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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(3): 125, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712245

ABSTRACT

A novel electrochemical sensor is reported for the detection of the antiviral drug favipiravir based on the core-shell nanocomposite of flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanospheres and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite was prepared via the electrodeposition of a MIP layer on the MoS2 modified electrode, using o-phenylenediamine as the monomer and favipiravir as the template. The selective binding of target favipiravir at the MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite produced a redox signal in a concentration dependent manner, which was used for the quantitative analysis. The preparation process of the MoS2@MIP core-shell nanocomposite was optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor exhibited a wide linear response range of 0.01 ~ 100 nM (1.57*10-6 ~ 1.57*10-2 µg mL-1) and a low detection limit of 0.002 nM (3.14*10-7 µg mL-1). Application of the sensor was demonstrated by detecting favipiravir in a minimum amount of 10 µL biological samples (urine and plasma). Satisfied results in the recovery tests indicated a high potential of favipiravir monitoring in infectious COVID-19 samples.


Subject(s)
Amides/analysis , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Disulfides/chemistry , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers/chemistry , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nanospheres/chemistry , Pyrazines/analysis , Amides/blood , Amides/therapeutic use , Amides/urine , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/urine , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Oxidation-Reduction , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/urine , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650946

ABSTRACT

The development of small-molecules targeting different components of SARS-CoV-2 is a key strategy to complement antibody-based treatments and vaccination campaigns in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we show that two thiol-based chemical probes that act as reducing agents, P2119 and P2165, inhibit infection by human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and decrease the binding of spike glycoprotein to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Proteomics and reactive cysteine profiling link the antiviral activity to the reduction of key disulfides, specifically by disruption of the Cys379-Cys432 and Cys391-Cys525 pairs distal to the receptor binding motif in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike glycoprotein. Computational analyses provide insight into conformation changes that occur when these disulfides break or form, consistent with an allosteric role, and indicate that P2119/P2165 target a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket in the RBD with the benzyl thiol-reducing moiety pointed directly toward Cys432. These collective findings establish the vulnerability of human coronaviruses to thiol-based chemical probes and lay the groundwork for developing compounds of this class, as a strategy to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 infection by shifting the spike glycoprotein redox scaffold.


Subject(s)
Amino Alcohols/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Alcohols/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Disulfides/antagonists & inhibitors , Disulfides/chemistry , Disulfides/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nasal Mucosa/drug effects , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/chemistry
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 197: 68-76, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587673

ABSTRACT

The C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV main protease (Mpro-C) can form 3D domain-swapped dimer by exchanging the α1-helices fully buried inside the protein hydrophobic core, under non-denaturing conditions. Here, we report that Mpro-C can also form amyloid fibrils under the 3D domain-swappable conditions in vitro, and the fibrils are not formed through runaway/propagated domain swapping. It is found that there are positive correlations between the rates of domain swapping dimerization and amyloid fibrillation at different temperatures, and for different mutants. However, some Mpro-C mutants incapable of 3D domain swapping can still form amyloid fibrils, indicating that 3D domain swapping is not essential for amyloid fibrillation. Furthermore, NMR H/D exchange data and molecular dynamics simulation results suggest that the protofibril core region tends to unpack at the early stage of 3D domain swapping, so that the amyloid fibrillation can proceed during the 3D domain swapping process. We propose that 3D domain swapping makes it possible for the unpacking of the amyloidogenic fragment of the protein and thus accelerates the amyloid fibrillation process kinetically, which explains the well-documented correlations between amyloid fibrillation and 3D domain swapping observed in many proteins.


Subject(s)
Amyloid/chemistry , Amyloid/metabolism , Amyloidosis/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Protein Domains/physiology , Amyloidosis/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Dimerization , Disulfides/chemistry , Disulfides/metabolism , Kinetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Polymerization , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Folding , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Temperature
4.
J Mol Biol ; 434(2): 167357, 2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574441

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus pandemic is exerting a tremendously detrimental impact on global health. The Spike proteins of coronaviruses, responsible for cell receptor binding and viral internalization, possess multiple and frequently conserved disulfide bonds raising the question about their role in these proteins. Here, we present a detailed structural and functional investigation of the disulfide bonds of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Molecular dynamics simulations of the RBD predict increased flexibility of the surface loops when the four disulfide bonds of the domain are reduced. This flexibility is particularly prominent for the disulfide bond-containing surface loop (residues 456-490) that participates in the formation of the interaction surface with the Spike cell receptor ACE2. In vitro, disulfide bond reducing agents affect the RBD secondary structure, lower its melting temperature from 52 °C to 36-39 °C and decrease its binding affinity to ACE2 by two orders of magnitude at 37 °C. Consistent with these in vitro findings, the reducing agents tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and dithiothreitol (DTT) were able to inhibit viral replication at low millimolar levels in cell-based assays. Our research demonstrates the mechanism by which the disulfide bonds contribute to the molecular structure of the RBD of the Spike protein, allowing the RBD to execute its viral function.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Disulfides/chemistry , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Circular Dichroism/methods , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
5.
Biochimie ; 191: 91-103, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401244

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 plays a crucial role in binding with the human cell surface, which causes its pathogenicity. This study aimed to predict molecular dynamics change of emerging variants in the spike protein. In this study, several structural biology tools, such as SuperPose, were utilized to study spike protein structures' thermodynamics, superimposition, and the spike protein disulphide bonds. This questions the current vaccines efficacies that were based on the Nextstrain clade 19A that first documented in Wuhan and lacks any variants. The prediction results of this study have exhibited the stabilizing role of the globally dominant variant, the D614G; clade 20A, and other variants in addition to their role in increasing the flexibility of the spike protein of the virus. The SuperPose findings have revealed a conformational change impact of D614G in allowing the polybasic Furin cleavage site (682RRAR↓S686) to be closer to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and hence more exposed to cleavage. The presence of D614G in any clade or subclade, such as 20A, B.1.1.7 (20I/501Y.V1) or Alpha, B.1.351 (20H/501Y.V2) or Beta, P.1 (20J/501Y.V3) or Gamma, B.1.617.2 (21A/478K.V1) or Delta, has increased its stability and flexibility and unified the superimposition among all clades which might impact the virus ability to escape the antibodies neutralization by changing the antigenicity drift of the protein three-dimensional (3D) structure from the wild type clade 19A; this is in agreement with previous study. In conclusion, a new design for the current vaccines to include at least the mutation D614G is immediately needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disulfides/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Thermodynamics
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 55614-55623, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387129

ABSTRACT

Multiplexed detection of viral nucleic acids is important for rapid screening of viral infection. In this study, we present a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet-modified dendrimer droplet microarray (DMA) for rapid and sensitive detection of retroviral nucleic acids of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) simultaneously. The DMA platform was fabricated by omniphobic-omniphilic patterning on a surface-grafted dendrimer substrate. Functionalized MoS2 nanosheets modified with fluorescent dye-labeled oligomer probes were prepatterned on positively charged amino-modified omniphilic spots to form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensing microarray. With the formation of separated microdroplets of sample on the hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropattern, prepatterned oligomer probes specifically hybridized with the target HIV genes and detached from the MoS2 nanosheet surface due to weakening of the adsorption force, leading to fluorescence signal recovery. As a proof of concept, we used this microarray with a small sample size (<150 nL) for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 nucleic acids with a limit of detection (LOD) of 50 pM. The multiplex detection capability was further demonstrated for simultaneous detection of five viral genes (HIV-1, HIV-2, ORFlab, and N genes of SARS-COV-2 and M gene of Influenza A). This work demonstrated the potential of this novel MoS2-DMA FRET sensing platform for high-throughput multiplexed viral nucleic acid screening.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disulfides/chemistry , Fluorescence , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Nucleic Acids/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(13): 1081-1092, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306508

ABSTRACT

Aims: Influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) binding to sialic acid on lung epithelial cells triggers membrane fusion and infection. Host thiol isomerases have been shown to play a role in influenza A virus infection, and we hypothesized that this role involved manipulation of disulfide bonds in HA. Results: Analysis of HA crystal structures revealed that three of the six HA disulfides occur in high-energy conformations and four of the six bonds can exist in unformed states, suggesting that the disulfide landscape of HA is generally strained and the bonds may be labile. We measured the redox state of influenza A virus HA disulfide bonds and their susceptibility to cleavage by vascular thiol isomerases. Using differential cysteine alkylation and mass spectrometry, we show that all six HA disulfide bonds exist in unformed states in ∼1 in 10 recombinant and viral surface HA molecules. Four of the six H1 and H3 HA bonds are cleaved by the vascular thiol isomerases, thioredoxin and protein disulphide isomerase, in recombinant proteins, which correlated with surface exposure of the disulfides in crystal structures. In contrast, viral surface HA disulfide bonds are impervious to five different vascular thiol isomerases. Innovation: It has been assumed that the disulfide bonds in mature HA protein are intact and inert. We show that all six HA disulfide bonds can exist in unformed states. Conclusion: These findings indicate that influenza A virus HA disulfides are naturally labile but not substrates for thiol isomerases when expressed on the viral surface.


Subject(s)
Disulfides/metabolism , Hemagglutinins/metabolism , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Disulfides/chemistry , Hemagglutinins/chemistry , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Models, Molecular
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(11): 12912-12927, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185365

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seen a widespread use of personal protective equipment, especially face masks. This has created the need to develop better and reusable protective masks with built-in antimicrobial, self-cleaning, and aerosol filtration properties to prevent the transmission of air-borne pathogens such as the coronaviruses. Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets are used to prepare modified polycotton fabrics having excellent antibacterial activity and photothermal properties. Upon sunlight irradiation, the nanosheet-modified fabrics rapidly increased the surface temperature to ∼77 °C, making them ideal for sunlight-mediated self-disinfection. Complete self-disinfection of the nanosheet-modified fabric was achieved within 3 min of irradiation, making the fabrics favorably reusable upon self-disinfection. The nanosheet-modified fabrics maintained the antibacterial efficiency even after 60 washing cycles. Furthermore, the particle filtration efficiency of three-layered surgical masks was found to be significantly improved through incorporation of the MoS2-modified fabric as an additional layer of protective clothing, without compromising the breathability of the masks. The repurposed surgical masks could filter out around 97% of 200 nm particles and 96% of 100 nm particles, thus making them potentially useful for preventing the spread of coronaviruses (120 nm) by trapping them along with antibacterial protection against other airborne pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Disulfides/chemistry , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Personal Protective Equipment , Recycling , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Glutathione/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/toxicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Particle Size , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Sunlight , Temperature
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(11): 12912-12927, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132024

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seen a widespread use of personal protective equipment, especially face masks. This has created the need to develop better and reusable protective masks with built-in antimicrobial, self-cleaning, and aerosol filtration properties to prevent the transmission of air-borne pathogens such as the coronaviruses. Herein, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets are used to prepare modified polycotton fabrics having excellent antibacterial activity and photothermal properties. Upon sunlight irradiation, the nanosheet-modified fabrics rapidly increased the surface temperature to ∼77 °C, making them ideal for sunlight-mediated self-disinfection. Complete self-disinfection of the nanosheet-modified fabric was achieved within 3 min of irradiation, making the fabrics favorably reusable upon self-disinfection. The nanosheet-modified fabrics maintained the antibacterial efficiency even after 60 washing cycles. Furthermore, the particle filtration efficiency of three-layered surgical masks was found to be significantly improved through incorporation of the MoS2-modified fabric as an additional layer of protective clothing, without compromising the breathability of the masks. The repurposed surgical masks could filter out around 97% of 200 nm particles and 96% of 100 nm particles, thus making them potentially useful for preventing the spread of coronaviruses (120 nm) by trapping them along with antibacterial protection against other airborne pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Disulfides/chemistry , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Personal Protective Equipment , Recycling , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Glutathione/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/toxicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Particle Size , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Sunlight , Temperature
10.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(2): 215-233, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055838

ABSTRACT

Studies on functional molecules starting from syntheses of cysteine-containing peptides and protein are described. Starting from evaluation of a cysteine specific side-reaction, a specific reaction for disulfide-bond formation was developed. The reaction made it possible to independently construct a disulfide bridge without effecting the existing disulfide bonds, which resulted in a unique approach for the synthesis of human insulin by site-specific disulfide bond formation. In a series of studies on sulfur-containing amino acids, another cysteine related un-natural amino acid, α-methyl cysteine, was used for the total syntheses of natural products containing a unique thiazorine/thiazole ring system. Chloroimidazolidium coupling reagent developed by us was effective for the successive couplings of the α-methyl cysteine residues. Based on these synthetic studies, design and evaluation of protease inhibitors were then studied, since a stereo-specific synthesis of the key structure is crucial to make the inhibitor an effective functional molecule in the interactions with its target protease. As the target proteases, ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and chymotrypsin-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS 3CL protease) were selected: the former is a crucial enzyme for amyloid ß production and the latter is an essential enzyme for the re-construction of SARS corona virus in host cells. Structure optimization procedure of the respective inhibitors are described based on X-ray crystal structure analyses of the inhibitor-protease complex.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/chemistry , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/chemistry , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/chemistry , Biological Products/chemical synthesis , Biological Products/chemistry , Chymases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine , Disulfides/chemistry , Insulin/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS Virus , Sulfur/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry
11.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(10): 942-949, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-700293

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 10 million infections and more than 500,000 fatalities by June 2020. To initiate infection, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes attachment to the host cell surface and fusion of the viral and host membranes. Prefusion SARS-CoV-2 S is the main target of neutralizing antibodies and the focus of vaccine design. However, its limited stability and conformational dynamics are limiting factors for developing countermeasures against this virus. We report here the design of a construct corresponding to the prefusion SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, covalently stabilized by a disulfide bond in the closed conformation. Structural and antigenicity analyses show we successfully shut S in the closed state without otherwise altering its architecture. We demonstrate that this strategy is applicable to other ß-coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and might become an important tool for structural biology, serology, vaccine design and immunology studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Disulfides/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Engineering , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(10): 934-941, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691288

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates receptor binding and cell entry and is the dominant target of the immune system. It exhibits substantial conformational flexibility. It transitions from closed to open conformations to expose its receptor-binding site and, subsequently, from prefusion to postfusion conformations to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membranes. S-protein derivatives are components of vaccine candidates and diagnostic assays, as well as tools for research into the biology and immunology of SARS-CoV-2. Here we have designed mutations in S that allow the production of thermostable, disulfide-bonded S-protein trimers that are trapped in the closed, prefusion state. Structures of the disulfide-stabilized and non-disulfide-stabilized proteins reveal distinct closed and locked conformations of the S trimer. We demonstrate that the designed, thermostable, closed S trimer can be used in serological assays. This protein has potential applications as a reagent for serology, virology and as an immunogen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Disulfides/chemistry , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Engineering/methods , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Temperature
13.
Proteins ; 88(11): 1387-1393, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599391

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). The SARS CoV-2 is transmitted more rapidly and readily than SARS CoV. Both, SARS CoV and SARS CoV-2 via their glycosylated spike proteins recognize the human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. We generated multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees for representative spike proteins of SARS CoV and SARS CoV-2 from various host sources in order to analyze the specificity in SARS CoV-2 spike proteins required for causing infection in humans. Our results show that among the genomes analyzed, two sequence regions in the N-terminal domain "MESEFR" and "SYLTPG" are specific to human SARS CoV-2. In the receptor-binding domain, two sequence regions "VGGNY" and "EIYQAGSTPCNGV" and a disulfide bridge connecting 480C and 488C in the extended loop are structural determinants for the recognition of human ACE-2 receptor. The complete genome analysis of representative SARS CoVs from bat, civet, human host sources, and human SARS CoV-2 identified the bat genome (GenBank code: MN996532.1) as closest to the recent novel human SARS CoV-2 genomes. The bat SARS CoV genomes (GenBank codes: MG772933 and MG772934) are evolutionary intermediates in the mutagenesis progression toward becoming human SARS CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , Chiroptera/virology , Disulfides/chemistry , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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