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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 661-671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Three outbreaks of fatal diarrhoea occurred in bush dog (Speothos venaticus) groups at two zoological collections in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2017. In all cases, the predominant clinical signs were diarrhoea, anorexia and severe loss of condition. Despite supportive treatment, a number of fatalities occurred during each outbreak. Common gross post mortem findings were emaciation, with erythema, mucosal haemorrhage, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological features included villus blunting and fusion, crypt epithelial loss and lymphoid depletion, supporting a viral aetiology and canine coronavirus was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of serology (rising antibody titres) and the detection of viral nucleic acid using polymerase chain reaction. The canine coronavirus was subtyped as type 2a, which is known to cause systemic fatal disease in immature domestic dogs. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of fatal diarrhoea associated with canine coronavirus type 2a in bush dogs. These outbreaks suggest that adult bush dogs are highly susceptible to canine coronavirus infection and may succumb to viral enteritis.


Subject(s)
Canidae , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , United Kingdom
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1722-1725, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518345

ABSTRACT

We investigated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among dogs in the Tokyo area via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the spike protein as the target antigen. Plasma samples from 494 household dogs and blood-donor dogs were tested from July 2020 to January 2021. Of these samples, three showed optical densities that were higher than the mean plus two standard deviations of the mean of the negative-control optical densities (ODs). Of these three samples, only the sample with the highest OD by ELISA was confirmed positive by virus neutralization testing. The positive dog presented no SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms. The positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs in the Tokyo area was approximately 0.2%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Vet Rec ; 189(9): e944, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Domestic pets can contract severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, it is unknown whether the UK B.1.1.7 variant can more easily infect certain animal species or increase the possibility of human-to-animal transmission. METHODS: This is a descriptive case series reporting SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant infections in a group of dogs and cats with suspected myocarditis. RESULTS: The study describes the infection of domestic cats and dogs by the B.1.1.7 variant. Two cats and one dog were positive to SARS-CoV-2 PCR on rectal swab, and two cats and one dog were found to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies 2-6 weeks after they developed signs of cardiac disease. Many owners of these pets had developed respiratory symptoms 3-6 weeks before their pets became ill and had also tested positive for COVID-19. Interestingly, all these pets were referred for acute onset of cardiac disease, including severe myocardial disorders of suspected inflammatory origin but without primary respiratory signs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the ability for pets to be infected by the B.1.1.7 variant and question its possible pathogenicity in these animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Myocarditis , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Myocarditis/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Telemedicine , Veterinarians , Animals , Attitude , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Perception , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Vet Rec ; 189 Suppl 1: 8, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482179

ABSTRACT

While the Covid-19 pandemic may have reduced the numbers of people travelling abroad with their pets, the soaring numbers of dogs being imported from overseas means asking where an animal comes from is an increasingly important part of responsible parasite control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Disease Control , Dogs , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
7.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481013

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) descriptions of infection and transmission have been increasing in companion animals in the past year. Although canine susceptibility is generally considered low, their role in the COVID-19 disease cycle remains unknown. In this study, we detected and sequenced a delta variant (AY.3) from a 12-year-old Collie living with owners that previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear if the dogs' symptoms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection or underlying conditions. The whole genome sequence obtained from the dog sample had several unique consensus level changes not previously identified in a SARS-CoV-2 genome that may play a role in the rapid adaptation from humans to dogs. Within the spike coding region, 5/7 of the subconsensus variants identified in the dog sequence were also identified in the closest in-house human reference case. Taken together, the whole genome sequence, and phylogenetic and subconsensus variant analyses indicate the virus infecting the animal originated from a local outbreak cluster. The results of these analyses emphasize the importance of rapid detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in companion animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Dogs , Kansas , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48469-48477, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of developing surfaces and coatings with antiviral activity. Here, we present, for the first time, peptide-based assemblies that can kill viruses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assemblies is in the range tens of micrograms per milliliter. This value is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the MIC of metal nanoparticles. When applied on a surface, by drop casting, the peptide spherical assemblies adhere to the surface and form an antiviral coating against both RNA- and DNA-based viruses including coronavirus. Our results show that the coating reduced the number of T4 bacteriophages (DNA-based virus) by 3 log, compared with an untreated surface and 6 log, when compared with a stock solution. Importantly, we showed that this coating completely inactivated canine coronavirus (RNA-based virus). This peptide-based coating can be useful wherever sterile surfaces are needed to reduce the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dihydroxyphenylalanine/chemistry , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
10.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(1): 52-58, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the correlation between bispectral index (BIS) value and modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score in dogs with altered level of consciousness (ALOC). DESIGN: This prospective, observational, clinical study was conducted from February 2016 to March 2017, and follow-up was conducted until the death of dogs or their discharge from the hospital. SETTING: This study was performed at the Small Animal Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: A total of 31 client-owned dogs (males, 20; females, 11) with ALOC and MGCS score <18 with no restrictions for age, breed, sex, and body weight were included. Dogs that received neuromuscular blocking agents before MGCS score evaluation were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: BIS values were measured using the Covidien BIS Loc 2 Channel OEM module and a pediatric 4 sensor with a bifrontal application pattern. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Minimal databases of initial neurological assessment, blood profiles, and chest and skull radiographs were developed. In addition, MGCS scores and BIS values were recorded. The mean BIS values for mild, moderate, and severe brain injuries were 89.14 ± 6.52, 77.21 ± 9.82, and 50.58 ± 27.04, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship between BIS values and MGCS scores (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The significant correlation observed between MGCS scores and BIS values in dogs with ALOC demonstrated the usefulness of BIS as an alternative to MGCS for monitoring consciousness in patients with ALOC caused by traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, etc.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Glasgow Coma Scale/veterinary , Monitoring, Physiologic/veterinary , Unconsciousness/veterinary , Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Prospective Studies , Unconsciousness/diagnosis
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0254287, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398927

ABSTRACT

Dog importation data from 2018-2020 were evaluated to ascertain whether the dog importation patterns in the United States changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically with regard to denial of entry. Dog denial of entry reports from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020, stored within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Activity Reporting System (QARS), were reviewed. Basic descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Reason for denial, country of origin, and month of importation were all examined to determine which countries of origin resulted in the largest number of denials, and whether there was a seasonal change in importations during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), compared to previous years (2018 and 2019). During 2020, CDC denied entry to 458 dogs. This represents a 52% increase in dogs denied entry compared to the averages in 2018 and 2019. Dogs were primarily denied entry for falsified rabies vaccination certificates (56%). Three countries exported 74% of all dogs denied entry into the United States, suggesting that targeted interventions may be needed for certain countries. Increased attempts to import inadequately vaccinated dogs from countries with canine rabies in 2020 may have been due to the increased demand for domestic pets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational messaging should highlight the risk of rabies and the importance of making informed pet purchases from foreign entities to protect pet owners, their families, and the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Animals , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dogs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Rabies/immunology , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods
12.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390790

ABSTRACT

Despite the probable zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, only limited research efforts have been made to understand the role of companion animals in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. According to recent serological prevalence studies, human-to-companion animal transmission is quite frequent, which led us to consider that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animal to human, albeit negligible in the present context, may have been underestimated. In this study, we provide the results of a prospective survey that was conducted to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 isolation rate by qRT-PCR in dogs and cats with different exposure risks and clinical statuses. From April 2020 to April 2021, we analyzed 367 samples and investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Only four animals tested positive, all of them being cats. Three cats were asymptomatic and one presented a coryza-like syndrome. We describe in detail the infection in two cats and the associated clinical characteristics. Importantly, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 genomes from one infected animal and characterized them as Alpha variants. This represents the first identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an infected animal in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 423, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into the risk perceptions and the knowledge evolution of the public about emerging or changing health risks is vital for the improvement of health promotion activities. Currently, scientific evidence regarding the attitudes of the Romanian public towards ticks is scanty. This study aimed to identify how the lockdown enforced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Romania impacted the recreational behaviour, risk perceptions, and protective practices of the Romanian population regarding ticks. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide web-based questionnaire was designed and distributed via social media to evaluate if, and how, the COVID-19 lockdown impacted the behaviour of the Romanian public concerning ticks. The survey was available online from 6 May until 15 May 2020, which marked the last day of the travel ban in Romania. The collected data were processed by applying both uni- and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Respondents reported a higher frequency of finding ticks on themselves and their dogs during the lockdown. Bathing/showering and checking the body for ticks were the two most used protective behaviours both before and during the lockdown. Nevertheless, an overall lower usage rate of protective measures was registered during the lockdown. Almost all dog owners used a form of ectoparasite control for their dogs, and only three stopped due to lockdown-associated reasons. Respondent characteristics that were found to be positively associated with risk perceptions were being female and living in peri-urban/suburban/rural environments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spending less time outdoors during the lockdown, more respondents reported finding ticks on themselves or their dogs. Changes in the preferences for recreational locations, rates of protective practices usage, amount of time spent in specific areas, or tick seasonal activity might have contributed to this outcome. Concerning risk groups, men of all ages, senior citizens, and rural inhabitants should be targeted by the relevant Romanian authorities when promoting local or nationwide tick awareness campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Recreation , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tick Bites/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Time Factors , Young Adult
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1669-1674, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348039

ABSTRACT

To provide more complete data on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in the U.S., we conducted a serosurvey on convenience serum samples from dogs (n=1336) and cats (n=956) collected from 48 states of the USA in 2020. An ELISA targeting the antibody against nucleocapsid identified eleven positive and two doubtful samples in cats, and five positive and five doubtful samples in dogs. A surrogate neutralization assay detecting antibodies blocking the attachment of the spike protein to ACE2 was positive with three of the ELISA positive and doubtful samples, and one of 463 randomly selected ELISA negative samples. These four positive samples were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization testing. All were from cats, in New York, Florida, and New Jersey (n=2). The serosurvey results, one of the largest yet completed on dogs and cats globally, support the OIE and CDC positions that currently there is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Public Health Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1995-2004, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331772

ABSTRACT

This study reports outbreak of a new disease caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) in raccoon dogs. The disease occurred in a breeding farm of raccoon dogs in Guan County of Shandong Province in China in August of 2019. 47% (425/896) of the raccoon dogs showed some abnormal symptoms; 17.6% (75/425) of which had severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), dyspnoea and severe pathological lesions in lungs, livers, etc; and 4.2% (18/425) of which died within 4 weeks. The pathogen of the disease was identified as S. pseudintermedius by mass spectrometer detection, animal pathogenicity tests, microscopic examination and biochemical reaction tests. Its nucleotide homology of 16S rRNA gene was 100% with that of other published strains, and its genotype was between the American and Brazilian strains from other animals. The isolated S. pseudintermedius strain from the diseased raccoon dogs could cause ulceration and suppuration in the skins and severe pathological lesions not only in raccoon dogs, but also in mice; and it is confirmed as a methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strain by the amplification of mecA gene; and 12 sensitive drugs were screened by drug sensitivity tests. Full attention should be paid to the great economic loss and the potential zoonotic risk caused by the S. pseudintermedius in raccoon dogs, and this study can provide a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this new disease.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Raccoon Dogs , Staphylococcal Infections , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Mice , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Rodent Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Staphylococcus
18.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325789

ABSTRACT

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314764

ABSTRACT

Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets has been widely documented during the last year. Although the majority of reports suggested that dogs' susceptibility to the infection is low, little is known about viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the case of variants of concern, such as B.1.1.7 in this species. Here, as part of a large-scale study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in pets in Spain, we have detected the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in a dog whose owners were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The animal did not present any symptoms, but viral loads were high in the nasal and rectal swabs. In addition, viral isolation was possible from both swabs, demonstrating that the dog was shedding infectious virus. Seroconversion occurred 23 days after the first sampling. This study documents the first detection of B.1.1.7 VOC in a dog in Spain and emphasizes the importance of performing active surveillance and genomic investigation on infected animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Dogs , Genome, Viral , Male , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/virology
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