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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(3): 702-704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964252

ABSTRACT

Introduction: While disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a serious complication of COVID-19, a close differential in critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia is Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Case Report: We describe the case of a middle-aged lady admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed progressive thrombocytopenia, altered sensorium and renal failure. The absence of coagulation abnormalities alerted to the possibility of TTP, strengthened by presence of schistocytes in peripheral smear. Conclusions: This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion and to pay attention to normal tests as well that might give clues to the diagnosis. New onset thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 need not always indicate DIC. A careful examination of peripheral smear may help diagnosing TTP especially if coagulation profile is normal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/complications , Dacarbazine , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis
2.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(3): 214-217, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903881

ABSTRACT

New thrombocytopenia may be associated with a variety of conditions and diagnosis can be challenging. Presentation can vary from life-threatening bleeding or thrombosis to an incidental finding in an asymptomatic patient. New thrombocytopenia requires urgent investigation. Investigations are mainly guided by findings from the clinical history, physical examination, full blood count and blood film analysis. Aside from the actively bleeding patient, rare but life-threatening causes of thrombocytopenia must be identified early as they require urgent treatment. These include thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, disseminated intravascular coagulation, suspicion of new acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia. Here, we discuss how to approach a patient with new thrombocytopenia, along with key differentials not to be missed.


Subject(s)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Blood Cell Count , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Hemorrhage , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861603

ABSTRACT

Invasive pneumococcal disease occurs in high-risk patient population which includes patients with asplenia and primary hypocomplementaemia. Pneumococcal sepsis can rarely cause disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and intravascular thrombosis of small and medium sized vessels called purpura fulminans which is associated with a high mortality rate. We present the case of an immunocompetent woman in her 50s with an intact spleen who presented with septic shock from Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia. Her hospital course rapidly progressed to multiorgan dysfunction, DIC and purpura fulminans. She was treated aggressively with broad spectrum antibiotics, coagulation factor replacement, multiple vasopressor support, renal replacement therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Despite aggressive measures, she succumbed to the multiorgan failure.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Immune System Diseases , Pneumococcal Infections , Purpura Fulminans , Adult , Bacteremia/complications , Dacarbazine , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Female , Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/complications , Pneumococcal Infections/therapy , Purpura Fulminans/complications , Streptococcus pneumoniae
4.
Echocardiography ; 39(4): 584-591, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute right ventricular (RV) failure is common in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Compared to the conventional echocardiographic parameters, right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) is more sensitive and accurate for the diagnosis of RV systolic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the sustained RV dysfunction echo-quantified by RVLS in patients recovered from severe COVID-19. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has a key role to predict the impaired RV strain. METHODS: Of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized from March 1, 2020, to April 15, 2020, 45 selected patients who survived from severe COVID-19 were enrolled in the study and referred to our echo-lab for transthoracic echocardiography 6-months after discharge. RVLS was calculated as the mean of the strain values of RV free wall. DIC was defined with a validated scoring system: DIC score equal to or more than 5 is compatible with overt-DIC. Categories of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were defined based on PaO2 /FiO2 ratio. RESULTS: A total 26 of 45 patients showed impaired RVLS at 6-months' follow-up. DIC score was significantly higher in patients with worse RVLS than in those with better RVLS (4.8 ± .5 vs. 3.6 ± .6, p =.03). Stages of ARDS did not modulate this relationship. Finally, overt-DIC results the only independent predictor of sustained RV dysfunction (OR 1.233, 95% CI 1.041-1.934, p =.043). CONCLUSIONS: Sustained RV impairment frequently occurs in patients recovered from severe COVID-19. DIC plays a key role, resulting in an independent predictor of sustained RV dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Heart Failure , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/complications , Dacarbazine , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Right
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 25, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a high prevalence rate, has rapidly infected millions of people around the world. Since viral infections can disrupt the coagulation and homeostasis cascades, various inflammatory and coagulation problems occur due to COVID-19 infection, similar to coronavirus epidemics in 2003 and 2004. According to multiple previous studies, in the present research, we reviewed the most commonly reported problems of COVID-19 patients, such as venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation, etc. and investigated the causes in these patients. Coagulation and inflammatory markers, such as platelets and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, d-dimer, prothrombin time, etc., were also discussed, and the treatment options were briefly reviewed. In addition to coagulation treatments, regular examination of coagulation parameters and thrombotic complications can be helpful in the timely treatment of patients. Therefore, it is helpful to review the coagulation problems in COVID-19 patients. Although all mentioned problems and markers are important in COVID-19, some of them are more valuable in terms of diagnosis and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667042

ABSTRACT

The complement system (CS) is part of the human immune system, consisting of more than 30 proteins that play a vital role in the protection against various pathogens and diseases, including viral diseases. Activated via three pathways, the classical pathway (CP), the lectin pathway (LP), and the alternative pathway (AP), the complement system leads to the formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC) that disrupts the membrane of target cells, leading to cell lysis and death. Due to the increasing number of reports on its role in viral diseases, which may have implications for research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this review aims to highlight significant progress in understanding and defining the role of the complement system in four groups of diseases of viral etiology: (1) respiratory diseases; (2) acute liver failure (ALF); (3) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); and (4) vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Some of these diseases already present a serious global health problem, while others are a matter of concern and require the collaboration of relevant national services and scientists with the World Health Organization (WHO) to avoid their spread.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Virus Diseases/etiology , Animals , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/immunology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Vector Borne Diseases/immunology , Vector Borne Diseases/virology
10.
Eur J Haematol ; 108(4): 319-326, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583574

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection frequently have coagulopathy resembling disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An elevation of D-dimer level is associated with a poor prognosis; however, the role of other fibrin degradation products, such as soluble fibrin monomers (SFMC), is not known. The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency and prognostic role of elevated SFMC in patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective cohort study, patients hospitalized between April 1, 2020 and December 14, 2020 at Mayo Clinic with COVID-19 infection who underwent DIC panel testing were identified. Results of laboratory tests and outcomes (thrombosis and death) within 40 days of testing were obtained via medical record review. Of 108 patients, D-dimer was elevated in 82 (75.9%) patients. Of those with elevated D-dimer, SFMC was elevated in 19/82 (23%) patients. There were 16 thrombotic events and 16 deaths during the 40-day follow-up. The incidence of overt-DIC was 4.6%. In univariate analysis, D-dimer ≥5 x highest upper limit normal (ULN) and elevated SFMC were each associated with higher 40-day mortality. However, when used in combination with D-dimer ≥5 x highest ULN, an elevated SFMC provided no further mortality predictive value. Compared to 75.9% of patients with elevated D-dimers, of those tested, only 23% had elevated SFMC. These results support the hypothesis that elevated D-dimer in COVID-19 infection is a direct consequence of endothelial damage and not overt-DIC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052019, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate background rates of selected thromboembolic and coagulation disorders in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases. Records of hospitalisations and emergency department visits were searched to identify cases using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Canada diagnostic codes. PARTICIPANTS: All Ontario residents. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and cerebral venous thrombosis during five prepandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million with 51% female. The mean annual rates per 100 000 population during 2015-2019 were 127.1 (95% CI 126.2 to 127.9) for ischaemic stroke, 22.0 (95% CI 21.6 to 22.3) for intracerebral haemorrhage, 9.4 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.7) for subarachnoid haemorrhage, 86.8 (95% CI 86.1 to 87.5) for deep vein thrombosis, 63.7 (95% CI 63.1 to 64.3) for pulmonary embolism, 6.1 (95% CI 5.9 to 6.3) for idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, 1.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) for disseminated intravascular coagulation, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for cerebral venous thrombosis. Rates were lower in 2020 than during the prepandemic years for ischaemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and idiopathic thrombocytopaenia. Rates were generally consistent over time, except for pulmonary embolism, which increased from 57.1 to 68.5 per 100 000 between 2015 and 2019. Rates were higher for females than males for subarachnoid haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and cerebral venous thrombosis, and vice versa for ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. Rates increased with age for most of these conditions, but idiopathic thrombocytopaenia demonstrated a bimodal distribution with incidence peaks at 0-19 years and ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates help contextualise observed events of these potential adverse events of special interest and to detect potential safety signals related to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Platelets ; 33(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541393

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is an evident complication of COVID-19 with predominance of a prothrombotic state. Platelet activation plays a key role. The terms "hyper-reactivity" and "hyperactivity" used in recent literature may not be clear or sufficient to explain the pathological events involved in COVID-related thrombosis (CRT). Inflammation may play a bigger role compared to thrombosis in COVID-related mortality because a smaller percentage of patients with COVID-19 die due to direct effects of thrombosis. Not all COVID-19 patients have thrombocytopenia and a few show thrombocytosis. We believe the platelet pathology is more complex than just activation or hyper-activation, particularly due to the platelets' role in inflammation. Understanding the pathology and consequences of platelets' role may help optimize management strategies and diminish CRT-associated morbidity and mortality. In this viewpoint report, we examine the published evidence of platelet hyper-reactivity in COVID-19 with a focused analysis of the key pathologies, diverse alterations, disease outcomes, and therapeutic targets. We believe that COVID-19 is a disease of inflammation and pathologic platelets, and based on the complexity and diverse pathologies, we propose the term "thrombocytopathy" as a more reflective term of the platelets' involvement in COVID-19. In our opinion, thrombocytopathy is the unpredictable pathologic alterations of platelets in function, morphology and number, caused by different factors with a variety of presentations.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has turned the world topsy-turvy since its onset in 2019. The thromboinflammatory complications of this disease are common in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is characterized by symmetrical distal gangrene in absence of any large vessel occlusion or vasculitis and it is usually associated with critical illness. Our aim was to report the clinical profile and outcome of patients diagnosed with SPG associated with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, no such similar cases have been reported till date. METHODS: In this case series, we have discussed the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and outcome in a series of two patients of SPG associated with COVID-19 and also compared those findings. Due to paucity of data, we also reviewed the literature on this under-diagnosed and rarely reported condition and association. RESULTS: Two consecutive patients (both males, age range: 37-42 years, mean: 39.5 years) were admitted with the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated SPG. Both patients had clinical and laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Leucopenia was noted in both patients. Despite vigorous therapy, both patients succumbed to their illness within a fortnight of admission. CONCLUSION: SPG in the background of COVID-19 portends a fatal outcome. Physicians should be aware of its grim prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Gangrene/diagnosis , Humans , India , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480798

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Ethanolamines/therapeutic use , Palmitic Acids/therapeutic use , Sepsis/complications , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Ethanolamines/chemistry , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Mast Cells/cytology , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Palmitic Acids/chemistry , Palmitic Acids/pharmacology , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/pathology , Serine Proteases/metabolism
15.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(7): 458-467, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470186

ABSTRACT

Early descriptions of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy identified it as a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, recent studies have highlighted the potential role of endothelial cell injury in its pathogenesis, and other possible underlying mechanisms are being explored. This study aimed to analyse the coagulation parameters of critically and noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, determine if coagulation factors consumption occurs and explore other potential mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy. Critically and noncritically ill patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia were recruited. For each patient, we performed basic coagulation tests, quantification of coagulation factors and physiological inhibitor proteins, an evaluation of the fibrinolytic system and determination of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and ADAMTS13. Laboratory data were compared with clinical data and outcomes. The study involved 62 patients (31 ICU, 31 non-ICU). The coagulation parameters assessment demonstrated normal median prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in our cohort and all coagulation factors were within normal range. PAI-1 median levels were elevated (median 52.6 ng/ml; IQR 37.2-85.7), as well as vWF activity (median 216%; IQR 196-439) and antigen (median 174%; IQR 153.5-174.1). A mild reduction of ADAMTS13 was observed in critically ill patients and nonsurvivors. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between ADAMTS13 levels and inflammatory markers, D-dimer and SOFA score in our cohort. Elevated vWF and PAI-1 levels, and a mild reduction of ADAMTS13 in the most severe patients, suggest that COVID-19 coagulopathy is an endotheliopathy that has shared features with thrombotic microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
18.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
20.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021101, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395632

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection has several cardiovascular implications, and coagulopathy is a common abnormality in these patients, often coupled with elevated plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer levels, contributing to adverse outcomes. Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare manifestation of deep vein thrombosis. It is life-threatening and can rapidly lead to venous gangrene of the extremity. Only a few cases of COVID-19 associated with PCD are reported in the literature, despite thromboembolism being the common paradigm between the two diseases. We present the case of a 64-year-old adult with acute severe COVID-19 pneumonia who developed PCD despite constantly elevated activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalized ratio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Thrombophlebitis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Gangrene , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophlebitis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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