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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
2.
Arch Med Res ; 52(8): 788-797, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329672

ABSTRACT

The diagnostic criteria of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were established by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) in 2001. Since then, DIC has long been associated with adverse outcomes. However, recent advances in sepsis shed light on the role of coagulation disorders in the progression of sepsis. Currently, inflammation and coagulation are recognized as the two drivers that promote organ dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock. The ISTH has published new diagnostic criteria for improved management, namely sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC), in 2017. SIC is a pragmatic scoring system composed of platelet count, prothrombin time, and organ dysfunction score to detect the early-stage of sepsis-associated DIC. Since overt DIC represents an uncompensated coagulation disorder, a two-step approach using SIC and overt DIC criteria is a novel strategy to evaluate the severity and manage this challenging complication. Although there is no globally agreed on anticoagulant therapy for DIC, the Japanese Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2020 recommend using antithrombin and recombinant thrombomodulin for sepsis associated DIC. Since research in this area has been previously reported, an international collaborative study is necessary to develop future diagnostic tools and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Humans , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/diagnosis
3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 338-344, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204923

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) initiates several life-threatening complications including coagulopathies with a unique characteristic that made this problem challenging. Here we presented 4 cases of RT-PCR positive patients that have experienced deadly intraperitoneal hemorrhage with fourth WHO Bleeding Grade after overcoming their respiratory phase. COVID-19 could induce several coagulopathies with different features that besides iatrogenic interventions increases its mortality and morbidity due to lack of clinical evidence based on well-designed randomized clinical trials on anticoagulation therapies (AT) and administration of varieties of newly approved and non-approved medicines. This report showed the urgent need for investigation on the pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy esp. in hemorrhagic events which are needed to make the best therapeutic decision.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Hemorrhage/blood , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneum
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105805, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) complications such as thromboembolism, cardiac complications etc. as possible trigger for stroke. Hence, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 related cardiovascular complications and secondary infection and their possibility as potential triggers for the stroke. METHODS: Data from observational studies describing the complications [acute cardiac injury (ACI), cardiac arrhythmias (CA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), septic shock, secondary infection] and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalized patients from December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, were extracted following PRISMA guidelines. Adverse outcomes defined as intensive care units, oxygen saturation less than 90%, invasive mechanical ventilation, severe disease, and in-hospital mortality. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were obtained, and forest plots were created using random-effects models. A short review of these complications as triggers of stroke was conducted. RESULTS: 16 studies with 3480 confirmed COVID-19 patients, prevalence of ACI [38%vs5.9%], CA [26%vs5.3%], DIC [4%vs0.74%], septic shock [18%vs0.36%], and infection [30%vs12.5%] was higher among patients with poor outcomes. In meta-analysis, ACI [aOR:9.93(95%CI:3.95-25.00], CA [7.52(3.29-17.18)], DIC [7.36(1.24-43.73)], septic shock [30.12(7.56-120.10)], and infection [10.41(4.47-24.27)] had higher odds of adverse outcomes. Patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, had complications like pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, DIC, etc. and had poor outcomes CONCLUSION: The complications like acute cardiac injury, cardiac arrhythmias, DIC, septic shock, and secondary infection had poor outcomes. Patients with stroke were having history of these complications. Long term monitoring is required in such patients to prevent stroke and mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
5.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(2): 63-68, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093003

ABSTRACT

Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and patients taking anticoagulant drugs) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment. Sepsis is another topic should not be ignored when we talking about trauma. COVID-19 itself is a special kind of sepsis, and it may even be called as serious systemic infection syndrome. Sepsis has been become a serious problem waiting to be solved urgently no matter in the fields of trauma, or in intensive care and infection, etc. This article reviewed the research progress in areas including trauma emergency care, trauma bleeding and coagulation, geriatric trauma and basic research of trauma within 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Pandemics , Public Health , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Community Networks , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Health Services for the Aged , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Hemostasis , Humans , Male , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/therapy , Time Factors , Wounds and Injuries/complications
6.
Haemophilia ; 27(1): 41-48, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus-induced infection (COVID-19) can be associated with a coagulopathy mainly responsible for pulmonary microvasculature thrombosis and systemic thromboembolic manifestations. The pathophysiology and management of the COVID-19 coagulopathy are likely more complex in patients with inherited bleeding diseases such as haemophilia. These individuals might indeed present with both bleeding and thrombotic complications and require simultaneous antithrombotic and haemostatic treatments. OBJECTIVE: We propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 coagulopathy in persons with haemophilia. RESULTS: Continuation of regular haemostatic treatment is recommended for ambulatory patients. For patients requiring hospital admission and on replacement therapy with factors VIII or IX concentrates, prophylaxis with concentrates should be intensified according to the risk of bleeding complications and associated with prophylactic doses of LMWH. For patients on nonreplacement therapy, emicizumab should be continued and possibly combined with factor VIII and prophylactic doses of LMWH depending on the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. Dose escalation of LMWH tailored to the risk of thrombosis can be employed but not supported by evidence. CONCLUSIONS: These practical recommendations are based on the current literature on COVID-19 with its impact on haemostasis, indications and modalities for thromboprophylaxis mainly in nonhaemophilic patients and how that is likely to affect persons with haemophilia in different circumstances. They will need to be tailored to each patient's clinical status and validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemophilia A/complications , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Factor IX/therapeutic use , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans
7.
Int J Hematol ; 113(3): 320-329, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is noted in severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recently, a number of studies evaluating the diagnosis and treatment of DIC in COVID-19 patients have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify existing gaps where further research is needed on the diagnosis and treatment of DIC complicated by COVID-19. METHODS: We used the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews. MEDLINE, CENTRAL, WHO-ICTRP, ClinicalTrial.gov and PROSPERO were searched from their inception to 6 October 2020. RESULTS: Seven studies were selected; five were already published and two are ongoing. DIC was diagnosed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) DIC score (n = 4) and the sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) DIC score (n = 5). Seven studies examined the effectiveness of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH); of these, four studies used a prophylactic dose and five used a therapeutic dose of LMWH. A prophylactic dose of unfractionated heparin (UFH) was investigated in two studies. CONCLUSION: Studies on DIC diagnostic criteria and anticoagulants were limited to the ISTH or SIC scores and heparinoids, particularly LMWH. Further studies are needed to compare these with other available DIC scoring systems and anticoagulants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Tests , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Humans , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Haemophilia ; 27(1): 41-48, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936739

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus-induced infection (COVID-19) can be associated with a coagulopathy mainly responsible for pulmonary microvasculature thrombosis and systemic thromboembolic manifestations. The pathophysiology and management of the COVID-19 coagulopathy are likely more complex in patients with inherited bleeding diseases such as haemophilia. These individuals might indeed present with both bleeding and thrombotic complications and require simultaneous antithrombotic and haemostatic treatments. OBJECTIVE: We propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 coagulopathy in persons with haemophilia. RESULTS: Continuation of regular haemostatic treatment is recommended for ambulatory patients. For patients requiring hospital admission and on replacement therapy with factors VIII or IX concentrates, prophylaxis with concentrates should be intensified according to the risk of bleeding complications and associated with prophylactic doses of LMWH. For patients on nonreplacement therapy, emicizumab should be continued and possibly combined with factor VIII and prophylactic doses of LMWH depending on the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. Dose escalation of LMWH tailored to the risk of thrombosis can be employed but not supported by evidence. CONCLUSIONS: These practical recommendations are based on the current literature on COVID-19 with its impact on haemostasis, indications and modalities for thromboprophylaxis mainly in nonhaemophilic patients and how that is likely to affect persons with haemophilia in different circumstances. They will need to be tailored to each patient's clinical status and validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemophilia A/complications , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Factor IX/therapeutic use , Factor VIII/therapeutic use , Hemophilia A/diagnosis , Hemophilia A/therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans
9.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 28(4): 396-401, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895581

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 often experience complications including coagulopathy and fatal thrombosis. COVID-19 pneumonia sometimes leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), during which thrombosis and bleeding are major causes of death. Anticoagulation such as heparin is essential for COVID-19 patients on ECMO; however, bleeding might be caused by not only heparin, but also acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). To date, no study has examined ECMO-related bleeding and AVWS in COVID-19 patients.We report a COVID-19 patient who experienced bleeding from AVWS in addition to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during ECMO. The level of high-molecular weight VWF multimers decreased during ECMO therapy, and these findings promptly improved after discontinuation of ECMO. Plasma levels of VWF antigen were extremely high, probably due to endothelial cell damage caused by COVID-19. On the other hand, plasma levels of ADAMTS13 activity were moderately reduced, to 20-30% of normal. The patient was successfully treated with cryoprecipitate in bleeding during ECMO without a reduction in heparin, which might have induced thromboembolism. Bleeding found in this patient might be caused by AVWS and DIC.Severe COVID-19 patients are in a thrombotic state and need to receive anticoagulant therapy. However, once they receive ECMO therapy, bleeding symptoms could be observed. In such cases, physicians should think of AVWS in addition to the side effect of heparin and DIC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , von Willebrand Diseases/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thromboembolism/complications , von Willebrand Diseases/therapy , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
10.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 27(4): 203-206, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813881

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, has spread throughout the world. Coagulation dysfunction is one of the major causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Several recent observations in Algeria and elsewhere maintain that a pulmonary embolism is frequent in patients with COVID-19 with a high incidence in intensive care. In addition, other studies have shown that many deceased patients have diagnostic criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) set by the International society of hemostasis and thrombosis (ISTH). The office of the Algerian society of transfusion and hemobiology composed of hemostasis and blood transfusion experts from Algerian hospitals on the epidemic front line have established a consensus on the issue through 4 axes: Indication of thromboprophylaxis, monitoring of hemostasis, indications of transfusion in the event of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and anticoagulant treatment after discharge.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/prevention & control
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(11): 3086-3098, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, has thus far affected more than 15 million individuals, resulting in more than 600 000 deaths worldwide, and the number continues to rise. In a large systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature including 2567 pregnant women, 7% required intensive care admission, with a maternal mortality ~1% and perinatal mortality below 1%. There has been a rapid increase in publications on COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, including disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and venous thromboembolism, in the non-pregnant population, but very few reports of COVID-19 coagulopathy during pregnancy; leaving us with no guidance for care of this specific population. METHODS: This is a collaborative effort conducted by a group of experts that was reviewed, critiqued, and approved by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis Subcommittee for Women's Health Issues in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. A structured literature search was conducted, and the quality of current and emerging evidence was evaluated. Based on the published studies in the non-pregnant and pregnant population with a moderate to high risk of bias as assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa scale and acknowledging the absence of data from randomized clinical trials for management of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, a consensus in support of a guidance document for COVID-19 coagulopathy in pregnancy was identified. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Specific hemostatic issues during pregnancy were highlighted, and preliminary recommendations to assist in the care of COVID-19-affected pregnant women with coagulopathy or thrombotic complications were developed. An international registry to gather data to support the management of COVID-19 and associated coagulopathy in pregnancy was established.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Women's Health , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Consensus , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Prognosis , Registries , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Young Adult
13.
Acta Haematol ; 144(1): 10-23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690361

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting millions of patients worldwide. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to the family Coronaviridae, with 80% genomic similarities to SARS-CoV. Lymphopenia was commonly seen in infected patients and has a correlation to disease severity. Thrombocytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and disseminated intravascular coagulation were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially those with critical illness and non-survivors. This pandemic has caused disruption in communities and hospital services, as well as straining blood product supply, affecting chemotherapy treatment and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation schedule. In this article, we review the haematological manifestations of the disease and its implication on the management of patients with haematological disorders.


Subject(s)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Lymphopenia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/mortality , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/virology
14.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(6): e14053, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671608

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is linked with severe COVID-19, prompting considerable concern. DIC can be a devastating systemic disorder. It is often markedly manifest on the skin as acrocyanosis or as petechiae and purpura with progression to hemorrhagic bullae. Subcutaneous hematomas may occur, as may thrombotic findings including necrosis and gangrene. The most common cause is infection, with special emphasis now on COVID-19. We have reviewed the medical literature under the search terms "Disseminated intravascular coagulation" and "consumption coagulopathy" for the past two decades in the English language using Medline and Google Scholar to update special concerns and considerations, focusing on those with COVID-19. Skin findings with DIC may be prominent. The severity of cutaneous lesions often correlates with the gravity of systemic disease. DIC is most effectively treated by addressing the underlying cause and resuscitating the patient using supportive measures. It is pivotal to recognize and treat DIC early, before deadly complications, such as multiple organ failure, arise.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1648-1652, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644872

ABSTRACT

We present a putative link between maternal COVID-19 infection in the peripartum period and rapid maternal deterioration with early organ dysfunction and coagulopathy. The current pandemic with SARS-CoV-2 has already resulted in high numbers of critically ill patients and deaths in the non-pregnant population, mainly due to respiratory failure. During viral outbreaks, pregnancy poses a uniquely increased risk to women due to changes to immune function, alongside physiological adaptive alterations, such as increased oxygen consumption and edema of the respiratory tract. The laboratory derangements may be reminiscent of HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count) syndrome, and thus knowledge of the COVID-19 relationship is paramount for appropriate diagnosis and management. In addition to routine measurements of D-dimers, prothrombin time, and platelet count in all patients presenting with COVID-19 as per International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) guidance, monitoring of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen levels should be considered in pregnancy, as highlighted in this report. These investigations in SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women are vital, as their derangement may signal a more severe COVID-19 infection, and may warrant pre-emptive admission and consideration of delivery to achieve maternal stabilization.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Trimester, Third/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Thromb Res ; 195: 62-68, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of suspected critical patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is very important for the treatment of patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) to preview and triage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was designed from government designated COVID-19 treatment center. CAC was defined as International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) score ≥2. Data from 117 patients COVID-19 were reviewed on admission. The primary and secondary outcomes were admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, vital organ dysfunction, discharges of days 14, 21 and 28 from admission and hospital mortality. Among them, admission to ICU was increased progressively from 16.1% in patients with non-CAC to 42.6% in patients with CAC (P < 0.01). Likely, invasive ventilation and noninvasive ventilation were increased from 1.8%, 21.4% in patients with non-CAC to 21.3%, 52.5% in patients with CAC, respectively (P < 0.01). The incidences of acute hepatic injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in non-CAC and CAC were 28.6% vs. 62.3%, 8.9% vs. 27.9%, respectively (P < 0.01). The discharges of days 14, 21 and 28 from admission were more in non-CAC than those of CAC (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression results showed that ISTH score ≥2 was obviously associated with the admission to ICU (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.47-11.25 P = 0.007) and the use of mechanical ventilation (OR 5.54, 95% CI 2.01-15.28 P = 0.001) in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: All results show ISTH score ≥2 is an important indicator to preview and triage for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1919-1923, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The acute respiratory illness designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and caused a worldwide pandemic. Concerns arose about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on blood donations and potential significant blood transfusion needs in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Data on blood usage in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are scarce. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of blood component transfusions in the first 4 weeks of COVID-19 ward admissions. The study period began 14 days before the first COVID-19 cohort wards opened in our hospital in March 2020 and ended 28 days afterward. The number of patients and blood components transfused in the COVID-19 wards was tabulated. Transfusion rates of each blood component were compared in COVID-19 wards versus all other inpatient wards. RESULTS: COVID-19 wards opened with seven suspected patients and after 4 weeks had 305 cumulative COVID-19 admissions. Forty-one of 305 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (13.4%) received transfusions with 11.1% receiving red blood cells (RBCs), 1.6% platelets (PLTs), 1.0% plasma, and 1.0% cryoprecipitate (cryo). COVID-19 wards had significantly lower transfusion rates compared to non-COVID wards for RBCs (0.03 vs 0.08 units/patient-day), PLTs (0.003 vs 0.033), and plasma (0.002 vs 0.018; all p < 0.0001). Cryo rates were similar (0.008 vs 0.009, p = 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients required many fewer blood transfusions than other hospitalized patients. COVID-19 transfusion data will inform planning and preparation of blood resource utilization during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Appointments and Schedules , Blood Component Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Chicago , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Elective Surgical Procedures , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Departments , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Retrospective Studies
18.
Radiology ; 297(1): E216-E222, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108913

ABSTRACT

A potential link between mortality, d-dimer values, and a prothrombotic syndrome has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. The National Institute for Public Health of the Netherlands asked a group of radiology and vascular medicine experts to provide guidance for the imaging work-up and treatment of these important complications. This report summarizes evidence for thromboembolic disease, potential diagnostic and preventive actions, and recommendations for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thromboembolism/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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