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Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 1849-1858, 2022 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234276


This paper presents the evolution of fake news disseminated about vaccines and the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its adverse impacts on the current Brazilian health crisis. This quantitative, empirical study is based on the notifications received by the Eu Fiscalizo app, through which the Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp platforms were identified as the principal means for disseminating and sharing rumors and misinformation about COVID-19. We observed large-scale circulation of fake news about vaccines directly related to the Brazilian political polarization, which became prevalent four months after the first COVID-19 case was recorded in the country. We can conclude that this phenomenon was crucial in discouraging the adherence of segments of the Brazilian population to social distancing and vaccination campaigns.

Este artigo apresenta a evolução das notícias falsas disseminadas a respeito das vacinas e do vírus Sars-CoV-2 e os impactos negativos desse fenômeno sobre a crise sanitária que o Brasil atravessa. Trata-se de um estudo empírico quantitativo, realizado a partir das notificações recebidas pelo aplicativo Eu Fiscalizo, por meio do qual foi identificado o predomínio das plataformas Instagram, Facebook, Twitter e WhatsApp como os principais meios de difusão e compartilhamento de boatos e desinformações acerca da COVID-19. Foi observada a circulação em escala de fake news sobre vacinas, diretamente relacionadas à polarização política brasileira, tornando-se prevalente quatro meses depois de ser registrado o primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil. Conclui-se que o fenômeno colaborou para desestimular a adesão de parcelas da população brasileira às campanhas de isolamento social e de vacinação.

COVID-19 , Social Media , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinformation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Hesitancy
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75(4): e750401, 2022 10 17.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325202
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(3): 739-748, 2023 Mar.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323142


This article aims to synthesize articles addressing fake news and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the context of public health. We conducted an integrative review of articles published in any language between 2019 and 2022 in journals indexed in the following databases: Latin American and the Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase. A critical analysis was performed, guided by the research question and objective of the review. Eleven articles were selected, the overwhelming majority of which were cross-sectional studies. The main factors related to vaccine take-up highlighted by the studies were gender, age, education level, political leanings, religion, trust in health authorities, and perceptions of side-effects and vaccine efficacy. The main obstacles to attaining optimal vaccination coverage were vaccine hesitancy and disinformation. All studies addressed the relationship between low vaccination intention and the use of social media as a source of information about SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary to build public trust in vaccine safety and efficacy. Promoting a better understanding of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination is essential to combat vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccine take-up.

O objetivo deste artigo é sintetizar artigos que abordam fake news e hesitação vacinal contra a COVID-19 no contexto de saúde pública. Revisão integrativa que incluiu estudos originais indexados nas bases de dados Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde; Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online; Scopus; Web of Science e Embase, publicados em qualquer idioma, entre 2019 e 2022. A análise crítica foi realizada na forma descritiva, consoante à pergunta de pesquisa e ao objetivo da revisão. Foram selecionados 11 artigos, com predomínio de estudos transversais. Relacionaram-se ao processo de adesão à vacinação: gênero, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, posicionamento político, religião, confiança em autoridades de saúde, percepção de efeitos colaterais e eficácia das vacinas, entre outros. Hesitação e desinformação são os principais entraves para se alcançar a cobertura vacinal em muitos países. Todos os estudos abordam a relação entre baixa intenção de imunização e uso de mídias sociais como fonte de informação sobre o SARS-CoV-2. É necessário aumentar a confiança na segurança e eficácia das vacinas. A melhor compreensão dos benefícios da vacinação para COVID-19 é imprescindível para combater a hesitação e ampliar a adesão vacinal.

COVID-19 , Disinformation , Humans , Vaccination Hesitancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Public Health
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(3): 961, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325105

Disinformation , Vaccines , Humans
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5780, 2023 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317150


Misinformation can have a profound detrimental impact on populations' wellbeing. In this large UK-based online experiment (n = 2430), we assessed the performance of false tag and inoculation interventions in protecting against different forms of misinformation ('variants'). While previous experiments have used perception- or intention-based outcome measures, we presented participants with real-life misinformation posts in a social media platform simulation and measured their engagement, a more ecologically valid approach. Our pre-registered mixed-effects models indicated that both interventions reduced engagement with misinformation, but inoculation was most effective. However, random differences analysis revealed that the protection conferred by inoculation differed across posts. Moderation analysis indicated that immunity provided by inoculation is robust to variation in individuals' cognitive reflection. This study provides novel evidence on the general effectiveness of inoculation interventions over false tags, social media platforms' current approach. Given inoculation's effect heterogeneity, a concert of interventions will likely be required for future safeguarding efforts.

Communication , Disinformation , Infodemic , Psychological Techniques , Social Media , Humans , Computer Simulation , Intention , Internet , Psychotherapy/methods
CMAJ Open ; 11(3): E389-E396, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315992


BACKGROUND: Black Canadians are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the literature suggests that online disinformation and misinformation contribute to higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine hesitancy in Black communities in Canada. Through stakeholder interviews, we sought to describe the nature of COVID-19 online disinformation among Black Canadians and identify the factors contributing to this phenomenon. METHODS: We conducted purposive sampling followed by snowball sampling and completed in-depth qualitative interviews with Black stakeholders with insights into the nature and impact of COVID-19 online disinformation and misinformation in Black communities. We analyzed data using content analysis, drawing on analytical resources from intersectionality theory. RESULTS: The stakeholders (n = 30, 20 purposively sampled and 10 recruited by way of snowball sampling) reported sharing of COVID-19 online disinformation and misinformation in Black Canadian communities, involving social media interaction among family, friends and community members and information shared by prominent Black figures on social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook. Our data analysis shows that poor communication, cultural and religious factors, distrust of health care systems and distrust of governments contributed to COVID-19 disinformation and misinformation in Black communities. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest racism and underlying systemic discrimination against Black Canadians immensely catalyzed the spread of disinformation and misinformation in Black communities across Canada, which exacerbated the health inequities Black people experienced. As such, using collaborative interventions to understand challenges within the community to relay information about COVID-19 and vaccines could address vaccine hesitancy.

Black People , COVID-19 , Disinformation , Vaccination Hesitancy , Humans , Black People/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Hesitancy/ethnology , Internet , Systemic Racism/ethnology , Health Status Disparities
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 236: 103930, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310583


Improving vaccination eagerness is crucial, especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and establishing new procedures to achieve that goal is highly important. Previous research (Roozenbeek & van der Linden, 2019a, 2019b) has indicated that playing the "Bad News" game, in which a player spreads fake news to gain followers, reduces people's belief in fake news. The goal of the present paper was to test an analogous new game called "COVID-19 Bad News (CBN)" to improve one's eagerness to vaccinate against coronavirus. CBN was constructed to examine whether creating and disseminating fake news focused on vaccinations and the COVID-19 pandemic has a similar effect and improves people's attitudes toward vaccination. Two experiments were conducted where participants played CBN or Tetris and afterwards evaluated the credibility of statements about vaccines against COVID-19 and finally filled out a questionnaire concerning their attitudes toward vaccination. The results show that playing CBN does not reduce evaluations of the credibility of all statements that are unfavorable to vaccines (false as well as true). Additionally, it does not enhance readiness to vaccinate. Future research and limitations are discussed.

COVID-19 , Video Games , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disinformation , Pandemics
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(7)2023 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295261


Social media usage is growing globally, with an exponential increase in low- and middle-income countries. Social media changes the ways in which information-sharing occurs, intensifying the population's exposure to misinformation, including fake news. This has important repercussions for global health. The spread of fake news can undermine the implementation of evidence-based interventions and weaken the credibility of scientific expertise. This is particularly worrisome in countries, such as Brazil, in a sociopolitical context characterized by a lack of popular trust in public institutions. In this project report, we describe our experience with the spread of fake news through the social media platform WhatsApp during the implementation of a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at reducing dengue incidence in children in Fortaleza (Brazil). During initial visits to selected clusters, the research team was met with resistance. Then, soon after data collection started, fake news began circulating about the study. As a result, the research team developed strategies to dispel suspicion and further promote the study. However, the climate of violence and mistrust, coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic, forced the interruption of the study in 2019. The lessons learned from our experience in Fortaleza can be useful to other researchers and practitioners implementing large-scale interventions in this era of health-related misinformation.

COVID-19 , Dengue , Social Media , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Disinformation , Dengue/epidemiology
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275375


Willingness to get a vaccine was important during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies suggest that vaccine hesitation during the pandemic could have been related to truth discernment, belief in information, exposure to misinformation, attitudes to vaccines, and conspiracy beliefs. Previous studies were mostly with younger adults, and studies with older adults are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the trust or belief in fake online news (print news was not included), truth discernment, attitudes, and willingness to be vaccinated during the COVID-19 pandemic while controlling for some significant factors/variables that could affect vaccination in a sample of older adults. There were 504 pre-retirees and retirees participating in this study. Participants from Lithuania age ranged from 50 to 90 years old (M = 64.37, SD = 9.10), 58.3 percent were females. Results from several path models predicting the participants willingness to get a vaccine suggested that stronger conspiracy beliefs and skeptical attitudes toward vaccination would be related to lower willingness to get vaccinated. Participants who disbelieved in the headlines were already vaccinated. Therefore, it seems that discernment (the ability to distinguish which information is true and which is not) is not related to the willingness to vaccinate.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinformation , Vaccination , Trust
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286144


OBJECTIVES: This paper aimed to provide a systematic review of relevant articles from the perspectives of literature distribution, research hotspots, and existing results to obtain the frontier directions in the field of disinformation. METHODS: We analyzed disinformation publications published between 2002 and 2021 using bibliometric methods based on the Web of Science. There were 5666 papers analyzed using Derwent Data Analyzer (DDA). RESULTS: The result shows that the USA was the most influential country in this area, while Ecker and Lewandowsky from the University of Western Australia published the largest volumes of papers. Keywords such as "social media", "COVID-19", and "vaccination" have gained immense popularity recently. CONCLUSIONS: We summarized four themes that are of the biggest concern to scholars: group heterogeneity of misinformation in memory, disinformation mechanism in social media, public health related to COVID-19, and application of big data technology in the infodemic. The future agenda of disinformation is summarized from three aspects: the mechanism of disinformation, social media users, and the application of algorithms. This work can be a meaningful resource for researchers' study in the area of disinformation.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinformation , Algorithms , Australia , Bibliometrics
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 246: 109831, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248939


BACKGROUND: Due to the persistence of COVID-19, it remains important to measure and examine potential barriers to COVID-19 prevention and treatment to avert additional loss of life, particularly among stigmatized populations, such as people who inject drugs (PWID), who are at high risk for contracting and spreading SARS-CoV-2. We assessed the psychometrics of a novel COVID-19 response-related discrimination scale among PWID, and characterized associations between COVID-19 response-related discrimination, resilience to adversity, and endorsement of COVID-19 disinformation. METHODS: We assessed internal reliability, structural validity and construct validity of a 4-item COVID-19 response-related discrimination scale among PWID living in San Diego County, completing interviewer-administered surveys between October 2020 and September 2021. Using negative binomial regression, we assessed the relationship between COVID-19 response-related discrimination and disinformation and the potential moderating role of resilience. RESULTS: Of 381 PWID, mean age was 42.6 years and the majority were male (75.6 %) and Hispanic (61.9 %). The COVID-19 response-related discrimination scale had modest reliability (α = 0.66, ω = 0.66) as a single construct with acceptable construct validity (all p ≤ 0.05). Among 216 PWID who completed supplemental surveys, a significant association between COVID-19 response-related discrimination and COVID-19 disinformation was observed, which was moderated by resilience (p = 0.044). Specifically, among PWID with high levels of resilience, endorsement of COVID-19 disinformation significantly increased as exposure to COVID-19 response-related discrimination increased (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that intervening on COVID-19 response-related discrimination may offset the negative outcomes associated with COVID-19 disinformation.

COVID-19 , Drug Users , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Disinformation , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 152(3): 611-631, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268097


Fake news can foster political polarization, foment division between groups, and encourage malicious behavior. Misinformation has cast doubt on the integrity of democratic elections, downplayed the seriousness of COVID-19, and increased vaccine hesitancy. Given the leading role that online groups play in the dissemination of fake news, in this research we examined how group-level factors contribute to sharing misinformation. By unobtrusively tracking interactions among 51,537 Twitter user dyads longitudinally over two time periods (n = 103,074), we found that group members who did not conform to the behavior of other group members by sharing fake news were subjected to reduced social interaction over time. We augmented this unique, ecologically valid behavioral data with another digital field study (N = 178,411) and five experiments to disentangle some of the causal mechanisms driving the observed effects. We found that social costs were higher for not sharing fake news versus other content, that specific types of deviant group members faced the greatest social costs, and that social costs explained fake news sharing above and beyond partisan identity and subjective accuracy assessments. Overall, our work illuminates the role of conformity pressure as a critical antecedent of the spread of misinformation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Disinformation , Emotions , Social Behavior
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281777, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265025


The spread of false and misleading information on social media is largely dependent on human action. Understanding the factors that lead social media users to amplify (or indeed intervene in) the spread of this content is an ongoing challenge. Prior research suggests that users are not only more likely to interact with misinformation that supports their ideology or their political beliefs, they may also feel it is more acceptable to spread. However, less is known about the influence of newer, issue-specific beliefs. Two online studies explored the relationship between the degree of belief-consistency of disinformation on users' moral judgements and intentions to spread disinformation further. Four disinformation narratives were presented: disinformation that supported or undermined the UK Government's handling of COVID-19, and disinformation that minimised or maximised the perceived risk of COVID-19. A novel scale for measuring intentions to contribute to the spread of social media content was also used in study 2. Participants reported greater likelihood of spreading false material that was consistent with their beliefs. More lenient moral judgements related to the degree of belief-consistency with disinformation, even when participants were aware the material was false or misleading. These moral judgements partially mediated the relationship between belief-consistency of content and intentions to spread it further on social media. While people are concerned about the spread of disinformation generally, they may evaluate belief-consistent disinformation differently from others in a way that permits them to spread it further. As social media platforms prioritise the ordering of feeds based on personal relevance, there is a risk that users could be being presented with disinformation that they are more tolerant of.

COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Disinformation , Morals , Awareness
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 30(4): 752-760, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222666


OBJECTIVE: We provide a scoping review of Digital Health Interventions (DHIs) that mitigate COVID-19 misinformation and disinformation seeding and spread. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied our search protocol to PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science to screen 1666 articles. The 17 articles included in this paper are experimental and interventional studies that developed and tested public consumer-facing DHIs. We examined these DHIs to understand digital features, incorporation of theory, the role of healthcare professionals, end-user experience, and implementation issues. RESULTS: The majority of studies (n = 11) used social media in DHIs, but there was a lack of platform-agnostic generalizability. Only half of the studies (n = 9) specified a theory, framework, or model to guide DHIs. Nine studies involve healthcare professionals as design or implementation contributors. Only one DHI was evaluated for user perceptions and acceptance. DISCUSSION: The translation of advances in online social computing to interventions is sparse. The limited application of behavioral theory and cognitive models of reasoning has resulted in suboptimal targeting of psychosocial variables and individual factors that may drive resistance to misinformation. This affects large-scale implementation and community outreach efforts. DHIs optimized through community-engaged participatory methods that enable understanding of unique needs of vulnerable communities are urgently needed. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend community engagement and theory-guided engineering of equitable DHIs. It is important to consider the problem of misinformation and disinformation through a multilevel lens that illuminates personal, clinical, cultural, and social pathways to mitigate the negative consequences of misinformation and disinformation on human health and wellness.

COVID-19 , Social Media , Telemedicine , Humans , Disinformation , Telemedicine/methods , Communication
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280295, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214796


In recent years there has been an explosion of research on misinformation, often involving experiments where participants are presented with fake news stories and subsequently debriefed. In order to avoid potential harm to participants or society, it is imperative that we establish whether debriefing procedures remove any lasting influence of misinformation. In the current study, we followed up with 1547 participants one week after they had been exposed to fake news stories about COVID-19 and then provided with a detailed debriefing. False memories and beliefs for previously-seen fake stories declined from the original study, suggesting that the debrief was effective. Moreover, the debriefing resulted in reduced false memories and beliefs for novel fake stories, suggesting a broader impact on participants' willingness to accept misinformation. Small effects of misinformation on planned health behaviours observed in the original study were also eliminated at follow-up. Our findings suggest that when a careful and thorough debriefing procedure is followed, researchers can safely and ethically conduct misinformation research on sensitive topics.

COVID-19 , Disinformation , Humans , Communication , Deception , Memory
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 395-409, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205390


O presente trabalho traz o relato de experiência da criação de um perfil no Instagram, realizado pela Câmara de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão (CENPEX) da Faculdade Ciências da Vida (FCV) de Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, como meio de disseminar informações científicas ao público interno e externo à FCV. Diante da impossibilidade de se realizar atividades extensionistas no formato presencial, devido à pandemia da Covid-19, o ensino da FCV foi interrompido de modo presencial em março de 2020 e passou a ser remoto. Desta forma, foi criado, pela CENPEX, um projeto de extensão e pesquisa voltado para divulgação científica nas redes sociais envolvendo temáticas na área de saúde, meio ambiente, sustentabilidade e direitos humanos. O grupo de extensão e pesquisa, composto por professores e pesquisadores da FCV, selecionou alunos de diferentes cursos da faculdade e os direcionou à criação de um perfil no Instagram denominado @cenpexfcv que passou a ter o papel principal de difundir informações científicas confiáveis. O objetivo foi de conscientizar a população em geral no entendimento de diferentes temáticas relacionadas especialmente à Covid- 19, em virtude da pandemia, de modo a combater fake news. O perfil disponibiliza posts, animações, informativos, folders, enquetes e lives com profissionais especialistas, que buscam sanar as dúvidas dos seguidores. Ao longo dos oito meses de projetos, já foram montadas 94 formas interativas de divulgação, que, quantitativamente, tem mostrado o crescimento no engajamento, considerado como um aspecto positivo do projeto. Dessa forma, pode-se inferir que o uso de mídias sociais, como o Instagram, quando utilizada de forma direcionada e com informações fidedignas, podem contribuir efetivamente para o desenvolvimento da divulgação científica.

This work presents an experience report of the creation of a profile on Instagram, carried out by the Chamber of Teaching, Research and Extension (CENPEX) of the Faculdade Ciências da Vida (FCV) at Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, as a means of disseminating scientific information to the internal and external public to FCV. Faced with the impossibility of carrying out extension activities in in-campus format, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the face-to-face teaching of FCV was interrupted in March 2020 and became remote. In this way, CENPEX created an extension and research project aimed at scientific dissemination on social networks involving themes in the area of health, environment, sustainability and human rights. The extension and research group, made up of FCV professors and researchers, selected students from different courses at the faculty and directed them to create an Instagram profile called @cenpexfcv, which took on the main role of disseminating reliable scientific information. The objective was to raise the awareness of the general population in understanding different issues related especially to Covid-19, due to the pandemic, in order to combat fake news. The profile provides posts, animations, newsletters, folders, polls and lives with specialist professionals, who seek to resolve the doubts of the followers. Over the eight months of the project, 94 interactive forms of dissemination have already been set up, which, quantitatively, have shown the growth in engagement, considered as a positive aspect of the project. Thus, it can be inferred that the use of social media, such as Instagram, when used in a targeted way and with reliable information, can effectively contribute to the development of scientific dissemination.

Este trabajo trae el informe de la experiencia de la creación de un perfil en Instagram, realizado por la Cámara de Enseñanza, Investigación y Extensión (CENPEX) de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida (FCV) de Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, como medio de difusión de información científica al público interno y externo a la FCV. Ante la imposibilidad de realizar actividades de extensión en formato presencial, debido a la pandemia del Covid-19, la enseñanza en la FCV se interrumpió en modalidad presencial en marzo de 2020 y pasó a ser a distancia. Así, se creó, por parte del CENPEX, un proyecto de extensión e investigación enfocado a la divulgación científica en redes sociales que involucra temas en el área de salud, medio ambiente, sostenibilidad y derechos humanos. El grupo de extensión e investigación, compuesto por profesores e investigadores de la FCV, seleccionó a estudiantes de diferentes cursos de la facultad y los orientó a la creación de un perfil en Instagram llamado @cenpexfcv que comenzó a tener como función principal la difusión de información científica confiable. El objetivo era sensibilizar a la población en general en la comprensión de diferentes temas relacionados especialmente con Covid-19, debido a la pandemia, para combatir las fake news. El perfil ofrece posts, animaciones, boletines, carpetas, encuestas y vidas con expertos profesionales, que buscan responder a las preguntas de los seguidores. A lo largo de los ocho meses de proyecto, ya se han reunido 94 formas interactivas de difusión, lo que, cuantitativamente, ha demostrado el crecimiento del compromiso, considerado como un aspecto positivo del proyecto. Por lo tanto, se puede deducir que el uso de las redes sociales, como Instagram, cuando se utiliza de forma selectiva y con información fiable, puede contribuir eficazmente al desarrollo de la divulgación científica.

Information Dissemination , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Disinformation , Universities , Education, Distance , Projects , Scientific and Technical Activities , Social Networking , Social Media
Saúde Soc ; 31(4): e210601pt, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197561


Resumo Paralelamente à pandemia de covid-19, a Organização Mundial da Saúde alerta para uma infodemia de fake news relacionadas à doença. Objetiva-se, neste trabalho, conhecer a dimensão do fenômeno e alguns caminhos já identificados pela ciência para enfrentá-lo. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases Scopus/Elsevier e Medline/PubMed, que incluiu 23 artigos. Por meio de análise da literatura, identificou-se que fake news oferecem falso suporte social e mobilizam sentimentos capazes de torná-las mais aceitáveis do que notícias verdadeiras. Dessa forma, as redes sociais e a internet despontam como plataformas disseminadoras de informações falsas. As pesquisas sugerem que instituições governamentais e midiáticas podem utilizar os canais de comunicação como aliados, com tecnologias de monitoramento e infovigilância para alertar, esclarecer e remover conteúdo enganoso. Também deve haver investimentos em ações de alfabetização científica e digital, de forma que as pessoas tenham condições de avaliar a qualidade das informações recebidas. Propõe-se a adoção de estratégias criativas, que despertem a capacidade de raciocínio, aliadas a informações científicas traduzidas em linguagem acessível, de preferência com aprovação de autoridades sanitárias e institucionais.

Abstract Parallel to the covid-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization warns of an infodemic of fake news related to the disease. This integrative review investigates the dimension of this phenomenon and how science found ways to confront it. A bibliographic search was conducted on the Scopus/Elsevier and Medline/PubMed databases, retrieving 23 articles. Literature analysis found that fake news provide false social support and mobilize feelings which make them more acceptable than the truth. Hence, social media and the internet emerge as platforms to spread false information. Research suggests that government and media institutions can use communication channels and monitoring and infoveillance technologies as allies to alert, elucidate, and remove misleading content. We find the need of investments in scientific and digital literacy actions so people may assess the quality of the information they receive. Finally, this study proposes the adoption of creative strategies to foster reasoning skills together with scientific information translated into an accessible language, preferably approved by health and institutional authorities.

Humans , Male , Female , Science , Social Media , COVID-19 , Disinformation
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(5): 1028-1039, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2164864


By December 2019, multiple cases of unexplained pneumonia were reported in some hospitals in the city of Wuhan, China. Since then, it had been confirmed that it corresponded to an acute respiratory infection caused by a new coronavirus that spread quickly, becoming pandemic in a very short time. On the other hand, this pandemic forced confinement for months, something unprecedented. In that time, millions of people went online for entertainment, education, etc. Consequently, the use of the Internet increased, bringing, on the one hand, online education, and entertainment on the Internet, ensuring social distancing; and on the other hand, it brought new new risks to human life, among them rumors. In this way and given the large number of publications that could denote the level of misinformation about COVID-19 and the impact it could have on global public health, various scientific publications were analyzed and identified from a bibliometric point of view. Potential relationships between the descriptors obtained from the bibliometric search were identified. The results were conglomerated into 5 clusters: Cluster 1, related to studies on access to information provided on COVID-19; cluster 2 shows the list of studies that have been carried out on the information on the COVID-19 vaccine, cluster 3 analyzes the different responses given by conspiracy theories, rumors and misinformation about COVID-19, the Group 4 shows cross-sectional and longitudinal research on COVID-19 and the information it provides to the health sector, and cluster 5 represents studies on scientific production and communication that have contributed to global health during the pandemic(AU)

Para diciembre de 2019, se registraron múltiples casos de una neumonía inexplicables en algunos hospitales de la ciudad de Wuhan, China. Desde ese momento se había confirmado correspondía a una infección respiratoria aguda causada por un nuevo coronavirus que se propagó rápidamente haciéndose pandémico en muy poco tiempo. Por otra parte, esta pademia obligó a un confinamiento por meses, algo sin precedente. En ese tiempo, millones de personas se conectaron en línea para entretenimiento, educación, etc. En consecuencia, el uso de Internet aumentó trayendo, por una parte, educación online y entretenimiento en Internet asegurando el distanciamiento social; y por otra parte, trajo nuevos nuevos riesgos a la vida humana, entre ellos los rumores. En ese sentido, y ante la gran cantidad de publicaciones que podrían denotar el nivel de desinformación sobre el COVID-19 y el impacto que podría tener en la salud pública mundial, se analizaron e identificaron diversas publicaciones científicas desde el punto de vista bibliométrico. Se identificaron las relaciones potenciales entre los descriptores arrojados de la búsqueda bibliométrica. Los resultados se conglomeraron en 5 clúster: El clúster 1, relacionado con los estudios sobre el acceso a la información proporcionada sobre COVID-19; el clúster 2, muestra la relación de los estudios que se han realizado sobre la información de la vacuna COVID-19, el clúster 3, analiza las distintas respuestas que dan las teorías conspirativas, los rumores y la desinformación sobre el COVID-19, el grupo 4 muestra investigaciones transversales y longitudinales sobre el COVID-19 y la información que brinda al sector salud, y el clúster 5 representa los estudios sobre producción y comunicación científicas que han contribuido a la salud mundial durante la pandemia(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Access to Information , Social Networking , Infodemic , Databases, Bibliographic , Internet Access , Disinformation
Health Promot Int ; 37(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116663


Vaccination hesitancy has become a central concern and is a barrier to overcoming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis. Studies have indicated that mis/disinformation plays a role on the attitudes and behaviours towards vaccination. However, further formal statistical models are required to investigate how fake news relates to vaccination intent and how they mediate the relationship between socioeconomic/political factors and vaccination intent. We studied a sample of 500 Brazilians and found that people were mostly not susceptible to vaccine mis/disinformation. In addition, we found that their vaccination intent was high. However, suspicions that fake news could be true raised doubts over the vaccination intention. Although age and political orientation directly influenced vaccination intent, we found that the relationship between socioeconomic/political factors and vaccination intent was strongly mediated by belief in fake news. Our results raise the need to create multiple strategies to combat the dissemination and acceptance of such content.

COVID-19 , Humans , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Disinformation , Vaccination