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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 112: 105463, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244841

ABSTRACT

Recent reports on identification of canine coronavirus (CCoV) in humans have emphasized the urgency to strengthen surveillance of animal CoVs. The fact that recombinations between CCoV with feline, porcine CoVs brought about new types of CoVs indicated that more attention should be paid to domestic animals like dogs, cats and pigs, and the CoVs they carried. However, there are about ten kinds of CoVs that infect above animals, and thus representative CoVs with zoonotic potentials were considered in this study. Multiplex RT-PCR against CCoV, Feline coronavirus (FCoV), porcine deltacoronavirus and porcine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus was developed to investigate the prevalence of CoVs from domestic dogs in Chengdu, Southwest China. Samples from a total of 117 dogs were collected from a veterinary hospital, and only CCoV (34.2%, 40/117) was detected. Therefore, this study focused on CCoV and its characteristics of S, E, M, N and ORF3abc genes. Compared with CoVs that are capable of infecting humans, CCoV strains showed highest nucleotide identity with the novel canine-feline recombinant detected from humans (CCoV-Hupn-2018). Phylogenetic analysis based on S gene, CCoV strains were not only clustered with CCoV-II strains, but also closely related to FCoV-II strains ZJU1617 and SMU-CD59/2018. As for assembled ORF3abc, E, M, N sequences, CCoV strains had the closest relationship with CCoV-II (B203_GZ_2019, B135_JS_2018 and JS2103). What's more, specific amino acid variations were found, especially in S and N proteins, and some mutations were consistent with FCoV, TGEV strains. Altogether, this study provided a novel insight into the identification, diversification and evolution of CoVs from domestic dogs. It is of top priority to recognize zoonotic potential of CoVs, and continued comprehensive surveillance will help better understand the emergence, spreading, and ecology of animal CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Cats , Humans , Swine , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phylogeny , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , Animals, Domestic , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 145, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, causes significant cardiopulmonary disease, with progression impacted by increasing parasite numbers and duration of infection. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important mediator of cardiac and pulmonary disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mitigates the maladaptive effects of angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin (1-7). We hypothesized that circulating ACE2 activity would be altered in dogs with high heartworm infection intensities relative to dogs without heartworms. METHODS: Frozen serum samples (-80 °C) from 30 dogs euthanized at Florida shelters were analyzed for ACE2 activity using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectroscopy and a kinetics approach with and without an ACE2 inhibitor. A convenience sample of 15 dogs without heartworms (HW0) and 15 dogs with > 50 heartworms (HW>50) was included. Heartworm number and microfilariae presence were determined at necropsy. The effects of heartworm status, body weight, and sex on ACE2 were evaluated using regression analysis. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: All HW0 dogs were D. immitis microfilariae-negative and all HW>50 dogs were D. immitis microfilariae-positive with a median adult worm count of 74 (minimum = 63, maximum = 137). The ACE2 activity of HW>50 dogs (median = 28.2 ng/ml; minimum = 13.6, maximum = 76.2) was not different from HW0 dogs (median 31.9 ng/ml; minimum = 14.1, maximum = 139.1; P = 0.53). The ACE2 activity was higher in dogs with high body weight (median 34.2 ng/ml minimum = 14.1, maximum = 76.2) than in dogs with low weight (median 27.5 ng/ml; minimum = 16.4, maximum = 139.1; P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: Heartworm infection did not impact ACE2 activity in shelter dogs with or without heartworms, but heavier dogs had higher ACE2 activity compared to lighter dogs. Comprehensive RAAS evaluation and additional clinical information would aid in understanding how ACE2 activity relates to the entire cascade and clinical status in dogs with heartworm disease.


Subject(s)
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariasis , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dirofilariasis/parasitology , Microfilariae
3.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(12): e628-e635, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the incidence of transfusion reactions in cats, including acute haemolysis (AH), occurring within 24 h of receiving a xenotransfusion. An additional aim was to determine whether cases with AH could be classified as having an acute haemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) as per the definition provided by the Association of Veterinary Haematology and Transfusion Medicine's Transfusion Reaction Small Animal Consensus Statement. METHODS: Medical records of cats that received canine packed red blood cells (PRBCs) between July 2018 and September 2020 at a veterinary hospital were reviewed. The incidence of AH, AHTRs, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), transfusion-associated circulatory overload and septic transfusion reactions were recorded. RESULTS: The medical records of 53 cats were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three (43%) cats had transfusion reactions. Thirteen (25%) cats had AH; however, only four (8%) met the definition of an AHTR. Ten (19%) cats were determined to have FNHTRs. Survival to discharge of cats affected by AH was 50% (25% for cases that met the definition of an AHTR). Survival to discharge of cats not suffering from AHTR was 40%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This report indicates that a higher proportion of cats undergo AH (25%) when administered canine PRBCs than previously reported, although many could not be classed as having an AHTR due to an apparently adequate packed cell volume rise. Challenges with sourcing feline blood in emergency situations occasionally necessitates the use of xenotransfusion in transfusion medicine. Clinicians should be aware that haemolysis after xenotransfusion can occur within 24 h and that a repeat feline transfusion may be required sooner than anticipated in some cases.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Transfusion Reaction , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Retrospective Studies , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Transfusion Reaction/veterinary , Erythrocytes , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284101, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301135

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected us in numerous ways and may consequently impact our relationships with pet dogs and cats. We conducted a longitudinal survey to examine the temporal patterns of owner-pet relationship, stress, and loneliness during four phases of the pandemic: 1) pre-pandemic (February 2020), 2) lockdown (April to June 2020), 3) reopening (September to December 2020), and 4) recovery (January 2021 to December 2021). We also investigated the effect of pet ownership on stress and loneliness, by considering a set of a priori causal assumptions. In addition, we hypothesized that the differences in the levels of stress and loneliness between dog and cat ownerships were mediated by the owner-pet relationship. A total of 4,237 participants (657 non-pet owners, 1,761 dog owners, and 1,819 cat owners) completed between one and six surveys. Overall, the closeness in the relationship between owners and their pets increased with time during the study period. We also observed that dog owners consistently showed larger decreases in the levels of stress and loneliness than cat and non-pet owners. However, after adjusting for confounders, the findings did not support a mitigating effect of pet ownership. Pet ownership did not alleviate stress, social loneliness resulting from a lack of friendships or workplace relationships, or emotional loneliness due to deficiencies in family relationships. Pet owners, however, reported a lower degree of emotional loneliness caused by deficits in romantic relationships than non-pet owners. Our results also indicated that the differences in stress and loneliness levels between dog and cat ownerships were partially explained by the owner-pet relationship, and once this was accounted for, the differences between them reduced. In summary, this study highlights the dynamic effects of COVID-19 on owner-pet relationship and mental health. It also shows the complexity of the association between pet ownership and mental health, partially mediated by owner-pet relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Cats , Mental Health , Loneliness/psychology , Pets/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ownership , Communicable Disease Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies
5.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298657

ABSTRACT

Following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, cases of pets infected with variants circulating among humans were reported. In order to evaluate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 circulation among pets in the Republic of the Congo, we conducted a ten-month study of dogs and cats living in COVID-19-positive households in Brazzaville and neighboring localities. Real-time PCR and the Luminex platform were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S proteins, respectively. Our results show for the first time the simultaneous circulation of several variants of SARS-CoV-2, including viruses from clades 20A and 20H and a putative recombinant variant between viruses from clades 20B and 20H. We found a high seroprevalence of 38.6%, with 14% of tested pets positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thirty-four percent of infected pets developed mild clinical signs, including respiratory and digestive signs, and shed the virus for about one day to two weeks. These results highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 interspecies transmission and the benefits of a "One Health" approach that includes SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and surveillance of viral diversity in pets. This approach aims to prevent transmission to surrounding wildlife as well as spillback to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Congo/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Testing , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Recombination, Genetic
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 85(3): 386-392, 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297856

ABSTRACT

Investigating the characteristics of tracheas can help the understanding of diseases related to the trachea, particularly tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs. This study aimed to compare the mechanical properties of tracheas from New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits and dogs and to introduce a method for inducing a model of TC in the normal trachea. Tracheal samples were obtained from NZW rabbit cadavers (n=5) weighing 3.62-3.92 kg and from dog cadavers (n=5) weighing 2.97-3.28 kg. Three live NZW rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were used to establish the model. The radial forces of both sample sets were measured using a digital force gauge and statistically compared. Subsequently, TC was surgically induced in three female NZW rabbits by physically weakening their tracheal cartilage under general anesthesia. Their clinical signs were monitored for 3 months, and radiographic examinations were performed monthly for 3 months. The mean radial forces of the two sample sets were comparable (P>0.05). The clinical signs, radiographic examinations, and macroscopic examinations were all comparable to those of dogs with TC. The cadaveric study between the rabbits and dogs demonstrated that the surgically induced rabbit model of TC is an excellent candidate for the experimental study of dogs with TC. This study also provides a reference of tracheal radial force values to enable selection of appropriate mesh types and wire diameters of self-expanding metal stents.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabbits , Female , Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/surgery , Trachea/surgery , Metals , Stents/veterinary , Prosthesis Implantation/veterinary
7.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(5): 393-402, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297270

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens reduces the effectiveness of these drugs in both human and veterinary medicine, making judicious antimicrobial use (AMU) an important strategy for its control. The COVID-19 pandemic modified operations in both human and veterinary healthcare delivery, potentially impacting AMU. The goal of this research is to quantify how antimicrobial drug prescribing practices for companion animals in an academic veterinary hospital changed during the pandemic. A retrospective study was performed using prescribing data for dogs and cats collected from the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) pharmacy, which included prescriptions from both the specialty referral hospital and primary care services. Records (n = 31,769) for 34 antimicrobial drugs from 2019-2020-before and during the pandemic-related measures at the NCSU-CVM-were compared. The prescribed antimicrobials' importance was categorized using the FDA's Guidance for Industry (GFI #152), classifying drugs according to medical importance in humans. A proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of more important antimicrobials being administered in patients seen during the pandemic versus before (i.e., critically important vs. highly important vs. important). Rates of AMU per week and per patient visit were also compared. During the pandemic, cumulative antimicrobials prescribed per week were significantly decreased in most services for dogs. Weekly rates for Highly Important antimicrobials were also significantly lower in dogs. For important and critically important antimicrobials, rates per week were significantly decreased in various services overall. Rates of antimicrobial administration per patient visit were significantly increased for Highly Important drugs. Patients in the internal medicine, dermatology, and surgery services received significantly more important antimicrobials during the pandemic than before, while cardiology patients received significantly less. These results suggest that the pandemic significantly impacted prescribing practices of antimicrobials for companion animals in this study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Dogs , Pets , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal , North Carolina , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 1066-1067, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291766

ABSTRACT

To investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission from humans to animals in Seoul, South Korea, we submitted samples from companion animals owned by persons with confirmed COVID-19. Real-time PCR indicated higher SARS-CoV-2 viral infection rates for dogs and cats than previously reported from the United States and Europe. Host-specific adaptations could introduce mutant SARS-CoV-2 to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 130: 211, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305586
10.
Vet Rec ; 192(2): 82, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291379
11.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(7): 1045-1053, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological information on the occurrence of animal and human rabies in the US during 2021 and summaries of 2021 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico. PROCEDURES: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2021. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic animal and wildlife rabies cases. RESULTS: During 2021, 54 US jurisdictions reported 3,663 rabid animals, representing an 18.2% decrease from the 4,479 cases reported in 2020. Texas (n = 456 [12.4%]), Virginia (297 [8.1%]), Pennsylvania (287 [7.8%]), North Carolina (248 [6.8%]), New York (237 [6.5%]), California (220 [6.0%]), and New Jersey (201 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 50% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2021. Of the total reported rabid animals, 3,352 (91.5%) involved wildlife, with bats (n = 1,241 [33.9%]), raccoons (1,030 [28.1%]), skunks (691 [18.9%]), and foxes (314 [8.6%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (216 [5.9%]), cattle (40 [1.1%]), and dogs (36 [1.0%]) accounted for 94% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2021. Five human rabies deaths were reported in 2021. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The number of animal rabies cases reported in the US decreased significantly during 2021; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cattle Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Foxes , Mephitidae , New York , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/veterinary , Raccoons , United States/epidemiology
12.
Prev Vet Med ; 213: 105882, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279454

ABSTRACT

Global companion animal population has been increasing as well as the number of dogs and cats being considered as a family member. However, it is unclear whether this close relationship could be associated with higher preventive healthcare in companion animals. Using data from 7,048 questionnaires of dogs and 3,271 of cats from the First National Study on Responsible Companion Animal Ownership, we estimated the proportion of preventive healthcare in companion animals of Chile. We also conducted a general linear mixed-effect regression model to identify socioeconomic factors and indicators of the emotional owners-companion animal bond that could influence owners' practices related to vaccination, parasite control, and veterinary visits. Based on the owner's answers, Chile has a satisfactory overall rates of parasite control (71%) and annual veterinary visits (65%) but a low vaccination coverage of both dogs (39%) and cats (25%). 'Purebred', 'live in urban areas', 'acquired by monetary compensation', and 'dog species' were associated with a higher probability of preventive healthcare in companion animals. Conversely, this probability was lower among senior animals compared to adults, males, and those owned by the Silent Generation or Baby Boomers (i.e., owners born before 1964). 'Sleeping inside', 'acquired for an emotional reason' (e.g., companionship), and 'considered a family member' were positively associated with at least one of assessed preventive measures. Our findings suggest that emotional owner-companion animal bonds could positively impact the frequency and quality of preventive healthcare in dogs and cats. However, owners who totally disagreed that a companion animal is a "family member" were also associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination uptake and veterinary visits for their animals. This highlights that owner's compliance with veterinary preventive healthcare is multifactorial. Chile has a high prevalence of infectious diseases circulating among dogs and cats and increasingly close contacts between owners and companion animals due to emotional bonds. Thus, our study calls for One Health approaches to reduce the risks of cross-species disease transmission. Specifically, increasing vaccination coverage of companion animals in Chile is the most urgent preventive measure needed, especially among cats, males, and older animals. Expand preventive healthcare among dogs and cats will promote public and animal health, including local wildlife that is susceptible to infectious diseases circulating in companion animals.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Male , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Chile/epidemiology , Object Attachment , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Delivery of Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ownership
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(3): 335-336, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277815

ABSTRACT

Increase in rabies cases during COVID-19 pandemic: Is there a connection?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Pandemics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
14.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(4): 592-596, 2022 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250957

ABSTRACT

Rabies is the deadliest viral infection known, with no reliable treatment, and although it is entirely preventable, rabies continues to kill more than 60,000 people every year, mostly children in countries where dog rabies is endemic. America is only 1 generation away from the time when rabies killed more than 10,000 animals and 50 Americans every year, but 3 to 5 Americans continue to die annually from rabies. Distressingly, > 50,000 Americans undergo rabies prevention therapy every year after exposure to potentially rabid animals. While enormous progress has been made, more must be done to defeat this ancient but persistent, fatal zoonosis. In the US, lack of public awareness and ambivalence are the greatest dangers imposed by rabies, resulting in unnecessary exposures, anxiety, and risk. Veterinarians have a special role in informing and reassuring the public about prevention and protection from rabies. This summary of current facts and future advances about rabies will assist veterinarians in informing their clients about the disease.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Veterinarians , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Rabies Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Vet Rec ; 192 Suppl 1: 5-7, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262556

ABSTRACT

The worst of the Covid-19 pandemic seems to be over, but the fallout continues for vets as young dogs with challenging behaviours arrive in their practices. At BVA Live, Sarah Heath will help delegates understand some of the underlying causes and how they can support these 'pandemic puppies'. But she will also explain that the challenges may not end with the current generation of dogs….


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pandemics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(3): 1043, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266690
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 157: 13-16, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266092

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared in late 2019. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Flu-like symptoms and acute respiratory illnesses are the main manifestations of the disease. Recent studies have confirmed the susceptibility of domestic animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in household pets and the importance of pets in the epidemiology of this infection remain unknown. In Lebanon, there is no epidemiological data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in companion animals. Thus, this investigation aimed to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in household pets of Lebanon during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April 2020 and February 2021. Blood samples from 145 cats and 180 dogs were collected from 12 veterinary clinics located in the North, Mount, and Beirut governorates. A validated ELISA assay was used to detect the anti- SARS-CoV-2 in the sera of the tested animals. An overall seroprevalence of 16.92% (55/325) was reported; 13.79% seroprevalence was found in cats (20/145) and 19.44% (35/180) in dogs. The young age and the cold season were significantly associated with an increased seropositivity rate to SARS-CoV-2 infection (P < 0.01). These results confirm the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in household pets, in various geographical regions in Lebanon. Although, there is a lack of evidence to suggest that naturally infected pets could transmit the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Yet, owners diagnosed with COVID-19 should limit their contact with their animals during the course of the disease to curb the risk of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Cats , Animals , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2 , Lebanon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Animals, Domestic , Antibodies, Viral , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 65(1): 9, 2023 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265151

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in China by the end of 2019 and was responsible for a pandemic in the human population that resulted in millions of deaths worldwide. Since the beginning of the pandemic, the role of animals as spill-over or reservoir hosts was discussed. In addition to cats and dogs, ferrets are becoming increasingly popular as companion animals. Under experimental conditions, ferrets are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and it appears that they can also be infected through contact with a SARS-CoV-2 positive owner. However, there is still little information available regarding these natural infections. Here, we serologically tested samples collected from pet ferrets (n = 45) from Poland between June and September 2021. Of the ferrets that were included in the study, 29% (13/45) had contact with owners with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the animals, independent of the infection status of the owner. The obtained results suggest that ferrets cannot be readily infected with SARS-CoV-2 under natural conditions, even after prolonged contact with infected humans. However, due to the rapid mutation rate of this virus, it is important to include ferrets in future monitoring studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cities , Ferrets , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Testing/veterinary
19.
Arch Virol ; 168(4): 112, 2023 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256886

ABSTRACT

In this study, rectal samples collected from 60 stray dogs in dog shelters were screened for canine kobuvirus and other enteroviruses by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Canine kobuvirus was detected in 25% (15/60) of the samples. In the 15 positive samples, the coinfection rates of canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine astrovirus, canine norovirus, and canine rotavirus were 26.67%, 20.00%, 73.33%, 0%, and 20.00%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial VP1 sequences identified a novel canine kobuvirus that was a recombinant of canine and feline kobuvirus. Bayesian evolutionary analysis revealed that the rate of evolution of the VP1 gene of canine kobuvirus was 1.36 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 6.28 × 10-7 - 4.30 × 10-4 substitutions per site per year). Finally, the divergence time of VP1 was around 19.44 years ago (95% highest posterior density interval, 12.96-27.57 years).


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Kobuvirus , Picornaviridae Infections , Dogs , Animals , Cats , Kobuvirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Bayes Theorem , China/epidemiology , Feces
20.
Virus Genes ; 59(3): 427-436, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247734

ABSTRACT

Viral enteritis is a significant cause of death among dogs younger than 6 months. In this study, the presence of canine chaphamaparvovirus (CaChPV), canine bufavirus (CBuV), and canine adenovirus (CAdV) was investigated in 62 diarrheal dogs previously tested for other viral pathogens (canine parvovirus type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine circovirus). CBuV was detected in two dogs (3.22%) and CaChPV in one dog (1.61%). One dog tested positive for three parvoviruses (CPV-2b, CBuV, and CaChPV). All dogs tested negative to CAdV-1/CAdV-2. A long genome fragment of one of the two identified CBuVs and of the CaChPV was obtained and analyzed. New Turkish CBuVs had high identity rates (96%-98% nt; 97%-98% aa) with some Italian CBuV strains (CaBuV/9AS/2005/ITA and CaBuV/35/2016/ITA). The phylogenetic analysis powerfully demonstrated that these viruses belonged to a novel genotype (genotype 2). A part of the genome ChPV-TR-2021-19 revealed high identity rates (> 98% nt and > 99% aa) with some Canadian CaChPV strains (NWT-W88 and NWT-W171) and the Italian CaChPV strain Te/37OVUD/2019/IT. This study is the first report on the detection of CBuV-2 and the concomitant presence of three canine parvoviruses in Turkey. The obtained data will contribute to the molecular epidemiology and the role in the etiology of enteric disease of new parvoviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Canine , Dog Diseases , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus, Canine , Animals , Dogs , Adenoviruses, Canine/genetics , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Turkey , Phylogeny , Canada , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics , Diarrhea/veterinary
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