the department of radiology during the outbreak, and the experience of infection prevention for the staff of the department of radiology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control Practitioners/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Radiologists/organization & administration , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 36(5): 366-369, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682323

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The elevator mechanism of the duodenoscope was the focus of endoscopically transmitted infections prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since that time, the 'suspicious suspects' in the endoscopy unit have grown in number in the eyes of both patients and endoscopists. RECENT FINDINGS: This review summarizes the existing guidelines related to infection control in the endoscopy unit and emerging technologies to address gaps, identifies recommendations proposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, and reminds the reader that infection prevention has not changed since the emergence of COVID-19, only the importance of infection prevention has increased in visibility. SUMMARY: Infection prevention has been and will always be necessary in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. Although outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant organisms and infectious diseases like COVID-19 raise the profile of infection control, there have been no major changes to infection control practice recommendations because of the global pandemic. The history of lapses in infection control, persistent contamination of reprocessed endoscopes, and failure of many endoscopy units to identify certain endoscopic procedures as aerosol-generating procedures prior to the pandemic emphasize the need for better knowledge and implementation of infection control practices within endoscopy units.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Duodenoscopes/virology , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/adverse effects , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfection/standards , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic
15.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 217-223, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-675944

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has become a worldwide healthcare emergency, with continuously growing number of infected subjects. Considering the easy virus spread through respiratory droplets produced with cough, sneezes or spit or through close contact with infected people or surfaces, healthcare workers are further exposed to COVID-19. Particularly, echocardiography remains an essential diagnostic service which, due to the close contact with patients during the exam, provides echocardiographers high-risk of contagion. Therefore, the common modalities of performing echocardiography should be improved in this scenario, avoiding performing unnecessary exams, using the appropriate personal protective equipment depending on patients' status and location, optimizing time-effectiveness of the echocardiographic study and accurately sanitizing the environment and devices after each exam. This paper aims to provide a simple guide for the clinicians to balance between providing the best care to each patient and protecting themselves and other patients from the spread of the virus. It also proposes the use of the mnemonic PREVENT to resume the crucial indications to be followed for the execution of appropriate echocardiographic examination during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Echocardiography , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
16.
Acta Med Port ; 33(9): 593-600, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647035

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Ocular manifestations have been reported including conjunctivitis and retinal changes. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to clarify eye involvement in COVID-19 in order to help with its diagnosis and to further prevent its transmission. The purpose of this review is to describe the structure and transmission of SARS-CoV-2, reported ocular findings and protection strategies for ophthalmologists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search on PubMed for relevant articles using the keywords 'COVID-19', 'coronavirus', and 'SARS-CoV-2' in conjunction with 'ophthalmology' and 'eye'. Moreover, official recommendations of ophthalmological societies were reviewed. RESULTS: Although the conjunctiva is directly exposed to extraocular pathogens, and the mucosa of the ocular surface and upper respiratory tract are connected by the nasolacrimal duct, the eye is rarely involved in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and the SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive rate by RT-PCR test in tears and conjunctival secretions from patients with COVID-19 is also extremely low. DISCUSSION: The eye can be affected by SARS-CoV-2, which is supported by some reports of conjunctivitis and retinal changes, but its role in the spread of the disease is still unknown. CONCLUSION: Given the current scarce evidence, more research is needed to clarify the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the eye.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Conjunctiva/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Ophthalmology/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Safety , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 73: 101999, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597102

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Countries around the world are confronted with a rising count of patients that die from COVID-19. Up to this date, there is no scientific evidence that proves that a COVID-19 corpse is still infectious. Different guidelines are being followed worldwide on how to deal with a COVID-19 positive corpse. The aim of this review is to compare different guidelines and literature on best practice for handling a COVID-19 positive corpse. RESULTS: The guidelines vary greatly in the use of PPE's and other safety measures especially during autopsy. There is great variation in the use of disinfectant and its concentration. Also recommended funeral services and contact with relatives vary greatly. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is very limited scientific evidence on which the researched guidelines are based. It is unclear why some guidelines propose a "business as usual" attitude and others a "code-red" attitude. More scientific evidence is needed to substantiate the handling of COVID-19 positive corpses to make an educated decision on how to safely handle a COVID-19 positive corpse.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , Cadaver , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Autopsy/methods , Autopsy/standards , Autopsy/trends , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Funeral Rites , Humans , Morgue/standards , Mortuary Practice/methods , Mortuary Practice/standards , Mortuary Practice/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
18.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 71(2): 223-229, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593733

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) continues to spread globally. It has become a major cause of concern for health care professionals all over the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among private dental practitioners practicing in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali) in India during these critical times. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 private dentists participated in this cross-sectional survey and finally 215 constituted the final sample size. A self-administered, multiple choice type questionnaire (verified by a specialist) was administered to obtain information from the subjects. The questionnaire was divided into two parts and included 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding COVID-19. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Results: Percentage of subjects who answered correctly regarding main symptoms of COVID-19 and primary mode of transmission was 87% and 82.5% respectively. One-third of the subjects were not aware regarding Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be used while rendering dental treatment. 75% of subjects were of the opinion that supportive care is the current treatment regime for COVID-19. Less than one-third of subjects (30.2%) reported high scores. Education level (p=0.018) and health sector profile (p=0.024) of the subjects were significantly associated with mean knowledge scores. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that some notable deficiencies in knowledge existed among dental professionals regarding some vital aspects of COVID-19. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving dentists'knowledge via health education and training programs. Further studies on the subject are also warranted once the situation normalizes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dentists/psychology , Disinfectants/therapeutic use , Disinfection/standards , Oral Health/standards , Oral Hygiene/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Male , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 105(4): 663-669, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381791

ABSTRACT

Single-use filtering face respirators (FFRs) are critical pieces of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers treating patients with suspected upper respiratory tract pathogens. Experiences during pandemics in the 2000s, as well as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-2-CoV-2, have highlighted concerns over the pressures that sustained respiratory virus pandemics may have on supplies of FFRs globally. Decontamination of FFRs has been posited as one solution to support the re-use of FFRs with a growing body of literature over the last 10+ years beginning to examine both the efficacy of disinfection of contaminated FFRs but also the impact of the decontamination process on the FFR's performance. Physical and chemical methods of decontamination have been tested for treatment of FFRs with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, sterilization by steam, ethylene oxide and vaporous hydrogen peroxide, demonstrating the most promising results thus far. Many of these methods utilize existing equipment that may already be available in hospitals and could be re-purposed for FFR decontamination. Importantly, some methods may also be replicated on household equipment, broadening the utility of FFR decontamination across a range of healthcare settings. Utilizing techniques to experimentally contaminate FFRs with a range of microorganisms, most decontamination methods appear to reduce the risk of the mask as a source of infection to the wearer and others to negligible levels. The performance of the filter, especially the efficiency of particle penetration following treatment, varied greatly depending on the processing method as well as the model of the filter itself, however. Urgent regulatory body-supported research is required to endorse the routine decontamination of FFRs. In emergency settings, these methods should nevertheless be carefully considered as one strategy to address potential shortfalls in supplies of FFRs for healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Disinfection/standards , Equipment Reuse/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Betacoronavirus , Decontamination/methods , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL