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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765945

ABSTRACT

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies virus , Rabies , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Laboratories , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 661-671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Three outbreaks of fatal diarrhoea occurred in bush dog (Speothos venaticus) groups at two zoological collections in the United Kingdom between 2009 and 2017. In all cases, the predominant clinical signs were diarrhoea, anorexia and severe loss of condition. Despite supportive treatment, a number of fatalities occurred during each outbreak. Common gross post mortem findings were emaciation, with erythema, mucosal haemorrhage, and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathological features included villus blunting and fusion, crypt epithelial loss and lymphoid depletion, supporting a viral aetiology and canine coronavirus was suspected. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of serology (rising antibody titres) and the detection of viral nucleic acid using polymerase chain reaction. The canine coronavirus was subtyped as type 2a, which is known to cause systemic fatal disease in immature domestic dogs. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of fatal diarrhoea associated with canine coronavirus type 2a in bush dogs. These outbreaks suggest that adult bush dogs are highly susceptible to canine coronavirus infection and may succumb to viral enteritis.


INTRODUCTION: Trois foyers de diarrhée mortelle sont survenus dans des groupes de chiens de brousse (Speothos venaticus) dans deux parcs zoologiques au Royaume-Uni entre 2009 et 2017. Dans tous les cas, les signes cliniques prédominants étaient la diarrhée, l'anorexie et une grave perte de condition. Malgré un traitement de soutien, un certain nombre de décès sont survenus au cours de chaque épidémie. Les résultats macroscopiques courants post-mortem étaient l'émaciation, un érythème, des hémorragies des muqueuses et des ulcération du tractus gastro-intestinal. Les caractéristiques histopathologiques comprenaient un émoussement et une fusion des villosités, une perte épithéliale des cryptes et une déplétion lymphoïde, ce qui confortait une étiologie virale. Un coronavirus canin a été suspecté. Le diagnostic a été confirmé sur la base de la sérologie (augmentation des titres d'anticorps) et de la détection d'acide nucléique viral par amplification en chaîne par polymérase. Le coronavirus canin a été sous-typé comme type 2a, qui est connu pour provoquer une maladie systémique mortelle chez les chiens domestiques immatures. À la connaissance des auteurs, il s'agit des premiers cas signalés de diarrhée mortelle associée au coronavirus canin de type 2a chez les chiens des buissons. Ces épidémies suggèrent que les chiens des buissons adultes sont très sensibles à l'infection par le coronavirus canin et peuvent succomber à une entérite virale.


Subject(s)
Canidae , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , United Kingdom
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576960

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread among the dog population and causes gastrointestinal disorders, and even fatal cases. As the zoonotic transmission of viruses from animals to humans has become a worldwide concern nowadays, it is necessary to screen free-roaming dogs for their common pathogens due to their frequent interaction with humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study to detect and characterize the known and novel Corona, Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses in free-roaming dogs in Bangladesh. Between 2009-10 and 2016-17, we collected swab samples from 69 dogs from four districts of Bangladesh, tested using RT-PCR and sequenced. None of the samples were positive for Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses. Only three samples (4.3%; 95% CI: 0.9-12.2) tested positive for Canine Coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV strains identified were branched with strains of genotype CCoV-II with distinct distances. They are closely related to CCoVs from the UK, China, and other CoVs isolated from different species, which suggests genetic recombination and interspecies transmission of CCoVs. These findings indicate that CCoV is circulating in dogs of Bangladesh. Hence, we recommend future studies on epidemiology and genetic characterization with full-genome sequencing of emerging coronaviruses in companion animals in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus, Canine/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Genotype , Male , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(12): 821-835, 2021 Dec.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561958

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has led to infections and deaths worldwide. Apart from humans, certain animal species are susceptible to the viral infection. Spillover between humans and animals is favored by close contact; thus, surveillance of animals is an important component to fight the pandemic from a One Health perspective. The Clinical Laboratory of the Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich has been investigating SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals since the beginning of the pandemic. In November 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 positive Swiss cat was reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS). The cat showed respiratory signs and lived in a COVID-19 affected household. By now, over 500 natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been recorded in animals worldwide. A prevalence study on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats was carried out together with clinics from Germany and Italy during the first wave of the pandemic (March-July 2020). Among the tested 1137 animals, only one cat and one dog were positive. The prevalence of infection in dogs and cats presented to veterinary clinics was low, even in pandemic hotspot regions. However, recent studies that focused on animals in COVID-19 households found a higher prevalence of infection. A study is currently underway that specifically collects samples from pets from Swiss COVID-19 affected household and collects data on human-animal interaction.


INTRODUCTION: La pandémie à nouveau coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) a entraîné des infections et des décès dans le monde entier. En dehors de l'homme, certaines espèces animales sont sensibles à cette infection virale. Le passage entre les humains et les animaux est favorisé par un contact étroit, la surveillance des animaux est donc un élément important pour lutter contre la pandémie dans une perspective One Health. Depuis le début de la pandémie, le laboratoire clinique de la faculté Vetsuisse de Zurich étudie les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les animaux. En novembre 2020, le premier chat suisse positif au SARS-CoV-2 a été signalé à l'Organisation mondiale de la santé animale (OIE-WAHIS). Le chat a montré des signes respiratoires et vivait dans un ménage touché par le COVID-19. À l'heure actuelle, plus de 500 infections naturelles au SRAS-CoV-2 ont été enregistrées chez des animaux dans le monde. Une étude de prévalence sur les infections par le SRAS-CoV-2 chez les chiens et les chats a été réalisée avec des cliniques d'Allemagne et d'Italie pendant la première vague de la pandémie (mars-juillet 2020). Parmi les 1137 animaux testés, seuls un chat et un chien étaient positifs. La prévalence de l'infection chez les chiens et les chats présentés aux cliniques vétérinaires était faible, même dans les régions fortement touchées par la pandémie. Cependant des études récentes, qui se sont concentrées sur les animaux dans les ménages COVID-19, ont révélé une prévalence d'infection plus élevée. Une étude est actuellement en cours qui collecte spécifiquement des échantillons d'animaux de compagnie des ménages suisses touchés par le COVID-19 et enregistre des données sur l'interaction homme-animal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 144: 190-195, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521511

ABSTRACT

Severe clinical diseases associated to αCoronavirus (αCoV) infections were recently demonstrated for the first time in humans and a closely related but distinct canine CoV (CCoV) variant was identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of children with pneumonia hospitalized in Malaysia, in 2017-2018. The complete genome sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated strain, CCoV-HuPn-2018, was a novel canine-feline-like recombinant virus with a unique nucleoprotein. The occurrence of three human epidemics/pandemic caused by CoVs in the recent years and the detection of CCoV-HuPn-2018, raises questions about the ability of these viruses to overcome species barriers from their reservoirs jumping to humans. Interestingly, in this perspective, it is interesting to consider the report concerning new CCoV strains with a potential dual recombinant origin through partial S-gene exchange with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) identified in pups died with acute gastroenteritis in 2009. The significance of the ability of CCoVs to evolve is still unclear, but several questions arisen on the biology of these viruses, focusing important epidemiological outcomes in the field, in terms of both virus evolution and prophylaxis. The new CCoV-Hupn-2018 should lead researchers to pay more attention to the mechanisms of recombination among CoVs, rather than to the onset of variants as a result of mutations, suggesting a continuous monitoring of these viruses and in particular of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Biology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1722-1725, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518345

ABSTRACT

We investigated the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among dogs in the Tokyo area via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the spike protein as the target antigen. Plasma samples from 494 household dogs and blood-donor dogs were tested from July 2020 to January 2021. Of these samples, three showed optical densities that were higher than the mean plus two standard deviations of the mean of the negative-control optical densities (ODs). Of these three samples, only the sample with the highest OD by ELISA was confirmed positive by virus neutralization testing. The positive dog presented no SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms. The positivity rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs in the Tokyo area was approximately 0.2%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Telemedicine , Veterinarians , Animals , Attitude , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Humans , Ownership , Pandemics , Perception , Pets , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 26: 100647, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466958

ABSTRACT

Infections with endoparasites, especially gastrointestinal helminths, are a common finding in client-owned dogs. The Community Practice section at the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSU-VMC) follows Companion Animal Parasite Council, American Animal Hospital Association, and American Veterinary Medical Association guidelines for parasitology by recommending annual fecal analyses for dogs and prescribing year-round, broad-spectrum parasite preventatives. There is increasing interest in determining if parasite occurrence is changing in client-owned dogs. Therefore, a retrospective study was designed to examine risk factors associated with the detection of parasites in samples submitted to the OSU-VMC Clinical Veterinary Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory. Of the 1198 canine fecal samples, 254 (21.2%) of these samples had a positive fecal analysis for gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The age of the dog, time of year, reproductive status, purpose of fecal examination, GI signs, and type of parasite preventatives were assessed as potential risk factors for GI parasite infection in dogs. To determine if Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospital restrictions impacted the number of fecal examinations performed, data from January to December 2020, was compared to the same period in 2019. There was nearly a 50% reduction in canine fecal samples submitted to the OSU-VMC Clinical Veterinary Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory in March 2020 compared to March 2019. At least one canine GI parasite was found in over 20% of all 1198 canine fecal samples (21.2%, 254/1198). The most commonly detected canine GI parasite in all the fecal samples was hookworm at 9.6% (115/1198), followed by Giardia sp. at 7.6% (91/1198). Age, use of parasite preventatives, breed, and reproductive status were found to be associated with parasite occurrence in the dog samples. Identifying such risk factors in dogs will guide veterinarians to advise annual fecal examinations more strongly to clients with high-risk dogs or when routine health visits are postponed for an extended period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Parasites , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390790

ABSTRACT

Despite the probable zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, only limited research efforts have been made to understand the role of companion animals in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. According to recent serological prevalence studies, human-to-companion animal transmission is quite frequent, which led us to consider that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animal to human, albeit negligible in the present context, may have been underestimated. In this study, we provide the results of a prospective survey that was conducted to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 isolation rate by qRT-PCR in dogs and cats with different exposure risks and clinical statuses. From April 2020 to April 2021, we analyzed 367 samples and investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Only four animals tested positive, all of them being cats. Three cats were asymptomatic and one presented a coryza-like syndrome. We describe in detail the infection in two cats and the associated clinical characteristics. Importantly, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 genomes from one infected animal and characterized them as Alpha variants. This represents the first identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an infected animal in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 423, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into the risk perceptions and the knowledge evolution of the public about emerging or changing health risks is vital for the improvement of health promotion activities. Currently, scientific evidence regarding the attitudes of the Romanian public towards ticks is scanty. This study aimed to identify how the lockdown enforced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Romania impacted the recreational behaviour, risk perceptions, and protective practices of the Romanian population regarding ticks. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide web-based questionnaire was designed and distributed via social media to evaluate if, and how, the COVID-19 lockdown impacted the behaviour of the Romanian public concerning ticks. The survey was available online from 6 May until 15 May 2020, which marked the last day of the travel ban in Romania. The collected data were processed by applying both uni- and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Respondents reported a higher frequency of finding ticks on themselves and their dogs during the lockdown. Bathing/showering and checking the body for ticks were the two most used protective behaviours both before and during the lockdown. Nevertheless, an overall lower usage rate of protective measures was registered during the lockdown. Almost all dog owners used a form of ectoparasite control for their dogs, and only three stopped due to lockdown-associated reasons. Respondent characteristics that were found to be positively associated with risk perceptions were being female and living in peri-urban/suburban/rural environments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spending less time outdoors during the lockdown, more respondents reported finding ticks on themselves or their dogs. Changes in the preferences for recreational locations, rates of protective practices usage, amount of time spent in specific areas, or tick seasonal activity might have contributed to this outcome. Concerning risk groups, men of all ages, senior citizens, and rural inhabitants should be targeted by the relevant Romanian authorities when promoting local or nationwide tick awareness campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Tick Infestations/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Recreation , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Romania/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tick Bites/epidemiology , Tick Infestations/prevention & control , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(3): 197-200, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356714

ABSTRACT

This article examines the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on dog-mediated rabies, a neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in >65 countries. A globally agreed strategy for rabies elimination is underpinned by a One Health approach, coordinating human and animal health sectors and engaging communities. We present data on the scale and nature of COVID-19 disruption to rabies control programmes and the wider learning for One Health implementation. We argue that the global shift in health priorities caused by the pandemic, and consequent side-lining of animal health, will have broader ramifications for One Health implementation and preparedness for future emergent zoonoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , One Health , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1669-1674, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348039

ABSTRACT

To provide more complete data on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in the U.S., we conducted a serosurvey on convenience serum samples from dogs (n=1336) and cats (n=956) collected from 48 states of the USA in 2020. An ELISA targeting the antibody against nucleocapsid identified eleven positive and two doubtful samples in cats, and five positive and five doubtful samples in dogs. A surrogate neutralization assay detecting antibodies blocking the attachment of the spike protein to ACE2 was positive with three of the ELISA positive and doubtful samples, and one of 463 randomly selected ELISA negative samples. These four positive samples were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization testing. All were from cats, in New York, Florida, and New Jersey (n=2). The serosurvey results, one of the largest yet completed on dogs and cats globally, support the OIE and CDC positions that currently there is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Public Health Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 1995-2004, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331772

ABSTRACT

This study reports outbreak of a new disease caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (S. pseudintermedius) in raccoon dogs. The disease occurred in a breeding farm of raccoon dogs in Guan County of Shandong Province in China in August of 2019. 47% (425/896) of the raccoon dogs showed some abnormal symptoms; 17.6% (75/425) of which had severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), dyspnoea and severe pathological lesions in lungs, livers, etc; and 4.2% (18/425) of which died within 4 weeks. The pathogen of the disease was identified as S. pseudintermedius by mass spectrometer detection, animal pathogenicity tests, microscopic examination and biochemical reaction tests. Its nucleotide homology of 16S rRNA gene was 100% with that of other published strains, and its genotype was between the American and Brazilian strains from other animals. The isolated S. pseudintermedius strain from the diseased raccoon dogs could cause ulceration and suppuration in the skins and severe pathological lesions not only in raccoon dogs, but also in mice; and it is confirmed as a methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strain by the amplification of mecA gene; and 12 sensitive drugs were screened by drug sensitivity tests. Full attention should be paid to the great economic loss and the potential zoonotic risk caused by the S. pseudintermedius in raccoon dogs, and this study can provide a reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this new disease.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Raccoon Dogs , Staphylococcal Infections , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Mice , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Rodent Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/veterinary , Staphylococcus
16.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325789

ABSTRACT

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(8): 662-668, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogens among asymptomatic client-owned dogs, and to compare the risks of asymptomatic pathogen carriage between client-owned dogs and dogs in an animal shelter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled tonsillar, conjunctival and nasal cavity swabs from asymptomatic client-owned dogs (n=133) were tested using a real-time polymerase chain reaction canine respiratory panel. Identical samples from asymptomatic dogs in an animal shelter (n=295) were similarly tested for selected pathogens. Risk differences were calculated between client-owned dogs and shelter dogs for each of the respiratory pathogens included in the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 of 133 (11.3%) asymptomatic client-owned dogs were positive for at least one pathogen in the complex. Seven dogs (6.1%) were positive for M. cynos, six (5.2%) were positive for B. bronchiseptica, two (1.7%) were positive for canine herpesvirus type 1 and two (1.7%) were positive for canine respiratory coronavirus. For all eight pathogens tested in both groups, the proportion of positive cases was higher among shelter dogs than among client-owned dogs. Shelter dogs had a higher risk for M. cynos (0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.25), canine respiratory coronavirus (0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.19), canine distemper virus (0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.09), and canine pneumovirus (0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.08) than client-owned dogs. Odds ratios for M. cynos (0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.92) and canine respiratory coronavirus (0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.18) were significantly different between client-owned and shelter dogs. In all cases except for canine herpesvirus type 1, dogs within the shelter population were observed to be at higher risk of exhibiting asymptomatic carriage of a respiratory pathogen as compared to client-owned dogs. The strength of this association was strongest for M. cynos and canine respiratory coronavirus. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The risk of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogen exposure posed by asymptomatic client-owned dogs is poorly defined. This study also corroborates previous reports of high canine infectious respiratory disease prevalence among clinically healthy shelter dogs, and further determined that the overall prevalence of canine infectious respiratory disease pathogen carriage among clinically healthy client-owned dogs is low but is highest for the traditional pathogen B. bronchiseptica and the emerging pathogen M. cynos.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Dog Diseases , Respiratory Tract Infections , Animals , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 1-3, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275696

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the reality of the COVID situation as well as a series of hygienic measures that owners can adopt in relation to the handling and care of their pets (dogs, cats) including objects that can act as fomite.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Pets , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Habits , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 591-597, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241029

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis and economic losses. Although several cases of cats and dogs infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported during this outbreak, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in dog and its transmission among other companion animals are still unknown. Here, we report an extensive serological study of SARS-CoV-2 infection in dogs in Wuhan and analyse the infection rates at different stages of the pandemic outbreak. A total of 946 dogs serum samples were collected from Wuhan, of which 36 samples were obtained prior to the pandemic outbreak. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 16 sera collected during the outbreak were detected as positive through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Of these 16 sera, 10 exhibited measurable SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies whose titres ranged from 1/20 to 1/180. No serological cross-reactivity was detected between SARS-CoV-2 and canine coronavirus (CCV). Furthermore, with the effective control of the outbreak, a decrease in the SARS-CoV-2 seropositive dog number was observed. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 has infected companion dogs during the outbreak, and that COVID-19 patient families have a higher risk of dog infection. Our findings deepen our understanding of the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in dogs and provide an important reference for prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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