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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667042

ABSTRACT

The complement system (CS) is part of the human immune system, consisting of more than 30 proteins that play a vital role in the protection against various pathogens and diseases, including viral diseases. Activated via three pathways, the classical pathway (CP), the lectin pathway (LP), and the alternative pathway (AP), the complement system leads to the formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC) that disrupts the membrane of target cells, leading to cell lysis and death. Due to the increasing number of reports on its role in viral diseases, which may have implications for research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this review aims to highlight significant progress in understanding and defining the role of the complement system in four groups of diseases of viral etiology: (1) respiratory diseases; (2) acute liver failure (ALF); (3) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); and (4) vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Some of these diseases already present a serious global health problem, while others are a matter of concern and require the collaboration of relevant national services and scientists with the World Health Organization (WHO) to avoid their spread.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Virus Diseases/etiology , Animals , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/immunology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Vector Borne Diseases/immunology , Vector Borne Diseases/virology
3.
Platelets ; 33(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541393

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is an evident complication of COVID-19 with predominance of a prothrombotic state. Platelet activation plays a key role. The terms "hyper-reactivity" and "hyperactivity" used in recent literature may not be clear or sufficient to explain the pathological events involved in COVID-related thrombosis (CRT). Inflammation may play a bigger role compared to thrombosis in COVID-related mortality because a smaller percentage of patients with COVID-19 die due to direct effects of thrombosis. Not all COVID-19 patients have thrombocytopenia and a few show thrombocytosis. We believe the platelet pathology is more complex than just activation or hyper-activation, particularly due to the platelets' role in inflammation. Understanding the pathology and consequences of platelets' role may help optimize management strategies and diminish CRT-associated morbidity and mortality. In this viewpoint report, we examine the published evidence of platelet hyper-reactivity in COVID-19 with a focused analysis of the key pathologies, diverse alterations, disease outcomes, and therapeutic targets. We believe that COVID-19 is a disease of inflammation and pathologic platelets, and based on the complexity and diverse pathologies, we propose the term "thrombocytopathy" as a more reflective term of the platelets' involvement in COVID-19. In our opinion, thrombocytopathy is the unpredictable pathologic alterations of platelets in function, morphology and number, caused by different factors with a variety of presentations.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(1): 102356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has turned the world topsy-turvy since its onset in 2019. The thromboinflammatory complications of this disease are common in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is characterized by symmetrical distal gangrene in absence of any large vessel occlusion or vasculitis and it is usually associated with critical illness. Our aim was to report the clinical profile and outcome of patients diagnosed with SPG associated with COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, no such similar cases have been reported till date. METHODS: In this case series, we have discussed the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and outcome in a series of two patients of SPG associated with COVID-19 and also compared those findings. Due to paucity of data, we also reviewed the literature on this under-diagnosed and rarely reported condition and association. RESULTS: Two consecutive patients (both males, age range: 37-42 years, mean: 39.5 years) were admitted with the diagnosis of COVID-19 associated SPG. Both patients had clinical and laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Leucopenia was noted in both patients. Despite vigorous therapy, both patients succumbed to their illness within a fortnight of admission. CONCLUSION: SPG in the background of COVID-19 portends a fatal outcome. Physicians should be aware of its grim prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Gangrene/diagnosis , Humans , India , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Male , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
5.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302391

ABSTRACT

There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons. Currently, the clinical efficacy of these drugs for COVID-19 has not been proven yet. Side effects of antimalarial drugs can worsen the condition of patients and increase the likelihood of death. Peptides, given their physiological mechanism of action, have virtually no side effects. Many of them are geroprotectors and can be used in patients with chronic diseases. Peptides may be able to prevent the development of the pathological process during COVID-19 by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, thereby having immuno- and bronchoprotective effects on lung cells, and normalizing the state of the hemostasis system. Immunomodulators (RKDVY, EW, KE, AEDG), possessing a physiological mechanism of action at low concentrations, appear to be the most promising group among the peptides. They normalize the cytokines' synthesis and have an anti-inflammatory effect, thereby preventing the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemical synthesis , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Respiratory System Agents/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687534, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295639

ABSTRACT

The clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in the context of infections has attracted attention since their first discovery in patients with syphilis. In fact, the recognition of aPL in patients with infections has been described in parallel to the understating of the syndrome. Since the first description of aPL-positive tests in three patients with COVID-19 diagnosed in January 2020 in Wuhan, China, a large number of studies took part in the ongoing debate on SARS-2-Cov 2 induced coagulopathy, and many following reports speculated a potential role for aPL. In order to get further insights on the effective role of detectable aPL in the pro-thrombotic status observed in COVID-19 patients, we performed an observational age-sex controlled study to compare the aPL profile of hospitalized patients with COVID with those observed in a) patients with thrombotic APS and b) patients with cultural/serologically-proved infections. Our data showed positive aPL testing in about half of the patients (53%) with COVID-19 and patients with other viral/bacterial infections (49%). However, aPL profile was different when comparing patients with overt APS and patients with aPL detected in the contest of infections. Caution is therefore required in the interpretation and generalization of the role of aPL s in the management of patients with COVID-19. Before introducing aPL testing as a part of the routine testing in patients with COVID-19, larger well-designed clinical studies are required. While the pro-thrombotic status in patients with COVID-19 is now unquestionable, different mechanisms other than aPL should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Aged , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/immunology , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Diseases/complications
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
10.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(1): 40-46, 2021 03 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection caused SARS-CoV-2 indicates a significant impact of hemorheological disorders on its course and outcomes. It is known that chronic cardiovascular diseases are associated with the risk of severe course and lethal outcomes both in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Therefore, in each case it is necessary to study the interaction and mutual influence of different components of the treatment program prescribed to such patients.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of coagulation activity on the course of a novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and to justify the management of comorbid patients having been received novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in previously selected doses according to indications in concomitant somatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total 76 cases of confirmed coronavirus infection in patients who had been received initial therapy on an outpatient basis were analyzed. 26 patients who received NOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran) made up the main group and 50 - the comparison (control) group in which patients had not been administered any drugs that affect blood clotting until the episode of COVID-19. All patients have been prescribed therapy following the Provisional guidelines «Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus infection (COVID-19)¼ (https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The number of hospitalizations was significantly fewer in the group of patients who had been received NOACs (19 vs. 66% in the control group). No deaths or cases of severe respiratory and/or renal failure were observed in the main group, while adverse outcomes were noted in 14% of patients who had not been administered these drugs. CONCLUSION: Taking NOACs reduces the probability of severe course and adverse outcomes in the development of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, which indicates a significant contribution of coagulation mechanisms to the pathogenesis in COVID-19. There were no indications for drug replacement and correction of anticoagulant therapy regimens in patients who received adequate therapy with oral anticoagulants for treating a non-severe form of coronavirus infection in ambulatory patient settings.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/virology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/mortality , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As pregnancy is a physiological prothrombotic state, pregnant women may be at increased risk of developing coagulopathic and/or thromboembolic complications associated with COVID-19. METHODS: Two biomedical databases were searched between September 2019 and June 2020 for case reports and series of pregnant women with a diagnosis of COVID-19 based either on a positive swab or high clinical suspicion where no swab had been performed. Additional registry cases known to the authors were included. Steps were taken to minimise duplicate patients. Information on coagulopathy based on abnormal coagulation test results or clinical evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and on arterial or venous thrombosis, were extracted using a standard form. If available, detailed laboratory results and information on maternal outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand sixty-three women met the inclusion criteria, of which three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had arterial and/or venous thrombosis, seven (0.66, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.1) had DIC, and a further three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had coagulopathy without meeting the definition of DIC. Five hundred and thirty-seven women (56%) had been reported as having given birth and 426 (40%) as having an ongoing pregnancy. There were 17 (1.6, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.3) maternal deaths in which DIC was reported as a factor in two. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that coagulopathy and thromboembolism are both increased in pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Detection of the former may be useful in the identification of women at risk of deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
12.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045398

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state and thrombotic events. Venous thromboembolism has been the most commonly reported type of thrombosis but also arterial thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in inpatients have been described frequently in several clinical experiences. Patients with COVID-19, because of its tendency to induce leucopenia and overlapping of bacterial infection, may experience sudden disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as in the case that we report here. However, early diagnosis and treatment may be associated with positive resolution of these severe complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Neutropenia/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Clin Lab ; 67(1)2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 virus spread worldwide and infected more that 10 million people, causing more than 500,000 deaths worldwide. The infection has systemic effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems; thus, patients can present a variety of symptoms from asymptomatic to rapid deaths. In this paper, we present the first case of post-mortem SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing in Western part of Romania in a deceased with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and elevated D-dimer levels. METHODS: During the autopsy which took place at the Institute of Forensic Medicine from Timisoara, Romania, blood sample was collected in a vacutainer with EDTA and sent to the Laboratory of Forensic Genetics from Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania. Viral RNA extraction was performed automated on the Maxwell 48 RSC Extraction System (Promega, USA) using the Maxwell RSC Viral Total Nucleic Acid Purification kit (Promega, USA). After RNA extraction, the samples were amplified on a 7500 real-time PCR (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the genesig® Real-Time PCR Assay (Primer Design, UK). RESULTS: The molecular testing showed a cycle threshold value of 23.4 (1.2 x 106 copies/mL), indicating increased viral loads, which correlated with the laboratory analysis results, especially with D-dimer levels. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of coagulopathy of SARS-CoV-2, patients in hospitals should be monitored closely for thrombosis development. Thus D-dimer can be used as prognostic marker in monitoring the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Autopsy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Romania , Up-Regulation
15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(2): 309-312, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996440

ABSTRACT

One of the significant complications of severe COVID-19 infections is a coagulopathy that seems to be related to the occurrence of venous and arterial thromboembolic disease. The coagulation changes mimic but are not identical to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The vast majority of patients with COVID-19 do not meet the criteria for usual forms of DIC. In addition, there seem to be features of a strong local pulmonary thrombotic microangiopathy and direct endothelial cell infection and injury by the virus that affect the coagulopathic response to severe COVID-19. It seems COVID-19 leads to a distinct intravascular coagulation syndrome that may need separate diagnostic criteria.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Biofactors ; 46(6): 927-933, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966303

ABSTRACT

Recent articles report elevated markers of coagulation, endothelial injury, and microthromboses in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. However, there has been no discussion of what may induce intravascular coagulation. Platelets are critical in the formation of thrombi and their most potent trigger is platelet activating factor (PAF), first characterized by Demopoulos and colleagues in 1979. PAF is produced by cells involved in host defense and its biological actions bear similarities with COVID-19 disease manifestations. PAF can also stimulate perivascular mast cell activation, leading to inflammation implicated in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mast cells are plentiful in the lungs and are a rich source of PAF and of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-6, which may contribute to COVID-19 and especially SARS. The histamine-1 receptor antagonist rupatadine was developed to have anti-PAF activity, and also inhibits activation of human mast cells in response to PAF. Rupatadine could be repurposed for COVID-19 prophylaxis alone or together with other PAF-inhibitors of natural origin such as the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-PAF actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cyproheptadine/analogs & derivatives , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cyproheptadine/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/virology , Platelet Activating Factor/genetics , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 529-531, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898988

ABSTRACT

Nafamostat, a serine proteinase inhibitor with various actions including antithrombin, antiplasmin, and antitrypsin effects, has been used in clinical practice to treat disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and pancreatitis. This case report describes the clinical course of a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia whose severe hypoxemia, probably caused by DIC and pulmonary embolism, showed remarkable improvement with combination heparin and nafamostat therapy. In addition, beneficial mechanisms of nafamostat against COVID-19 and the necessity of attention to hyperkalemia as an adverse effect are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Guanidines/administration & dosage , Aged , Benzamidines , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 97, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1α) are cytokines related to thrombosis. Therefore, this study focused on these three indicators in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that are associated with patients' outcome. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill patients. The serum IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1α level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The serum IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients (P < 0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1α between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and can be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL2/blood , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2177, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-815925

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human respiratory viral infection that has rapidly progressed into a pandemic, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Blood clotting disorders and acute respiratory failure have surfaced as the major complications among the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remarkably, more than 70% of deaths related to COVID-19 are attributed to clotting-associated complications such as pulmonary embolism, strokes and multi-organ failure. These vascular complications have been confirmed by autopsy. This study summarizes the current understanding and explains the possible mechanisms of the blood clotting disorder, emphasizing the role of (1) hypoxia-related activation of coagulation factors like tissue factor, a significant player in triggering coagulation cascade, (2) cytokine storm and activation of neutrophils and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps and (3) immobility and ICU related risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/genetics , Hypoxia/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/blood , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/genetics , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Thromboplastin/genetics , Thromboplastin/metabolism
20.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2176, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-815924

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has turned into a life-threatening pandemic disease (Covid-19). About 5% of patients with Covid-19 have severe symptoms including septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and the failure of several organs, while most of them have mild symptoms. Frequently, the kidneys are involved through direct or indirect mechanisms. Kidney involvement mainly manifests itself as proteinuria and acute kidney injury (AKI). The SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney damage is expected to be multifactorial; directly it can infect the kidney podocytes and proximal tubular cells and based on an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) pathway it can lead to acute tubular necrosis, protein leakage in Bowman's capsule, collapsing glomerulopathy and mitochondrial impairment. The SARS-CoV-2-driven dysregulation of the immune responses including cytokine storm, macrophage activation syndrome, and lymphopenia can be other causes of the AKI. Organ interactions, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, rhabdomyolysis, and sepsis are other potential mechanisms of AKI. Moreover, lower oxygen delivery to kidney may cause an ischaemic injury. Understanding the fundamental molecular pathways and pathophysiology of kidney injury and AKI in Covid-19 is necessary to develop management strategies and design effective therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Necrosis/pathology , Proteinuria/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/immunology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Necrosis/immunology , Necrosis/virology , Podocytes/immunology , Podocytes/pathology , Proteinuria/immunology , Proteinuria/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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