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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 112: 105463, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244841

ABSTRACT

Recent reports on identification of canine coronavirus (CCoV) in humans have emphasized the urgency to strengthen surveillance of animal CoVs. The fact that recombinations between CCoV with feline, porcine CoVs brought about new types of CoVs indicated that more attention should be paid to domestic animals like dogs, cats and pigs, and the CoVs they carried. However, there are about ten kinds of CoVs that infect above animals, and thus representative CoVs with zoonotic potentials were considered in this study. Multiplex RT-PCR against CCoV, Feline coronavirus (FCoV), porcine deltacoronavirus and porcine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus was developed to investigate the prevalence of CoVs from domestic dogs in Chengdu, Southwest China. Samples from a total of 117 dogs were collected from a veterinary hospital, and only CCoV (34.2%, 40/117) was detected. Therefore, this study focused on CCoV and its characteristics of S, E, M, N and ORF3abc genes. Compared with CoVs that are capable of infecting humans, CCoV strains showed highest nucleotide identity with the novel canine-feline recombinant detected from humans (CCoV-Hupn-2018). Phylogenetic analysis based on S gene, CCoV strains were not only clustered with CCoV-II strains, but also closely related to FCoV-II strains ZJU1617 and SMU-CD59/2018. As for assembled ORF3abc, E, M, N sequences, CCoV strains had the closest relationship with CCoV-II (B203_GZ_2019, B135_JS_2018 and JS2103). What's more, specific amino acid variations were found, especially in S and N proteins, and some mutations were consistent with FCoV, TGEV strains. Altogether, this study provided a novel insight into the identification, diversification and evolution of CoVs from domestic dogs. It is of top priority to recognize zoonotic potential of CoVs, and continued comprehensive surveillance will help better understand the emergence, spreading, and ecology of animal CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Cats , Humans , Swine , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phylogeny , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , Animals, Domestic , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298657

ABSTRACT

Following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, cases of pets infected with variants circulating among humans were reported. In order to evaluate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 circulation among pets in the Republic of the Congo, we conducted a ten-month study of dogs and cats living in COVID-19-positive households in Brazzaville and neighboring localities. Real-time PCR and the Luminex platform were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S proteins, respectively. Our results show for the first time the simultaneous circulation of several variants of SARS-CoV-2, including viruses from clades 20A and 20H and a putative recombinant variant between viruses from clades 20B and 20H. We found a high seroprevalence of 38.6%, with 14% of tested pets positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thirty-four percent of infected pets developed mild clinical signs, including respiratory and digestive signs, and shed the virus for about one day to two weeks. These results highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 interspecies transmission and the benefits of a "One Health" approach that includes SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and surveillance of viral diversity in pets. This approach aims to prevent transmission to surrounding wildlife as well as spillback to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Congo/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Testing , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Recombination, Genetic
3.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(5): 393-402, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297270

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens reduces the effectiveness of these drugs in both human and veterinary medicine, making judicious antimicrobial use (AMU) an important strategy for its control. The COVID-19 pandemic modified operations in both human and veterinary healthcare delivery, potentially impacting AMU. The goal of this research is to quantify how antimicrobial drug prescribing practices for companion animals in an academic veterinary hospital changed during the pandemic. A retrospective study was performed using prescribing data for dogs and cats collected from the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) pharmacy, which included prescriptions from both the specialty referral hospital and primary care services. Records (n = 31,769) for 34 antimicrobial drugs from 2019-2020-before and during the pandemic-related measures at the NCSU-CVM-were compared. The prescribed antimicrobials' importance was categorized using the FDA's Guidance for Industry (GFI #152), classifying drugs according to medical importance in humans. A proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of more important antimicrobials being administered in patients seen during the pandemic versus before (i.e., critically important vs. highly important vs. important). Rates of AMU per week and per patient visit were also compared. During the pandemic, cumulative antimicrobials prescribed per week were significantly decreased in most services for dogs. Weekly rates for Highly Important antimicrobials were also significantly lower in dogs. For important and critically important antimicrobials, rates per week were significantly decreased in various services overall. Rates of antimicrobial administration per patient visit were significantly increased for Highly Important drugs. Patients in the internal medicine, dermatology, and surgery services received significantly more important antimicrobials during the pandemic than before, while cardiology patients received significantly less. These results suggest that the pandemic significantly impacted prescribing practices of antimicrobials for companion animals in this study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Dogs , Pets , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal , North Carolina , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(5): 1066-1067, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291766

ABSTRACT

To investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission from humans to animals in Seoul, South Korea, we submitted samples from companion animals owned by persons with confirmed COVID-19. Real-time PCR indicated higher SARS-CoV-2 viral infection rates for dogs and cats than previously reported from the United States and Europe. Host-specific adaptations could introduce mutant SARS-CoV-2 to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections
5.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(7): 1045-1053, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological information on the occurrence of animal and human rabies in the US during 2021 and summaries of 2021 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico. PROCEDURES: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2021. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic animal and wildlife rabies cases. RESULTS: During 2021, 54 US jurisdictions reported 3,663 rabid animals, representing an 18.2% decrease from the 4,479 cases reported in 2020. Texas (n = 456 [12.4%]), Virginia (297 [8.1%]), Pennsylvania (287 [7.8%]), North Carolina (248 [6.8%]), New York (237 [6.5%]), California (220 [6.0%]), and New Jersey (201 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 50% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2021. Of the total reported rabid animals, 3,352 (91.5%) involved wildlife, with bats (n = 1,241 [33.9%]), raccoons (1,030 [28.1%]), skunks (691 [18.9%]), and foxes (314 [8.6%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (216 [5.9%]), cattle (40 [1.1%]), and dogs (36 [1.0%]) accounted for 94% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2021. Five human rabies deaths were reported in 2021. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The number of animal rabies cases reported in the US decreased significantly during 2021; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Cattle Diseases , Chiroptera , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Animals, Domestic , Animals, Wild , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Foxes , Mephitidae , New York , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/veterinary , Raccoons , United States/epidemiology
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 213: 105882, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279454

ABSTRACT

Global companion animal population has been increasing as well as the number of dogs and cats being considered as a family member. However, it is unclear whether this close relationship could be associated with higher preventive healthcare in companion animals. Using data from 7,048 questionnaires of dogs and 3,271 of cats from the First National Study on Responsible Companion Animal Ownership, we estimated the proportion of preventive healthcare in companion animals of Chile. We also conducted a general linear mixed-effect regression model to identify socioeconomic factors and indicators of the emotional owners-companion animal bond that could influence owners' practices related to vaccination, parasite control, and veterinary visits. Based on the owner's answers, Chile has a satisfactory overall rates of parasite control (71%) and annual veterinary visits (65%) but a low vaccination coverage of both dogs (39%) and cats (25%). 'Purebred', 'live in urban areas', 'acquired by monetary compensation', and 'dog species' were associated with a higher probability of preventive healthcare in companion animals. Conversely, this probability was lower among senior animals compared to adults, males, and those owned by the Silent Generation or Baby Boomers (i.e., owners born before 1964). 'Sleeping inside', 'acquired for an emotional reason' (e.g., companionship), and 'considered a family member' were positively associated with at least one of assessed preventive measures. Our findings suggest that emotional owner-companion animal bonds could positively impact the frequency and quality of preventive healthcare in dogs and cats. However, owners who totally disagreed that a companion animal is a "family member" were also associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination uptake and veterinary visits for their animals. This highlights that owner's compliance with veterinary preventive healthcare is multifactorial. Chile has a high prevalence of infectious diseases circulating among dogs and cats and increasingly close contacts between owners and companion animals due to emotional bonds. Thus, our study calls for One Health approaches to reduce the risks of cross-species disease transmission. Specifically, increasing vaccination coverage of companion animals in Chile is the most urgent preventive measure needed, especially among cats, males, and older animals. Expand preventive healthcare among dogs and cats will promote public and animal health, including local wildlife that is susceptible to infectious diseases circulating in companion animals.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Male , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/prevention & control , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Chile/epidemiology , Object Attachment , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Delivery of Health Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ownership
7.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(3): 335-336, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277815

ABSTRACT

Increase in rabies cases during COVID-19 pandemic: Is there a connection?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Rabies , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Pandemics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(4): 592-596, 2022 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250957

ABSTRACT

Rabies is the deadliest viral infection known, with no reliable treatment, and although it is entirely preventable, rabies continues to kill more than 60,000 people every year, mostly children in countries where dog rabies is endemic. America is only 1 generation away from the time when rabies killed more than 10,000 animals and 50 Americans every year, but 3 to 5 Americans continue to die annually from rabies. Distressingly, > 50,000 Americans undergo rabies prevention therapy every year after exposure to potentially rabid animals. While enormous progress has been made, more must be done to defeat this ancient but persistent, fatal zoonosis. In the US, lack of public awareness and ambivalence are the greatest dangers imposed by rabies, resulting in unnecessary exposures, anxiety, and risk. Veterinarians have a special role in informing and reassuring the public about prevention and protection from rabies. This summary of current facts and future advances about rabies will assist veterinarians in informing their clients about the disease.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Veterinarians , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Rabies Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Vet Rec ; 192 Suppl 1: 5-7, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262556

ABSTRACT

The worst of the Covid-19 pandemic seems to be over, but the fallout continues for vets as young dogs with challenging behaviours arrive in their practices. At BVA Live, Sarah Heath will help delegates understand some of the underlying causes and how they can support these 'pandemic puppies'. But she will also explain that the challenges may not end with the current generation of dogs….


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pandemics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 157: 13-16, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266092

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been declared in late 2019. It is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Flu-like symptoms and acute respiratory illnesses are the main manifestations of the disease. Recent studies have confirmed the susceptibility of domestic animals to SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in household pets and the importance of pets in the epidemiology of this infection remain unknown. In Lebanon, there is no epidemiological data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in companion animals. Thus, this investigation aimed to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in household pets of Lebanon during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was carried out between April 2020 and February 2021. Blood samples from 145 cats and 180 dogs were collected from 12 veterinary clinics located in the North, Mount, and Beirut governorates. A validated ELISA assay was used to detect the anti- SARS-CoV-2 in the sera of the tested animals. An overall seroprevalence of 16.92% (55/325) was reported; 13.79% seroprevalence was found in cats (20/145) and 19.44% (35/180) in dogs. The young age and the cold season were significantly associated with an increased seropositivity rate to SARS-CoV-2 infection (P < 0.01). These results confirm the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in household pets, in various geographical regions in Lebanon. Although, there is a lack of evidence to suggest that naturally infected pets could transmit the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Yet, owners diagnosed with COVID-19 should limit their contact with their animals during the course of the disease to curb the risk of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Cats , Animals , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2 , Lebanon/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Animals, Domestic , Antibodies, Viral , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241023

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people worldwide since its emergence in 2019. Knowing the potential capacity of the virus to adapt to other species, the serological surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection in susceptible animals is important. Hong Kong and Seoul are two of Asia's most densely populated urban cities, where companion animals often live in close contact with humans. Sera collected from 1040 cats and 855 dogs during the early phase of the pandemic in Hong Kong and Seoul were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using an ELISA that detects antibodies against the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein. Positive sera were also tested for virus neutralizing antibodies using a surrogate virus neutralization (sVNT) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Among feline sera, 4.51% and 2.54% of the samples from Korea and Hong Kong, respectively, tested ELISA positive. However, only 1.64% of the samples from Korea and 0.18% from Hong Kong tested positive by sVNT, while only 0.41% of samples from Korea tested positive by PRNT. Among canine samples, 4.94% and 6.46% from Korea and Hong Kong, respectively, tested positive by ELISA, while only 0.29% of sera from Korea were positive on sVNT and no canine sera tested positive by PRNT. These results confirm a low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in companion animals in Korea and Hong Kong. The discordance between the RBD-ELISA and neutralization tests may indicate possible ELISA cross-reactivity with other coronaviruses, especially in canine sera.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Cats , Humans , Animals , Dogs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 117: e220177, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in domestic animals have occurred from the beginning of the pandemic to the present time. Therefore, from the perspective of One Health, investigating this topic is of global scientific and public interest. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals whose owners had coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected in Uruguay. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we analysed the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Complete genomes were obtained using ARTIC enrichment and Illumina sequencing. Sera samples were used for virus neutralisation assays. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 was detected in an asymptomatic dog and a cat. Viral genomes were identical and belonged to the P.6 Uruguayan SARS-CoV-2 lineage. Only antiserum from the infected cat contained neutralising antibodies against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain and showed cross-reactivity against the Delta but not against the B.A.1 Omicron variant. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Domestic animals and the human SARS-CoV-2 P.6 variant comparison evidence a close relationship and gene flow between them. Different SARS-CoV-2 lineages infect dogs and cats, and no specific variants are adapted to domestic animals. This first record of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals from Uruguay supports regular surveillance of animals close to human hosts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Cats , Animals , Humans , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Uruguay , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Animals, Domestic
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 94: 101956, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242665

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is associated with diarrhea in dogs, with a high incidence and sometimes even death. However, there is currently limited information about its prevalence and molecular characterization in northeastern China. Therefore, in this study, we examined 325 canine fecal specimens in four provinces in northeastern China from 2019 to 2021. PCR results revealed that 57 out of 325 (17.5%) samples were found to be positive for CCoV, and the positive rate varies obviously with city, season, age and so on. High incidence (65%) of viral co-infection was detected in the diarrhea samples and mixed infection of distinct CCoV genotypes occurs extensively. More importantly, sequence analysis showed that the S gene has a strong mutation. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains has different origins. In particular, we found the CCoV-IIa strains of S gene sequenced and the reference strain B906_ZJ_2019 were highly clustered, and the reference strain was a recombinant strain of CCoV-I and CCoV-II. Our findings provide useful orienting clues for evaluating the pathogenic potential of CCoV in canines, and point out more details on characterization in northeastern China. Further work is required to determine the significance and continuous genetic evolution of CCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Prevalence , Phylogeny , Diarrhea/veterinary , China , Genetic Variation , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Feces
14.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(4): 327-340, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229809

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can infect pets under natural conditions, which raises questions about the risk factors related to the susceptibility of these animals to infection. The status of pet infection by SARS-CoV-2 in Mexico is not well-understood. We aimed to estimate the frequency of positive household cats and dogs to viral RNA and antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 during the second wave of human infections in Mexico, and to recognize the major risk factors related to host and pet ownership behaviour. We evaluated two study groups, cats and dogs from COVID-19-infected/-suspected households (n = 44) and those admitted for veterinary care for any reason at several veterinary hospitals in Puebla City, Mexico (n = 91). Using RT-PCR, we identified the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in swabs of four dogs (18.18%) and zero cats in COVID-19-infected/-suspected households; within this group, 31.82% of dogs and 27.27% of cats were tested IgG ELISA-positive; and neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (4.55%) and two cats (9.09%). In the random group (pets evaluated at private clinics and veterinary teaching hospital), 25.00% of dogs and 43.59% of cats were ELISA-positive and only one cat showed neutralizing antibodies (2.56%). Older than 4-year-old, other pets at home, and daily cleaning of pet dish, were each associated with an increase in SARS-CoV-2 infection (p < 0.05). Allowing face lick, sharing bed/food with pets and owner tested positive or suspected COVID-19 were not significant risk factors, but more than 4 h the owner spent away from home during the lockdown for COVID-19 (OR = 0.37, p = 0.01), and outdoor pet food tray (OR = 0.32, p = 0.01) significantly decreased the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets, suggesting that time the owner spends with their pet is an important risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Humans , Dogs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Ownership , Mexico/epidemiology , Hospitals, Animal , RNA, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals, Teaching , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Risk Factors , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
15.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 261(4): 480-489, 2023 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals detected through both passive and active surveillance in the US. ANIMALS: 204 companion animals (109 cats, 95 dogs) across 33 states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections between March 2020 and December 2021. PROCEDURES: Public health officials, animal health officials, and academic researchers investigating zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 transmission events reported clinical, laboratory, and epidemiologic information through a standardized One Health surveillance process developed by the CDC and partners. RESULTS: Among dogs and cats identified through passive surveillance, 94% (n = 87) had reported exposure to a person with COVID-19 before infection. Clinical signs of illness were present in 74% of pets identified through passive surveillance and 27% of pets identified through active surveillance. Duration of illness in pets averaged 15 days in cats and 12 days in dogs. The average time between human and pet onset of illness was 10 days. Viral nucleic acid was first detected at 3 days after exposure in both cats and dogs. Antibodies were detected starting 5 days after exposure, and titers were highest at 9 days in cats and 14 days in dogs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of the present study supported that cats and dogs primarily become infected with SARS-CoV-2 following exposure to a person with COVID-19, most often their owners. Case investigation and surveillance that include both people and animals are necessary to understand transmission dynamics and viral evolution of zoonotic diseases like SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Humans , Dogs , United States/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Pets
16.
Arch Virol ; 168(2): 36, 2023 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174218

ABSTRACT

Viral pathogens are the primary cause of canine gastroenteritis. However, few structured comprehensive studies on the viral etiology of canine gastroenteritis have been conducted. In this study, 475 rectal swabs collected over three years (2018-2021) from clinical canine gastroenteritis cases were screened for the presence of six major enteric viruses - canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus 2 (CAdV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine astrovirus (CaAstV), and canine rotavirus (CRV) - by real-time PCR. The most frequently detected virus was CPV-2, which was present in 64.8% of the samples (subtype 2a, 21.1%; 2b, 77.4%; 2c, 1.5%), followed by CDV (8%), CaAstV (7.2%), CCoV (5.9%), and CAdV-2 (4.6%). Two to four of these viruses in different combinations were found in 16.8% of the samples, and CRV was not detected. The complete genome sequences of Indian isolates of CDV, CCoV, and CaAstV were determined for the first time, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. This study highlights the need for routine prophylactic vaccination with the appropriate vaccines. Notably, 70.3% of animals vaccinated with DHPPiL were found to be positive for at least one virus. Hence, regular molecular analysis of the prevalent viruses is crucial for addressing vaccination failures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Distemper Virus, Canine , Distemper , Dog Diseases , Gastroenteritis , Mamastrovirus , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus, Canine , Rotavirus , Animals , Dogs , Phylogeny , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/veterinary , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/genetics , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Mamastrovirus/genetics , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics
17.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(1): 82-90, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs and cats in different countries worldwide raises concerns that pets are at a higher risk for spreading or transmitting of SARS-CoV-2 to humans and other pets and increased the research works about the zoonotic aspects and natural routes of infection in companion animals. The current study aimed to detect the SARS-CoV-2 in household dogs and cats living with COVID-19 positive owners. METHODS: Deep oropharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from 30 household pets (20 cats and 10 dogs) living with COVID-19 positive owners from April 2021 to 2022 in Kerman, Iran. All dogs' and cats' samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Two household cats out of 20 examined (10%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, whereas none of the examined dogs were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The two cats positive for SARS-CoV-2 were symptomatic and suffered from severe anorexia with maximum contact with their infected owners. CONCLUSION: This study reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in household cats in close contact with COVID-19 positive owners during the circulation of new SARS-CoV-2 variants (Delta and Omicron) in Iran and suggested that the transmission may have occurred from owners to their cats. Therefore, infected owners should eagerly limit close contact with their pets during COVID-19 illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 9(1): 13-24, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reverse zoonoses occur because of interactions between humans and animals. Homology of ACE-2 cell receptors in different hosts and high mutation rate of SARS-CoV-2 enhance viral transmission among species. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate spillover of SARS-CoV-2 between humans and companion animals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was constructed using nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs, serum and blood samples collected from 66 companion animals (33 cats and 33 dogs) that were in contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive owners from December 2020 to March 2021. Swabs were screened by rRT-PCR and some positive cases were confirmed by partial spike gene sequencing. Clinical pathology and pathological studies were also performed. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that 30% of cats (10/33) and 24% of dogs (8/33) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. While 33% of these animals were asymptomatic (6/18), 28% showed mild respiratory signs (5/18) and 39% displayed severe respiratory signs (7/18) including 4 dead cats 40% (4/10). Partial spike gene sequencing of 6 positive samples collected in December 2020 were identical to SARS-CoV-2 that was detected in humans in Egypt in that time frame. Clinical pathology findings revealed thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, as well as elevated levels of D-dimer, LDH, CRP, and ferritin. Post-mortem and histopathological examinations illustrated multisystemic effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 spillover between humans and pet animals. IMPACTS: The present study highlighted the potential occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 spillover between humans and their companion animals. Biosecurity measures should be applied to decrease spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans and pet animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Cats , Viral Zoonoses
19.
Open Vet J ; 12(5): 676-687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090739

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause persistent epidemics and occasional human pandemics, leading to considerable economic losses. The ecology and epidemiology of IAV are very complex and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges in the healthcare. IAV are characterized by genetic and antigenic variability resulting from a combination of high mutation rates and a segmented genome that provides the ability to rapidly change and adapt to new hosts. In this context, available scientific evidence is of great importance for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of influenza viruses. The present review summarizes original research papers and IAV infections reported in dogs all over the world. Reports of interspecies transmission of equine influenza viruses H3N2 from birds to dogs, as well as double and triple reassortant strains resulting from reassortment of avian, human, and canine strains have amplified the genetic variety of canine influenza viruses. A total of 146 articles were deemed acceptable by PubMed and the Google Scholar database and were therefore included in this review. The largest number of research articles (n = 68) were published in Asia, followed by the Americas (n = 44), Europe (n = 31), Africa (n = 2), and Australia (n = 1). Publications are conventionally divided into three categories. The first category (largest group) included modern articles published from 2011 to the present (n = 93). The second group consisted of publications from 2000 to 2010 (n = 46). Single papers of 1919, 1931, 1963, 1972, 1975, and 1992 were also used, which was necessary to emphasize the history of the study of the ecology and evolution of the IAV circulating among various mammalian species. The largest number of publications occurred in 2010 (n = 18) and 2015 (n = 11), which is associated with IAV outbreaks observed at that time in the dog population in America, Europe, and Asia. In general, these findings raise concerns that dogs may mediate the adaptation of IAVs to zoonotic transmission and therefore serve as alternative hosts for genetic reassortment of these viruses. The global concern and significant threat to public health from the present coronavirus diseases 2019 pandemic confirms the necessity for active surveillance of zoonotic viral diseases with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Horse Diseases , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Animals , Dogs , Horses , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Zoonoses , Disease Outbreaks , Birds , Mammals , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 209: 105792, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086629

ABSTRACT

Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is a pathogenic virus that infects dogs worldwide, causing enteric issues and causing harm to the dog industry and dogs. Although CCoV is not recognized as a highly lethal canine intestinal pathogen, it has been reported that CCoV is significantly associated with canine diarrhea in dogs. CCoV is a common health problem in dogs, attracting major concern from veterinarians and dog owners across China. In this study, we summarized the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of CCoV in dogs in mainland China. The study revealed that the pooled prevalence of CCoV infection was 33%, and which associated with age, but not with sex, season and immunization status. In addition, the study also further suggested that CCoV-II was the predominant CCoV subtype in Chinese dogs. This study will provide valuable information for CCoV infections across China and other countries. Furthermore, this study also suggested that continuous surveillance and epidemiological studies of CCoV are necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dog Diseases , Veterinarians , Dogs , Animals , Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
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