Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
Eur J Haematol ; 108(4): 319-326, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583574

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection frequently have coagulopathy resembling disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). An elevation of D-dimer level is associated with a poor prognosis; however, the role of other fibrin degradation products, such as soluble fibrin monomers (SFMC), is not known. The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency and prognostic role of elevated SFMC in patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective cohort study, patients hospitalized between April 1, 2020 and December 14, 2020 at Mayo Clinic with COVID-19 infection who underwent DIC panel testing were identified. Results of laboratory tests and outcomes (thrombosis and death) within 40 days of testing were obtained via medical record review. Of 108 patients, D-dimer was elevated in 82 (75.9%) patients. Of those with elevated D-dimer, SFMC was elevated in 19/82 (23%) patients. There were 16 thrombotic events and 16 deaths during the 40-day follow-up. The incidence of overt-DIC was 4.6%. In univariate analysis, D-dimer ≥5 x highest upper limit normal (ULN) and elevated SFMC were each associated with higher 40-day mortality. However, when used in combination with D-dimer ≥5 x highest ULN, an elevated SFMC provided no further mortality predictive value. Compared to 75.9% of patients with elevated D-dimers, of those tested, only 23% had elevated SFMC. These results support the hypothesis that elevated D-dimer in COVID-19 infection is a direct consequence of endothelial damage and not overt-DIC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(7): 458-467, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470186

ABSTRACT

Early descriptions of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy identified it as a disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, recent studies have highlighted the potential role of endothelial cell injury in its pathogenesis, and other possible underlying mechanisms are being explored. This study aimed to analyse the coagulation parameters of critically and noncritically ill patients with COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia, determine if coagulation factors consumption occurs and explore other potential mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy. Critically and noncritically ill patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia were recruited. For each patient, we performed basic coagulation tests, quantification of coagulation factors and physiological inhibitor proteins, an evaluation of the fibrinolytic system and determination of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and ADAMTS13. Laboratory data were compared with clinical data and outcomes. The study involved 62 patients (31 ICU, 31 non-ICU). The coagulation parameters assessment demonstrated normal median prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in our cohort and all coagulation factors were within normal range. PAI-1 median levels were elevated (median 52.6 ng/ml; IQR 37.2-85.7), as well as vWF activity (median 216%; IQR 196-439) and antigen (median 174%; IQR 153.5-174.1). A mild reduction of ADAMTS13 was observed in critically ill patients and nonsurvivors. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between ADAMTS13 levels and inflammatory markers, D-dimer and SOFA score in our cohort. Elevated vWF and PAI-1 levels, and a mild reduction of ADAMTS13 in the most severe patients, suggest that COVID-19 coagulopathy is an endotheliopathy that has shared features with thrombotic microangiopathy.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/deficiency , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
4.
Hematology ; 26(1): 656-662, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation dysfunction is an evident factor in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), appearing even in COVID-19 patients with normal inflammation indices. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics of coagulation function indices in COVID-19 patients to investigate possible mechanisms through the comparison of non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included 143 patients whose clinical characteristics, coagulation function, and other indices such as inflammatory factors were collected and compared based on disease severity. RESULTS: Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, and fibrinogen levels were evidently higher in the severe group than in the non-severe group. Among non-severe COVID-19 patients, the aforementioned indicators depicted increasing trends, but the fibrinogen level alone was higher than normal. However, in severe COVID-19 patients, values of all three indices were higher than normal. In severe COVID-19 patients, fibrinogen and D-dimer were correlated with several inflammation indices during the early stage of the disease. However, no correlation between fibrinogen and inflammatory factors was observed in non-severe COVID-19 patients at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results revealed that the hypercoagulability tendency of severe COVID-19 patients was more evident. The relationship between coagulation function and inflammatory factors showed that changes in coagulation function in severe COVID-19 patients may be related to abnormal increase in inflammatory factors at an early stage; however, in non-severe COVID-19 patients, there might be other factors leading to abnormal coagulation. CONCLUSION: Inflammatory factors were not the only cause of abnormal coagulation function in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology
5.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(6): 103237, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366698

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 attaches to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor on human cells. The virus causes hypercytokinemia, capillary leak, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute cardiac injury, and leads to death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ACE-2 negative cells; therefore, can escape from SARS-CoV-2. MSCs prevent hypercytokinemia and help the resolution of the pulmonary edema and other damages occurred during the course of COVID-19. In addition, MSCs enhance the regeneration of the lung and other tissues affected by SARS-CoV-2. The case series reported beneficial effect of MSCs in COVID-19 treatment. However, there are some concerns about the safety of MSCs, particularly referring to the increased risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation, and thromboembolism due to the expression of TF/CD142. Prospective, randomized, large scale studies are needed to reveal the optimum dose, administration way, time, efficacy, and safety of MSCs in the COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboplastin/biosynthesis
6.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 36-42, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319316

ABSTRACT

The alterations in the hemostatic balance in COVID-19 patients are strongly disturbed and contribute to a high prothrombotic status. The high rate of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients goes along with derangements in coagulation laboratory parameters. Hemostasis testing has an important role in diagnosed COVID-19 patients. Elevated D-dimer levels were found to be a crucial laboratory marker in the risk assessment of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. The diagnostic approach also includes prothrombin time and platelet count. Fibrinogen might give an indication for worsening coagulopathy. Other markers (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinolysis parameters, coagulation factors, natural anticoagulants, antiphospholipid antibodies and parameters obtained by thromboelastography or thrombin generation assays) have been described as being deranged. These may help to understand the pathophysiology of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients but have currently no place in diagnosis or management in COVID-19 patients. For monitoring the heparin anticoagulant therapy, the anti-Xa assay is suggested, because the severe acute-phase reaction (high fibrinogen and high factor VIII) shortens the aPTT.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Factor Xa/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Thrombelastography , Thrombin/biosynthesis , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/drug therapy
7.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 53(2): 108-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in its most severe form leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation under the conditions of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The state of hypercoagulation described in COVID-19 may deepen respiratory failure, leading to increased mortality. The aim of the presented study is to characterise the haemostatic profile based on the results of clotting system parameters and risk assessment of thromboembolic complications of patients hospitalised in the ICU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study covered the first 10 adult patients hospitalised in the ICU of the Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw in the second quarter of 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters of the coagulation system and the risk of thromboembolic complications were assessed. Well known criteria of haemostatic disorders were used to classify the observed derangements. RESULTS: The most frequently observed deviations in the coagulation system were high concentrations of D-dimer and fibrinogen. In select cases the clotting time was prolonged. No severe thrombocytopenia was observed. All patients presented a high risk of thromboembolic complications as assesed by the Padua score. The observed clotting abnormalities did not meet the criteria for DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) and SIC (sepsis-induced coagulopathy) diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The main elements of coagulopathy that were observed in our cases differ from those usually seen in patients with recognised sepsis. The unique haemostatic profile of COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU has been described as CAC (COVID-19-associated coagulopathy).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adult , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/etiology
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105938, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281473

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a novel human pathogen causing fulminant respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). Although COVID-19 is primarily a disease of the lungs with florid respiratory manifestations, there are increasing reports of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and thromboembolic complications. Developing an effective and reliable vaccine was emergently pursued to control the catastrophic spread of the global pandemic. We report a fatal case of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We attribute this fatal thrombotic condition to the vaccine due to the remarkable temporal relationship. The proposed mechanism of VITT is production of rogue antibodies against platelet factor-4 resulting in massive platelet aggregation. Healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of such fatal complication, and the vaccine recipients should be warned about the symptoms of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Virol J ; 18(1): 117, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically described. We determined the levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19 and their relationships with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 94 COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS were analyzed. The levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]) were measured on days 1, 3, and 5 following admission. Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. Correlations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines with clinical and laboratory variables were analyzed, furthermore, we also explored the relationships of different cytokines with ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD. RESULTS: The ARDS group had higher serum levels of all 4 inflammatory cytokines than the controls, and these levels steadily increased after admission. The ARDS group also had higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than the non-ARDS group, and the levels of these cytokines correlated significantly with coagulation parameters and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α correlated with the levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen, and were also higher in ARDS patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). All 4 inflammatory cytokines had negative correlations with PaO2/FiO2. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α had positive correlations with the APACHE-II score. Relative to survivors, non-survivors had higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 at admission, and increasing levels over time. CONCLUSIONS: The cytokine storm apparently contributed to the development of ARDS and extrapulmonary MOD in COVID-19 patients. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 correlated with DIC, and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with AKI. Relative to survivors, patients who died within 28 days had increased levels of IL-6 and IL-10.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokines/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Urea Nitrogen , COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10464, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232075

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease that appeared in China in December 2019 and spread rapidly around the world. Several patients with severe COVID-19 infection can develop a coagulopathy according to the ISTH criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) with fulminant activation of coagulation, resulting in widespread microvascular thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. We conducted a meta-analysis in order to explore differences in coagulopathy indices in patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19. An electronic search was performed within PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus electronic databases between December 2019 (first confirmed Covid-19 case) up to April 6th, 2020. The primary endpoint was the difference of D-dimer values between Non-Severe vs Severe disease and Survivors vs Non-Survivors. Furthermore, results on additional coagulation parameters (platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time) were also analyzed. The primary analysis showed that mean d-dimer was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients with non-severe disease than in those with severe (SMD - 2.15 [- 2.73 to - 1.56], I2 98%, P < 0.0001). Similarly, we found a lower mean d-dimer in Survivors compared to Non-Survivors (SMD - 2.91 [- 3.87 to - 1.96], I2 98%, P < 0.0001). Additional analysis of platelet count showed higher levels of mean PLT in Non-Severe patients than those observed in the Severe group (SMD 0.77 [0.32 to 1.22], I2 96%, P < 0.001). Of note, a similar result was observed even when Survivors were compared to Non-Survivors (SMD 1.84 [1.16 to 2.53], I2 97%, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, shorter mean PT was found in both Non-Severe (SMD - 1.34 [- 2.06 to - 0.62], I2 98%, P < 0.0002) and Survivors groups (SMD - 1.61 [- 2.69 to - 0.54], I2 98%, P < 0.003) compared to Severe and Non-Survivor patients. In conclusion, the results of the present meta-analysis demonstrate that Severe COVID-19 infection is associated with higher D-dimer values, lower platelet count and prolonged PT. This data suggests a possible role of disseminated intravascular coagulation in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 338-344, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) initiates several life-threatening complications including coagulopathies with a unique characteristic that made this problem challenging. Here we presented 4 cases of RT-PCR positive patients that have experienced deadly intraperitoneal hemorrhage with fourth WHO Bleeding Grade after overcoming their respiratory phase. COVID-19 could induce several coagulopathies with different features that besides iatrogenic interventions increases its mortality and morbidity due to lack of clinical evidence based on well-designed randomized clinical trials on anticoagulation therapies (AT) and administration of varieties of newly approved and non-approved medicines. This report showed the urgent need for investigation on the pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy esp. in hemorrhagic events which are needed to make the best therapeutic decision.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Hemorrhage/blood , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneum
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7792, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174699

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of thrombosis by different mechanisms not fully characterized. Although still debated, an increase in D-dimer has been proposed as a first-line hemostasis test associated with thromboembolic risk and unfavorable prognosis. We aim to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the association between thrombin generation parameters and the inflammatory and hypercoagulable state, as well as their prognostic value in COVID-19 patients. A total of 127 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, 24 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2-negative pneumonia and 12 healthy subjects were included. Clinical characteristics, thrombin generation triggered by tissue factor with and without soluble thrombomodulin, and also by silica, as well as other biochemical parameters were assessed. Despite the frequent use of heparin, COVID-19 patients had similar thrombin generation to healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, the thrombin generation lag-time positively correlated with markers of cell lysis (LDH), inflammation (CRP, IL-6) and coagulation (D-dimer), while the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) inversely correlated with D-dimer and LDH, and positively correlated with fibrinogen levels. Patients with more prolonged lag-time and decreased ETP had higher peak ISTH-DIC scores, and had more severe disease (vascular events and death). The ROC curve and Kaplan Meier estimate indicated that the D-dimer/ETP ratio was associated with in-hospital mortality (HR 2.5; p = 0.006), and with the occurrence of major adverse events (composite end-point of vascular events and death) (HR 2.38; p = 0.004). The thrombin generation ETP and lag-time variables correlate with thromboinflammatory markers, and the D-dimer/ETP ratio can predict major adverse events in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombin/analysis , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/diagnosis
13.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2103-2109, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096903

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become an urgent issue in every country. Based on recent reports, the most severely ill patients present with coagulopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like massive intravascular clot formation is frequently seen in this cohort. Therefore, coagulation tests may be considered useful to discriminate severe cases of COVID-19. The clinical presentation of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is organ dysfunction primarily, whereas hemorrhagic events are less frequent. Changes in hemostatic biomarkers represented by increase in D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products indicate the essence of coagulopathy is massive fibrin formation. In comparison with bacterial-sepsis-associated coagulopathy/DIC, prolongation of prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time, and decrease in antithrombin activity is less frequent and thrombocytopenia is relatively uncommon in COVID-19. The mechanisms of the coagulopathy are not fully elucidated, however. It is speculated that the dysregulated immune responses orchestrated by inflammatory cytokines, lymphocyte cell death, hypoxia, and endothelial damage are involved. Bleeding tendency is uncommon, but the incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 and the adequacy of current recommendations regarding standard venous thromboembolic dosing are uncertain.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Anticoagulants , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/chemistry , Fibrinolysis , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Protease Inhibitors , Prothrombin Time , Sepsis , Thrombosis/metabolism
14.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(1): 42-55, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065468

ABSTRACT

During the new pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, there is short knowledge regarding the management of different disease areas, such as coagulopathy and interpretation of D-dimer levels, its association with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and controversy about the benefit of anticoagulation. Thus, a systematic review has been performed to define the role of D-dimer in the disease, the prevalence of DIC and the usefulness of anticoagulant treatment in these patients. A literature search was performed to analyze the studies of COVID-19 patients. Four recommendations were drawn based on expert opinion and scientific knowledge, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The present review suggests the presence of higher levels of D-dimer in those with worse prognosis, there may be an overdiagnosis of DIC in the course of the disease and there is no evidence on the benefit of starting anticoagulant treatment based only on isolated laboratory data.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , COVID-19/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Humans , Medical Overuse , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis
15.
Int J Hematol ; 113(3): 320-329, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is noted in severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, a number of studies evaluating the diagnosis and treatment of DIC in COVID-19 patients have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify existing gaps where further research is needed on the diagnosis and treatment of DIC complicated by COVID-19. METHODS: We used the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, WHO-ICTRP, ClinicalTrial.gov and PROSPERO were searched from their inception to 6 October 2020. RESULTS: Seven studies were selected; five were already published and two are ongoing. DIC was diagnosed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) DIC score (n = 4) and the sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) DIC score (n = 5). Seven studies examined the effectiveness of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH); of these, four studies used a prophylactic dose and five used a therapeutic dose of LMWH. A prophylactic dose of unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated in two studies. CONCLUSION: Studies on DIC diagnostic criteria and anticoagulants were limited to the ISTH or SIC scores and heparinoids, particularly LMWH. Further studies are needed to compare these with other available DIC scoring systems and anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Tests , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Humans , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Clin Lab ; 67(1)2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus spread worldwide and infected more that 10 million people, causing more than 500,000 deaths worldwide. The infection has systemic effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; thus, patients can present a variety of symptoms from asymptomatic to rapid deaths. In this paper, we present the first case of post-mortem SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing in Western part of Romania in a deceased with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and elevated D-dimer levels. METHODS: During the autopsy which took place at the Institute of Forensic Medicine from Timisoara, Romania, blood sample was collected in a vacutainer with EDTA and sent to the Laboratory of Forensic Genetics from Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. Viral RNA extraction was performed automated on the Maxwell 48 RSC Extraction System (Promega, USA) using the Maxwell RSC Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification kit (Promega, USA). After RNA extraction, the samples were amplified on a 7500 real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the genesig® Real-Time PCR Assay (Primer Design, UK). RESULTS: The molecular testing showed a cycle threshold value of 23.4 (1.2 x 106 copies/mL), indicating increased viral loads, which correlated with the laboratory analysis results, especially with D-dimer levels. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of coagulopathy of SARS-CoV-2, patients in hospitals should be monitored closely for thrombosis development. Thus D-dimer can be used as prognostic marker in monitoring the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Autopsy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Romania , Up-Regulation
17.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(2): 155-173, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has similarities to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, as severe patients and non-survivors have frequently shown abnormal coagulation profiles. Immune-mediated pathology is a key player in this disease; hence, the role of the complement system needs assessment. The complement system and the coagulation cascade share an intricate network, where multiple mediators maintain a balance between both pathways. Coagulopathy in COVID-19, showing mixed features of complement-mediated and consumption coagulopathy, creates a dilemma in diagnosis and management. AREAS COVERED: Pathophysiology of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients, with a particular focus on D-dimer and its role in predicting the severity of COVID-19 has been discussed. A comprehensive search of the medical literature on PubMed was done till May 30th, 2020 with the keywords 'COVID-19', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'Coronavirus', 'Coagulopathy', and 'D-dimer'. Twenty-two studies were taken for weighted pooled analysis of D-dimer. EXPERT OPINION: A tailored anticoagulant regimen, including intensification of standard prophylactic regimens with low-molecular-weight heparin is advisable for COVID-19 patients. Atypical manifestations and varying D-dimer levels seen in different populations bring forth the futility of uniform recommendations for anticoagulant therapy. Further, direct thrombin inhibitors and platelet inhibitors in a patient-specific manner should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Forecasting , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemia/blood , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mice , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029620987629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030282

ABSTRACT

Coagulation activation has been reported in several cohorts of patients Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the true burden of systemic coagulopathy in COVID-19 remains unknown. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database to identify studies that reported the prevalence of systemic coagulopathy using established criteria in patients with COVID-19. The primary outcome was the prevalence of systemic coagulopathy (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC] and/or sepsis-induced coagulopathy [SIC]). Pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] were calculated using random-effects model. A total of 5 studies including 1210 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. The pooled prevalence of systemic coagulopathy was 7.1% (95%CI: 3.2%,15.3%, I2 = 93%). The pooled prevalence of DIC (N = 721) and SIC (N = 639) were 4.3% (95%CI 1.7%, 10.4%, I2 = 84%) and 16.2% (95%CI: 9.3%, 26.8%, I2 = 74%), respectively. Only 2 studies reported the prevalence of elevated D-dimer levels with the pooled prevalence of 84.6% (95%CI: 52.0%,96.5%, I2 = 94%). Average D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were remarkably increased, while platelet counts, PT, and aPTT ratios were minimally affected in COVID-19. The estimated prevalence of systemic coagulopathy in patients with COVID-19 was low despite D-dimer elevation in most patients. Relatively low systemic coagulopathy in COVID-19 may contribute to the high incidence of thrombosis rather than bleeding in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sepsis , Thrombosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Platelet Count , Prevalence , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL