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1.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105548, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799780

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is generally thought of as a mild, but highly contagious, enteritis of young dogs. This study was to investigate the molecular detection and characteristics of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China. 218 canine fecal samples were collected from four animal hospitals and one animal shelter from 2020 to 2021. Fifty-nine CCoV-positive samples were detected by RT-PCR, including 40 CCoV-I, 25 CCoV-IIa, one CCoV-IIb and 10 untyped. To further analyze the genetic diversity of CCoV, we amplified ten complete spike (S) genes, including four CCoV-I and six CCoV-II strains. The amino acid sequence obtained in this study revealed 85.95% ± 12.55% homology with the reference strains. Moreover, in the N-terminal structural domain, there were two amino acid insertions (17QQ18) in two strains of CCoV-I and four amino acid insertions (95IGTN98) in CCoV-IIb strain. Interestingly, we identified that the S1/S2 cleavage site of the S protein of CCoV strains (SWU-SSX3 and SWU-SSX10) were consistent with feline coronavirus (FCoV). In the evolutionary tree, a strain of CCoV-I (SWU-SSX10) was found to be more closely related to FCoV, while SWU-SSX7 of CCoV-IIb was more closely related to coronavirus from the Chinese ferret badger. In addition, for the first time, recombination in a CCoV-IIb strain was found to occur between two subtypes occurring in the C domain of the S1 subunit, with a breakpoint starting at 2141 nt. The results enriched the epidemiological information of CCoV and provided an important reference for the prevention of CCoV in Chengdu city, Southwest China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Phylogeny
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 769898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775977

ABSTRACT

Background: In Africa, rabies causes an estimated 24,000 human deaths annually. Mass dog vaccinations coupled with timely post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for dog-bite patients are the main interventions to eliminate human rabies deaths. A well-informed healthcare workforce and the availability and accessibility of rabies biologicals at health facilities are critical in reducing rabies deaths. We assessed awareness and knowledge regarding rabies and the management of rabies among healthcare workers, and PEP availability in rural eastern Kenya. Methodology: We interviewed 73 healthcare workers from 42 healthcare units in 13 wards in Makueni and Kibwezi West sub-counties, Makueni County, Kenya in November 2018. Data on demographics, years of work experience, knowledge of rabies, management of bite and rabies patients, and availability of rabies biologicals were collected and analyzed. Results: Rabies PEP vaccines were available in only 5 (12%) of 42 health facilities. None of the health facilities had rabies immunoglobulins in stock at the time of the study. PEP was primarily administered intramuscularly, with only 11% (n = 8) of the healthcare workers and 17% (7/42) healthcare facilities aware of the dose-sparing intradermal route. Less than a quarter of the healthcare workers were aware of the World Health Organization categorization of bite wounds that guides the use of PEP. Eighteen percent (n = 13) of healthcare workers reported they would administer PEP for category I exposures even though PEP is not recommended for this category of exposure. Only one of six respondents with acute encephalitis consultation considered rabies as a differential diagnosis highlighting the low index of suspicion for rabies. Conclusion: The availability and use of PEP for rabies was sub-optimal. We identified two urgent needs to support rabies elimination programmes: improving availability and access to PEP; and targeted training of the healthcare workers to improve awareness on bite wound management, judicious use of PEP including appropriate risk assessment following bites and the use of the dose-sparing intradermal route in facilities seeing multiple bite patients. Global and domestic funding plan that address these gaps in the human health sector is needed for efficient rabies elimination in Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Health Services Needs and Demand , Rabies , Rural Health , Animals , Bites and Stings/therapy , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/supply & distribution , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Rabies Vaccines/supply & distribution
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 143: 81-87, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586571

ABSTRACT

Since the initial emergence in December 2019, the novel Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in over 200 countries, representing an unprecedented challenge related to disease control worldwide. In this context, cases of human to animal transmission have been reported, raising concern about the potential role of companion animals in the pandemic and stressing the need for reliable animal testing. In the study, a detailed epitope mapping of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, using both human and pet sera, allowed the identification of the most antigenic region in the C-terminus domain of the protein, which was used to develop an experimental double antigen-based ELISA. A panel of pre-pandemic sera and sera of animals immunized against (or naturally infected with) related coronaviruses was used to assess assay specificity at 99.5%. Positive sera belonging to animals housed with COVID-19 patients were confirmed with the experimental double-antigen ELISA using Plaque Reduction Neutralization test (PRNT) test as gold standard. The availability of a serological assay that targets a highly specific viral antigen represents a valuable tool for multispecies monitoring of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in susceptible animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Dog Diseases , Epitope Mapping , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Epitope Mapping/veterinary , Humans , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
5.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576960

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is widespread among the dog population and causes gastrointestinal disorders, and even fatal cases. As the zoonotic transmission of viruses from animals to humans has become a worldwide concern nowadays, it is necessary to screen free-roaming dogs for their common pathogens due to their frequent interaction with humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study to detect and characterize the known and novel Corona, Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses in free-roaming dogs in Bangladesh. Between 2009-10 and 2016-17, we collected swab samples from 69 dogs from four districts of Bangladesh, tested using RT-PCR and sequenced. None of the samples were positive for Filo, Flavi, and Paramyxoviruses. Only three samples (4.3%; 95% CI: 0.9-12.2) tested positive for Canine Coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV strains identified were branched with strains of genotype CCoV-II with distinct distances. They are closely related to CCoVs from the UK, China, and other CoVs isolated from different species, which suggests genetic recombination and interspecies transmission of CCoVs. These findings indicate that CCoV is circulating in dogs of Bangladesh. Hence, we recommend future studies on epidemiology and genetic characterization with full-genome sequencing of emerging coronaviruses in companion animals in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus, Canine/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Genotype , Male , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481013

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) descriptions of infection and transmission have been increasing in companion animals in the past year. Although canine susceptibility is generally considered low, their role in the COVID-19 disease cycle remains unknown. In this study, we detected and sequenced a delta variant (AY.3) from a 12-year-old Collie living with owners that previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear if the dogs' symptoms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection or underlying conditions. The whole genome sequence obtained from the dog sample had several unique consensus level changes not previously identified in a SARS-CoV-2 genome that may play a role in the rapid adaptation from humans to dogs. Within the spike coding region, 5/7 of the subconsensus variants identified in the dog sequence were also identified in the closest in-house human reference case. Taken together, the whole genome sequence, and phylogenetic and subconsensus variant analyses indicate the virus infecting the animal originated from a local outbreak cluster. The results of these analyses emphasize the importance of rapid detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in companion animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Dogs , Kansas , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48469-48477, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of developing surfaces and coatings with antiviral activity. Here, we present, for the first time, peptide-based assemblies that can kill viruses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assemblies is in the range tens of micrograms per milliliter. This value is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the MIC of metal nanoparticles. When applied on a surface, by drop casting, the peptide spherical assemblies adhere to the surface and form an antiviral coating against both RNA- and DNA-based viruses including coronavirus. Our results show that the coating reduced the number of T4 bacteriophages (DNA-based virus) by 3 log, compared with an untreated surface and 6 log, when compared with a stock solution. Importantly, we showed that this coating completely inactivated canine coronavirus (RNA-based virus). This peptide-based coating can be useful wherever sterile surfaces are needed to reduce the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dihydroxyphenylalanine/chemistry , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
8.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390790

ABSTRACT

Despite the probable zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2, only limited research efforts have been made to understand the role of companion animals in SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology. According to recent serological prevalence studies, human-to-companion animal transmission is quite frequent, which led us to consider that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animal to human, albeit negligible in the present context, may have been underestimated. In this study, we provide the results of a prospective survey that was conducted to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 isolation rate by qRT-PCR in dogs and cats with different exposure risks and clinical statuses. From April 2020 to April 2021, we analyzed 367 samples and investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using qRT-PCR. Only four animals tested positive, all of them being cats. Three cats were asymptomatic and one presented a coryza-like syndrome. We describe in detail the infection in two cats and the associated clinical characteristics. Importantly, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 genomes from one infected animal and characterized them as Alpha variants. This represents the first identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant in an infected animal in France.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pets/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1669-1674, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348039

ABSTRACT

To provide more complete data on SARS-CoV-2 infections in dogs and cats in the U.S., we conducted a serosurvey on convenience serum samples from dogs (n=1336) and cats (n=956) collected from 48 states of the USA in 2020. An ELISA targeting the antibody against nucleocapsid identified eleven positive and two doubtful samples in cats, and five positive and five doubtful samples in dogs. A surrogate neutralization assay detecting antibodies blocking the attachment of the spike protein to ACE2 was positive with three of the ELISA positive and doubtful samples, and one of 463 randomly selected ELISA negative samples. These four positive samples were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization testing. All were from cats, in New York, Florida, and New Jersey (n=2). The serosurvey results, one of the largest yet completed on dogs and cats globally, support the OIE and CDC positions that currently there is no evidence that pets play a role in the spread of SARS CoV-2 in humans.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Public Health Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325792

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people globally since its first detection in late 2019. Besides humans, cats and, to some extent, dogs were shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for surveillance in a One Health context. Seven veterinary clinics from regions with high incidences of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were recruited during the early pandemic (March to July 2020) for the screening of patients. A total of 2257 oropharyngeal and nasal swab specimen from 877 dogs and 260 cats (including 18 animals from COVID-19-affected households and 92 animals with signs of respiratory disease) were analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the viral envelope (E) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes. One oropharyngeal swab from an Italian cat, living in a COVID-19-affected household in Piedmont, tested positive in RT-qPCR (1/260; 0.38%, 95% CI: 0.01-2.1%), and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the animal was serologically confirmed six months later. One oropharyngeal swab from a dog was potentially positive (1/877; 0.1%, 95% CI: 0.002-0.63%), but the result was not confirmed in a reference laboratory. Analyses of convenience sera from 118 animals identified one dog (1/94; 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.02-5.7%) from Lombardy, but no cats (0/24), as positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing activity. These findings support the hypothesis that the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cat and dog populations, and hence, the risk of zoonotic transmission to veterinary staff, was low during the first wave of the pandemic, even in hotspot areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325789

ABSTRACT

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Croatia/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314764

ABSTRACT

Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets has been widely documented during the last year. Although the majority of reports suggested that dogs' susceptibility to the infection is low, little is known about viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the case of variants of concern, such as B.1.1.7 in this species. Here, as part of a large-scale study on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in pets in Spain, we have detected the B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) in a dog whose owners were infected with SARS-CoV-2. The animal did not present any symptoms, but viral loads were high in the nasal and rectal swabs. In addition, viral isolation was possible from both swabs, demonstrating that the dog was shedding infectious virus. Seroconversion occurred 23 days after the first sampling. This study documents the first detection of B.1.1.7 VOC in a dog in Spain and emphasizes the importance of performing active surveillance and genomic investigation on infected animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Dogs , Genome, Viral , Male , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spain/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/virology
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314759

ABSTRACT

The epidemiological role of domestic animals in the spread and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans has been investigated in recent reports, but some aspects need to be further clarified. To date, only in rare cases have dogs and cats living with COVID-19 patients been found to harbour SARS-CoV-2, with no evidence of pet-to-human transmission. The aim of the present study was to verify whether dogs and cats act as passive mechanical carriers of SARS-CoV-2 when they live in close contact with COVID-19 patients. Cutaneous and interdigital swabs collected from 48 dogs and 15 cats owned by COVID-19 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR. The time elapsed between owner swab positivity and sample collection from pets ranged from 1 to 72 days, with a median time of 23 days for dogs and 39 days for cats. All samples tested negative, suggesting that pets do not passively carry SARS-CoV-2 on their hair and pads, and thus they likely do not play an important role in the virus transmission to humans. This data may contribute to confirming that the direct contact with the hair and pads of pets does not represent a route for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Hair/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin/virology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cat Diseases/transmission , Cats , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Humans
15.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286939

ABSTRACT

Feline panleukopenia is a severe disease of cats caused by feline parvovirus (FPV), and marginally canine parvovirus (CPV). Despite being less rapid than CPV, FPV evolution deserves attention, especially since outbreaks of particular severity are currently reported. This apparently different virulence needs monitoring from genetic and clinical points of view. This manuscript explored FPV molecular epidemiology at both Italian and international levels and the possible association between viral phylogeny and disease severity. Sequences from clinical cases of feline panleukopenia in Italy were obtained from 2011 to 2019, and the etiological agent was characterized, distinguishing FPV from CPV. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses were conducted on Italian and international sequences. Moreover, the association between the viral sequence and clinical variables was evaluated on a group of highly characterized patients. After its origin in the 1920s, FPV showed a constant population size until a more recent expansion since 2000. Few long-distance introduction events characterized FPV spreading, however, most of its evolution occurred locally. Although without a strong statistical association, several clinical variables appeared influenced by viral phylogeny, suggesting a differential virulence potentially characterizing FPV strains. These results stress the importance of the continuous study of viral evolution and its repercussions on the disease clinical aspects.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Feline Panleukopenia Virus/classification , Feline Panleukopenia Virus/genetics , Feline Panleukopenia/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Animals , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , DNA, Viral/genetics , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Feline Panleukopenia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009414, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238752

ABSTRACT

In Latin America, there has been tremendous progress towards eliminating canine rabies. Major components of rabies elimination programs leading to these successes have been constant and regular surveillance for rabid dogs and uninterrupted yearly mass dog vaccination campaigns. Unfortunately, vital measures to control COVID-19 have had the negative trade-off of jeopardizing these rabies elimination and prevention activities. We aimed to assess the effect of interrupting canine rabies surveillance and mass dog vaccination campaigns on rabies trends. We built a deterministic compartment model of dog rabies dynamics to create a conceptual framework for how different disruptions may affect rabies virus transmission. We parameterized the model for conditions found in Arequipa, Peru, a city with active rabies virus transmission. We examined our results over a range of plausible values for R0 (1.36-2.0). Also, we prospectively evaluated surveillance data during the pandemic to detect temporal changes. Our model suggests that a decrease in canine vaccination coverage as well as decreased surveillance could lead to a sharp rise in canine rabies within months. These results were consistent over all plausible values of R0. Surveillance data from late 2020 and early 2021 confirms that in Arequipa, Peru, rabies cases are on an increasing trajectory. The rising rabies trends in Arequipa, if indicative to the region as whole, suggest that the achievements made in Latin America towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies may be in jeopardy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/veterinary , Pandemics , Rabies virus/immunology , Rabies/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Eradication , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/virology , Rabies Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccination Coverage
17.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234836

ABSTRACT

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats/virology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Texas/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248578, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150545

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel Betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a public health emergency worldwide. Few reports indicate that owned pets from households with at least one human resident that was diagnosed with COVID-19 can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, the exposure to SARS-CoV-2 of pets from households with no COVID-19 cases or stray animals remains less assessed. Using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90), we investigated the infection and previous exposure of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June to August 2020, 96 animals were sampled, including 49 cats (40 owned and 9 stray) and 47 dogs (42 owned and 5 stray). Regarding owned pets, 75.6% (62/82) belonged to households with no COVID-19 cases. Samples included serum, and rectal and oropharyngeal swabs. All swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but serum samples of a stray cat and a stray dog presented neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, with PRNT90 titer of 80 and 40, respectively. Serological data presented here suggest that not only owned pets from households with COVID19 cases, but also stray animals are being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cat Diseases/pathology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Dog Diseases/pathology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Male , Oropharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Trop Biomed ; 37(4): 963-972, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103244

ABSTRACT

Canine Enteric Coronavirus (CCoV) is one of the major enteric pathogen affecting dogs. This study aims to investigate the molecular prevalence, phylogenetic analysis, associated risk factors, and haemato-biochemical alterations in Canine Coronavirus in dogs in district Lahore, Pakistan. 450 fecal samples were collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various pet-clinics and kennels during 2018-2019. Samples were initially analyzed by sandwich lateral flow immunochromatographic assay and then further processed by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) targeting the M gene followed by sequencing. RT-PCR based positive (n=20) and negative (n=20) dogs were samples for their blood for the haemato-biochemical analysis. A questionnaire was used to collect data from pet owners, in order to analyze the data for risk factors analysis by chi square test on SPSS. The prevalence of CCoV was 35.1%, and 23.8 % through Sandwich lateral flow immunochromatographic and RT-PCR respectively. Various risk factors like breed, age, sex, vomiting, diarrhea, sample source, body size, cohabitation with other animals, living environment, food, deworming history, contact with other animals or birds feces, and season were significantly associated with CCoV. The CCoV identified in Pakistan were 98% similar with the isolates from China (KT 192675, 1), South Korea (HM 130573, 1), Brazil (GU 300134, 1), Colombia (MH 717721, 1), United Kingdom (JX 082356, 1) and Tunisia (KX156806). Haematobiochemical alterations in CCoV affected dogs revealed anaemia, leucopenia, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and decreased packed cell volume, and a significant increase in alkaline phosphate and alanine transaminase. It is concluded that infection with canine coronavirus appears widespread among dog populations in district Lahore, Pakistan. This study is the first report regarding the molecular detection and sequence analysis of CCoV in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Dog Diseases/blood , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/metabolism , Dogs , Female , Immunoassay , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Risk Factors
20.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085161

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/transmission , Immunoglobulins/blood , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Spain , Zoonoses/virology
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