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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1154-1162, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862554

ABSTRACT

We tested swab specimens from pets in households in Ontario, Canada, with human COVID-19 cases by quantitative PCR for SARS-CoV-2 and surveyed pet owners for risk factors associated with infection and seropositivity. We tested serum samples for spike protein IgG and IgM in household pets and also in animals from shelters and low-cost neuter clinics. Among household pets, 2% (1/49) of swab specimens from dogs and 7.7% (5/65) from cats were PCR positive, but 41% of dog serum samples and 52% of cat serum samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG or IgM. The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pet samples was higher for cats but not dogs that slept on owners' beds and for dogs and cats that contracted a new illness. Seropositivity in neuter-clinic samples was 16% (35/221); in shelter samples, 9.3% (7/75). Our findings indicate a high likelihood for pets in households of humans with COVID-19 to seroconvert and become ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Ontario/epidemiology , Pets , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8403, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852501

ABSTRACT

In June-September 2021, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in domestic dogs and cats (n = 225) in Bangkok and the vicinities, Thailand. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a dog and a cat from COVID-19 positive households. Whole genome sequence analysis identified SARS-CoV-2 delta variant of concern (B.1.617.2). Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 isolated from dog and cat were grouped into sublineage AY.30 and AY.85, respectively. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in both dog (day 9) and cat (day 14) after viral RNA detection. This study raises awareness on spill-over of variant of concern in domestic animals due to human-animal interface. Thus, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic pets should be routinely conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765945

ABSTRACT

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies virus , Rabies , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Laboratories , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
4.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 32(2): 223-228, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759260

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic utility of quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) for prediction of in-hospital mortality and length of hospitalization in dogs with pyometra. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from February 2013 to April 2019 SETTING: Tertiary referral hospital ANIMALS: Fifty-two dogs referred with confirmed diagnosis of pyometra INTERVENTIONS: None MEASUREMENTS AND PRINCIPAL OUTCOMES: Sixty-five percent of dogs survived to discharge. A cut-off score of ≥2 for qSOFA was associated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 6.51 [95% CI: 1.35 - 31.3]) P = 0.019. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for a qSOFA score ≥ 2 for mortality was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.59-0.85), with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 66.7%. The mean ± SD number of organs with dysfunction was significantly higher in dogs with a qSOFA score ≥2 1.76 ± 0.83 compared to dogs with a qSOFA score < 2 1.08 ± 1.09, P = 0.015. The presence of a qSOFA score ≥ 2 was associated with a longer time of hospitalization in survivors with a median (interquartile range) length of stay in qSOFA < 2 (48 [33]) hours versus qSOFA score ≥ 2 (78 [52]) hours, P = 0.027. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs with pyometra, the qSOFA score was associated with mortality and length of hospitalization. This score might be useful to improve the risk stratification in dogs with pyometra. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive capacity of qSOFA in other septic patient populations.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Pyometra , Sepsis , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Hospitalization , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Pyometra/complications , Pyometra/veterinary , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/veterinary
5.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 707-711, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625691

ABSTRACT

Documented natural infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in exotic and companion animals following human exposures are uncommon. Those documented in animals are typically mild and self-limiting, and infected animals have only infrequently died or been euthanized. Through a coordinated One Health initiative, necropsies were conducted on 5 animals from different premises that were exposed to humans with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The combination of epidemiologic evidence of exposure and confirmatory real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed infection in 3 cats and a tiger. A dog was a suspect case based on epidemiologic evidence of exposure but tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Four animals had respiratory clinical signs that developed 2 to 12 days after exposure. The dog had bronchointerstitial pneumonia and the tiger had bronchopneumonia; both had syncytial-like cells with no detection of SARS-CoV-2. Individual findings in the 3 cats included metastatic mammary carcinoma, congenital renal disease, and myocardial disease. Based on the necropsy findings and a standardized algorithm, SARS-CoV-2 infection was not considered the cause of death in any of the cases. Continued surveillance and necropsy examination of animals with fatal outcomes will further our understanding of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and the potential role of the virus in development of lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , One Health , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100647, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466958

ABSTRACT

Infections with endoparasites, especially gastrointestinal helminths, are a common finding in client-owned dogs. The Community Practice section at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSU-VMC) follows Companion Animal Parasite Council, American Animal Hospital Association, and American Veterinary Medical Association guidelines for parasitology by recommending annual fecal analyses for dogs and prescribing year-round, broad-spectrum parasite preventatives. There is increasing interest in determining if parasite occurrence is changing in client-owned dogs. Therefore, a retrospective study was designed to examine risk factors associated with the detection of parasites in samples submitted to the OSU-VMC Clinical Veterinary Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory. Of the 1198 canine fecal samples, 254 (21.2%) of these samples had a positive fecal analysis for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The age of the dog, time of year, reproductive status, purpose of fecal examination, GI signs, and type of parasite preventatives were assessed as potential risk factors for GI parasite infection in dogs. To determine if Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospital restrictions impacted the number of fecal examinations performed, data from January to December 2020, was compared to the same period in 2019. There was nearly a 50% reduction in canine fecal samples submitted to the OSU-VMC Clinical Veterinary Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory in March 2020 compared to March 2019. At least one canine GI parasite was found in over 20% of all 1198 canine fecal samples (21.2%, 254/1198). The most commonly detected canine GI parasite in all the fecal samples was hookworm at 9.6% (115/1198), followed by Giardia sp. at 7.6% (91/1198). Age, use of parasite preventatives, breed, and reproductive status were found to be associated with parasite occurrence in the dog samples. Identifying such risk factors in dogs will guide veterinarians to advise annual fecal examinations more strongly to clients with high-risk dogs or when routine health visits are postponed for an extended period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Parasites , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(1): 52-58, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455660

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the correlation between bispectral index (BIS) value and modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score in dogs with altered level of consciousness (ALOC). DESIGN: This prospective, observational, clinical study was conducted from February 2016 to March 2017, and follow-up was conducted until the death of dogs or their discharge from the hospital. SETTING: This study was performed at the Small Animal Teaching Hospital. ANIMALS: A total of 31 client-owned dogs (males, 20; females, 11) with ALOC and MGCS score <18 with no restrictions for age, breed, sex, and body weight were included. Dogs that received neuromuscular blocking agents before MGCS score evaluation were excluded. INTERVENTIONS: BIS values were measured using the Covidien BIS Loc 2 Channel OEM module and a pediatric 4 sensor with a bifrontal application pattern. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Minimal databases of initial neurological assessment, blood profiles, and chest and skull radiographs were developed. In addition, MGCS scores and BIS values were recorded. The mean BIS values for mild, moderate, and severe brain injuries were 89.14 ± 6.52, 77.21 ± 9.82, and 50.58 ± 27.04, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship between BIS values and MGCS scores (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The significant correlation observed between MGCS scores and BIS values in dogs with ALOC demonstrated the usefulness of BIS as an alternative to MGCS for monitoring consciousness in patients with ALOC caused by traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, etc.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Glasgow Coma Scale/veterinary , Monitoring, Physiologic/veterinary , Unconsciousness/veterinary , Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Prospective Studies , Unconsciousness/diagnosis
10.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325789

ABSTRACT

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
12.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314764

ABSTRACT

Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets has been widely documented during the last year. Although the majority of reports suggested that dogs' susceptibility to the infection is low, little is known about viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the case of variants of concern, such as B.1.1.7 in this species. Here, as part of a large-scale study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in pets in Spain, we have detected the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in a dog whose owners were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The animal did not present any symptoms, but viral loads were high in the nasal and rectal swabs. In addition, viral isolation was possible from both swabs, demonstrating that the dog was shedding infectious virus. Seroconversion occurred 23 days after the first sampling. This study documents the first detection of B.1.1.7 VOC in a dog in Spain and emphasizes the importance of performing active surveillance and genomic investigation on infected animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Dogs , Genome, Viral , Male , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/virology
13.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(5): 336-342, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has necessitated evaluation of the potential for SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats. Using a large data set, we evaluated the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens in samples submitted for respiratory testing from mid-February to mid-April 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR was developed and validated. A subset of canine and feline samples submitted for respiratory pathogen panel testing to reference laboratories in Asia, Europe, and North America were also tested for SARS-CoV-2. The frequency of respiratory pathogens was compared for the February-April period of 2020 and 2019. RESULTS: Samples from 4616 patients were included in the study and 44% of canine and 69% of feline samples were PCR positive with Mycoplasma cynos and Bordetella bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma felis and feline calicivirus, respectively. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified. Positive results for respiratory samples were similar between years. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The data in this study suggest that during the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in early 2020, respiratory diseases in tested pet cats and dogs were caused by common veterinary pathogens and that SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats are rare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Asia , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Europe , Mycoplasma , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 405-418, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830411

ABSTRACT

Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) refers to a syndrome of diseases that can be caused by several different bacterial and viral pathogens. These pathogens are often highly contagious, and coinfections are common. Clinical signs are frequently mild and self-limiting; however, some individual cases progress to severe disease. Clinical diagnosis of CIRDC is often based on history of exposure and physical examination findings; however, determining the etiologic agent requires application of specific diagnostic tests, and results can be difficult to interpret because of widespread subclinical infections.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
15.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 447-465, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824261

ABSTRACT

Bacterial pneumonia is a common clinical diagnosis in dogs but seems to occur less often in cats. Underlying causes include viral infection, aspiration injury, foreign body inhalation, and defects in clearance of respiratory secretions. Identification of the specific organisms involved in disease, appropriate use of antibiotics and adjunct therapy, and control of risk factors for pneumonia improve management.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/etiology , Cat Diseases/therapy , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/etiology , Dog Diseases/therapy , Dogs , Male , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/veterinary , Prognosis , Risk Factors
16.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(6): 1307-1325, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739798

ABSTRACT

Canine parvoviral enteritis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in dogs worldwide. Tests can detect viral antigen in feces, and characteristic decreases in total leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts can increase the index of suspicion in affected cases and can be used to prognosticate morbidity and mortality. The standard of care for infected animals includes IV crystalloid and sometimes colloid fluids, antiemetics, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and early enteral nutrition. Vaccination induces protective immunity in most dogs. Vaccination, along with limiting exposure in young puppies, is the most effective means of preventing parvoviral enteritis in dogs.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Enteritis/veterinary , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Parvovirus, Canine/isolation & purification , Animals , Crystalloid Solutions/administration & dosage , Dog Diseases/therapy , Dogs , Enteritis/diagnosis , Enteritis/therapy , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/therapy
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