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1.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(6): 1015-1019, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153397

ABSTRACT

Albendazole is a widely used anthelmintic drug that is labeled for the treatment of specific nematodes and flukes in ruminants. Albendazole is approved for the treatment of liver flukes in goats (10 mg/kg PO for a single dose), but is commonly used extra-label in situations in which parasite resistance is an issue. Albendazole toxicosis has been reported in pigeons, doves, alpacas, humans, dogs, and cats. Here we report an adverse event in a 6-mo-old goat associated with extra-label use of albendazole (35.7 mg/kg PO daily for 3 d). Clinicopathologic findings included severe diarrhea and death, with small intestinal crypt necrosis and dysplasia, and severe bone marrow hypoplasia. Microbial and molecular testing and transmission electron microscopy ruled out infectious organisms. The described pathologic changes are similar to those reported in other species that have experienced toxicosis associated with albendazole. To our knowledge, bone marrow and intestinal lesions associated with albendazole use in the goat have not been reported previously. Veterinarians should be aware of potential adverse events and toxicoses associated with anthelmintic drugs, especially as parasite resistance increases, and extra-label usage, and the use of such drugs without veterinary supervision, becomes more common.


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics , Dog Diseases , Goat Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Albendazole/adverse effects , Goats , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Bone Marrow , Goat Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/adverse effects , Ruminants , Dog Diseases/drug therapy
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(47): 1496-1502, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145602

ABSTRACT

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis, is acquired by drinking water containing small crustacean copepods (water fleas) infected with D. medinensis larvae. Recent evidence suggests that the parasite also appears to be transmitted by eating fish or other aquatic animals. About 1 year after infection, the worm typically emerges through the skin on a lower limb of the host, causing pain and disability (1). No vaccine or medicine is available to prevent or treat dracunculiasis. Eradication relies on case containment* to prevent water contamination and other interventions to prevent infection, including health education, water filtration, treatment of unsafe water with temephos (an organophosphate larvicide), and provision of safe drinking water (1,2). CDC began worldwide eradication efforts in October 1980, and in 1984 was designated by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the technical monitor of the Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (1). In 1986, with an estimated 3.5 million cases† occurring annually in 20 African and Asian countries§ (3), the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination. The Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP),¶ led by The Carter Center and supported by partners that include WHO, UNICEF, and CDC, began assisting ministries of health in countries with endemic disease. In 2021, a total of 15 human cases were identified and three were identified during January-June 2022. As of November 2022, dracunculiasis remained endemic in five countries (Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan); cases reported in Cameroon were likely imported from Chad. Eradication efforts in these countries are challenged by infection in animals, the COVID-19 pandemic, civil unrest, and insecurity. Animal infections, mostly in domestic dogs, some domestic cats, and in Ethiopia, a few baboons, have now surpassed human cases, with 863 reported animal infections in 2021 and 296 during January-June 2022. During the COVID-19 pandemic all national GWEPs remained fully operational, implementing precautions to ensure safety of program staff members and community members. In addition, the progress toward eradication and effectiveness of interventions were reviewed at the 2021 and 2022 annual meetings of GWEP program managers, and the 2021 meeting of WHO's International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication. With only 15 human cases identified in 2021 and three during January-June 2022, program efforts appear to be closer to reaching the goal of eradication. However, dog infections and impeded access because of civil unrest and insecurity in Mali and South Sudan continue to be the greatest challenges for the program. This report describes progress during January 2021-June 2022 and updates previous reports (2,4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dracunculiasis , Drinking Water , Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Dracunculiasis/epidemiology , Dracunculiasis/prevention & control , Dracunculiasis/veterinary , Pandemics , Disease Eradication
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140629

ABSTRACT

Pet ownership is an integral part of a modern-day family. It provides a wide range of benefits to humans. However, data on pet ownership are relatively limited from rural regions, Southern Asia and low-middle-income countries. We aim to report the prevalence and associated factors for pet ownership and veterinary visits in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine significant associations between variables of interest and pet ownership (p < 0.05). Out of the 532 households, 57% currently owned a pet. The most common pet was the dog owned by 41% of the households and the cat was the second most owned by 17%. Security (69% - 152/220) was the most common role for dogs at home while it was companionship for cats (31% - 27/88) and hobby for both birds (64% - 18/28) and fish (54% - 14/26). Most dogs (54% - 118/220) had one veterinary visit within the last year. Households with >1 adult female [p = 0.02; OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.36)], participants living alone [p = 0.03; OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.86)] and Buddhists [p = 0.02; OR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.63)] were significantly associated with pet ownership. Pet ownership is common among people in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, with a few demographic factors having a significant association with pet ownership. Dogs are the most common type of pet and highlight the opportunity for research related to canine companionship and human health. Future research on such topics should consider the above-mentioned socio-demographic predictors as potential confounders.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Ownership , Adult , Dogs , Humans , Animals , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sri Lanka , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Appl Anim Welf Sci ; 25(2): 139-152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134269

ABSTRACT

Animal narratives have not been a major part of the coronavirus pandemic other than to frame animals as "epidemic villains" whose relations with humans are either zoonotic or pathological. In this context, this article considers stories of compassion from Kerala, where activists and ordinary people started feeding stray dogs and other street animals during the state instituted lockdowns. State sanction and media coverage of feeding these hungry animals allowed them to be instated as part of a multispecies community in the pandemic, allowing them for the first time, legitimized access to food and water. Compassion was prescribed and validated on the basis of perceiving suffering synergistically or as mutually experienced during the pandemic. However, a linear history of compassion cannot be constructed as Kerala has an antagonistic relationship with street dogs framing them as violent free-ranging dogs that carry diseases and attack people. This article draws on insights gleaned from multispecies ethnography to explore the hidden everyday lives of the animals during the pandemic. It raises questions about how people come to occupy relations of care in societies where animal suffering is not acknowledged and explores the possibilities opened by the way compassion was constructed as a practical and moral value during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Hunger , Animals , Dogs , Humans , India
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(11)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119458

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Previous research demonstrated that medical scent detection dogs have the ability to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 positive from negative samples with high diagnostic accuracy. To deploy these dogs as a reliable screening method, it is mandatory to examine if canines maintain their high diagnostic accuracy in real-life screening settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the performance of medical scent detection dogs under real-life circumstances. METHODS: Eight dogs were trained to detect SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-positive samples. Four concerts with a total of 2802 participants were held to evaluate canines' performance in screening individuals for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sweat samples were taken from all participants and presented in a line-up setting. In addition, every participant had been tested with a SARS-CoV-2 specific rapid antigen test and a RT-qPCR and they provided information regarding age, sex, vaccination status and medical disease history. The participants' infection status was unknown at the time of canine testing. Safety measures such as mask wearing and distance keeping were ensured. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 detection dogs achieved a diagnostic specificity of 99.93% (95% CI 99.74% to 99.99%) and a sensitivity of 81.58% (95% CI 66.58% to 90.78%), respectively. The overall rate of concordant results was 99.68%. The majority of the study population was vaccinated with varying vaccines and vaccination schemes, while several participants had chronic diseases and were under chronic medication. This did not influence dogs' decisions. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 scent detection dogs achieved high diagnostic accuracy in a real-life scenario. The vaccination status, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, chronic disease and medication of the participants did not influence the performance of the dogs in detecting the acute infection. This indicates that dogs provide a fast and reliable screening option for public events in which high-throughput screening is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Dogs , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Mass Screening
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109937

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19, is difficult to control as some positive individuals, capable of transmitting the disease, can be asymptomatic. Thus, it remains critical to generate noninvasive, inexpensive COVID-19 screening systems. Two such methods include detection canines and analytical instrumentation, both of which detect volatile organic compounds associated with SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the performance of trained detection dogs is compared to a noninvasive headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) approach to identifying COVID-19 positive individuals. Five dogs were trained to detect the odor signature associated with COVID-19. They varied in performance, with the two highest-performing dogs averaging 88% sensitivity and 95% specificity over five double-blind tests. The three lowest-performing dogs averaged 46% sensitivity and 87% specificity. The optimized linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model, developed using HS-SPME-GC-MS, displayed a 100% true positive rate and a 100% true negative rate using leave-one-out cross-validation. However, the non-optimized LDA model displayed difficulty in categorizing animal hair-contaminated samples, while animal hair did not impact the dogs' performance. In conclusion, the HS-SPME-GC-MS approach for noninvasive COVID-19 detection more accurately discriminated between COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative samples; however, dogs performed better than the computational model when non-ideal samples were presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Odorants , Dogs , Animals , Odorants/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099860

ABSTRACT

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that interacts with substrates, including microbial metabolites. Recent advances reveal that AhR is involved in the host response to coronaviruses (CoVs) infection. Particularly, AhR antagonists decrease the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via AhR up-regulation, resulting in suppression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in mammalian cells. Herein, we report that AhR is expressed in canine fibrosarcoma (A72) cells, where it is considerably activated by infection with genotype II of canine coronavirus (CCoV-II). The pharmacological inhibition of AhR, by CH223191, suppressed cell death signs and increased cell viability. Furthermore, the AhR antagonist induced a meaningful decline in virus yield, accompanied by the inhibition of the expression of viral nuclear protein (NP). Fascinatingly, during CCoV infection, a novel co-expression of NP and AhR expression was found. Taken together, our preliminary findings show that infection with CCoV activates AhR, and pharmacologic AhR inhibition reduces CCoV replication, identifying AhR as a possible candidate target for CCoV antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Canine , Dogs , Animals , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Mammals
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099525

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, triggering one of the most challenging pandemics in the human population. In light of the reporting of this virus in domestic and wild animals from several parts of the world, a systematic surveillance study was conceptualized to detect SARS-CoV-2 among species of veterinary importance. Nasal and/or rectal samples of 413 animals (dogs n= 195, cattle n = 64, horses n = 42, goats n = 41, buffaloes n = 39, sheep n = 19, cats n = 6, camels n = 6, and a monkey n = 1) were collected from different places in the Gujarat state of India. RNA was extracted from the samples and subjected to RT-qPCR-based quantification of the target sequences in viral nucleoprotein (N), spike (S), and ORF1ab genes. A total of 95 (23.79%) animals were found positive, comprised of n = 67 (34.35%) dogs, n= 15 (23.43%) cattle, and n = 13 (33.33%) buffaloes. Whole SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing was done from one sample (ID-A4N, from a dog), where 32 mutations, including 29 single-nucleotide variations (SNV) and 2 deletions, were detected. Among them, nine mutations were located in the receptor binding domain of the spike (S) protein. The consequent changes in the amino acid sequence revealed T19R, G142D, E156-, F157-, A222V, L452R, T478K, D614G, and P681R mutations in the S protein and D63G, R203M, and D377Y in the N protein. The lineage assigned to this SARS-CoV-2 sequence is B.1.617.2. Thus, the present study highlights the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from human to animals and suggests being watchful for zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Horses , Sheep , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Buffaloes , Pandemics , Mutation
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(11): e0105822, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097912

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been the cause of human pandemic infection since late 2019. SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals has also been reported both naturally and experimentally, rendering awareness about a potential source of infection for one health concern. Here, we describe an epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 639 cats and 224 dogs throughout multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in Thailand. To indicate the potential source of infection, we performed SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing of samples obtained from pets and contacted humans, combined with in-depth interviews to support the epidemiological investigation. In the tested animals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in 23 cases (19 cats and 4 dogs). Whole-genome sequencing of selected samples showed various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, which included the original European lineage (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617), and Omicron (BA.2). Among SARS-CoV-2-positive pets, 34.78% had evidence of contact with infected humans. Together with genomic analysis and an overlapping timeline, we revealed evidence of viral transmission from infected humans as the primary source, which spread to household cats via an undefined mode of transmission and most likely circulated between cohoused cats and caretakers within the weeks before the investigation. The SARS-CoV-2 surface glycoprotein (spike gene) obtained from caretakers of individual cats contained sequence signatures found in the sequences of infected cats, indicating possible exposure to the virus excreted by cats. Although pet-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered relatively rare, our study provides suspected episodes of human infection from animals that were initially infected through contact with infected humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2425-2434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive. This discordance might be caused by delays in sampling. Respondents commonly reported close human‒animal contact and willingness to take measures to prevent transmission to their pets. Reported preventive measures showed a slightly protective but nonsignificant trend for both illness and seropositivity in pets. Sharing of beds and bowls had slight harmful effects, reaching statistical significance for sharing bowls and seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Humans , Animals , Dogs , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Idaho/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 209: 105792, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086629

ABSTRACT

Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is a pathogenic virus that infects dogs worldwide, causing enteric issues and causing harm to the dog industry and dogs. Although CCoV is not recognized as a highly lethal canine intestinal pathogen, it has been reported that CCoV is significantly associated with canine diarrhea in dogs. CCoV is a common health problem in dogs, attracting major concern from veterinarians and dog owners across China. In this study, we summarized the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of CCoV in dogs in mainland China. The study revealed that the pooled prevalence of CCoV infection was 33%, and which associated with age, but not with sex, season and immunization status. In addition, the study also further suggested that CCoV-II was the predominant CCoV subtype in Chinese dogs. This study will provide valuable information for CCoV infections across China and other countries. Furthermore, this study also suggested that continuous surveillance and epidemiological studies of CCoV are necessary.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dog Diseases , Veterinarians , Dogs , Animals , Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 370, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has infected several animal species, including dogs, presumably via human-to-animal transmission. Most infected dogs reported were asymptomatic, with low viral loads. However, in this case we detected SARS-CoV-2 in a dog from the North African coastal Spanish city of Ceuta presenting hemorrhagic diarrhea, a disease also reported earlier on in an infected dog from the USA. CASE PRESENTATION: In early January 2021, a West Highland Terrier pet dog from Ceuta (Spain) presented hemorrhagic diarrhea with negative tests for candidate microbial pathogens. Since the animal was in a household whose members suffered SARS-CoV-2 in December 2020, dog feces were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2, proving positive in a two-tube RT-PCR test, with confirmation by sequencing a 399-nucleotide region of the spike (S) gene. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) covered > 90% SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence, allowing to classify it as variant B.1.177. Remarkably, the sequence revealed the Ile402Val substitution in the spike protein (S), of potential concern because it mapped in the receptor binding domain (RBD) that mediates virus interaction with the cell. NGS reads mapping to bacterial genomes showed that the dog fecal microbiome fitted best the characteristic microbiome of dog's acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Our findings exemplify dog infection stemming from the human SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, providing nearly complete-genome sequencing of the virus, which is recognized as belonging to the B.1.177 variant, adding knowledge on variant circulation in a geographic region and period for which there was little viral variant characterization. A single amino acid substitution found in the S protein that could have been of concern is excluded to belong to this category given its rarity and intrinsic nature. The dog's pathology suggests that SARS-CoV-2 could affect the gastrointestinal tract of the dog.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Humans , Nucleotides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
J Nat Prod ; 85(11): 2583-2591, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062146

ABSTRACT

Dihydromaniwamycin E (1), a new maniwamycin derivative featuring an azoxy moiety, has been isolated from the culture extract of thermotolerant Streptomyces sp. JA74 along with the known analogue maniwamycin E (2). Compound 1 is produced only by cultivation of strain JA74 at 45 °C, and this type of compound has been previously designated a "heat shock metabolite (HSM)" by our research group. Compound 2 is detected as a production-enhanced metabolite at high temperature. Structures of 1 and 2 are elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The absolute structure of 1 is determined after the total synthesis of four stereoisomers. Though the absolute structure of 2 has been proposed to be the same as the structure of maniwamycin D, the NMR and the optical rotation value of 2 are in agreement with those of maniwamycin E. Therefore, this study proposes a structural revision of maniwamycins D and E. Compounds 1 and 2 show inhibitory activity against the influenza (H1N1) virus infection of MDCK cells, demonstrating IC50 values of 25.7 and 63.2 µM, respectively. Notably, 1 and 2 display antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, when used to infect 293TA and VeroE6T cells, with 1 and 2 showing IC50 values (for infection of 293TA cells) of 19.7 and 9.7 µM, respectively. The two compounds do not exhibit cytotoxicity in these cell lines at those IC50 concentrations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Azo Compounds , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptomyces , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Azo Compounds/pharmacology , Heat-Shock Response , HEK293 Cells , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Streptomyces/chemistry , Streptomyces/metabolism , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs
14.
J Virol Methods ; 310: 114628, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061611

ABSTRACT

Enrichment of viral infectious titers following its propagation by cell culture is desirable for various experimental studies. The performance of an ultrafiltration (UF) process to concentrate infectious titers of non-enveloped Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and enveloped Feline coronavirus (FCoV) obtained from cell culture supernatants was evaluated in this study, and compared with ultracentrifugation (UC) process. A mean gain of > 1.0 log10 TCID50/mL was obtained for CPV-2 with UF, which was comparable with the gain obtained by UC. On the other hand, the gain was lower (0.7-1.0 log10 TCID50/mL) for FCoV with UF in contrast to UC (> 2.0 log10 TCID50/mL). However, the lower retentate volume following UC (∼120 fold) compared to that following UF (∼10 fold) for either of the viruses suggests a trend of increased infectious titer retention in UF concentrates relative to UC concentrates. The simplistic UF process evaluated here thus has the potential for use in applications requiring increased infectious titers of CPV-2 and FCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus, Feline , Parvovirus, Canine , Viruses , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Ultrafiltration , Cell Culture Techniques
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3336-e3345, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053027

ABSTRACT

Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis (Piana & Galli-Valerio, 1895) is emerging in new regions in Europe since its vector Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) is expanding its geographic range. In the Berlin/Brandenburg area in northeast Germany, D. reticulatus is highly abundant but in the past only one autochthonous B. canis infection was reported. Since 2015, autochthonous cases were occasionally diagnosed but numbers increased since autumn 2019. The aim of the study was to genotype autochthonous canine Babesia spp. infections from Berlin/Brandenburg. Between 04/2015 and 01/2022, 46 dogs with acute babesiosis were presented to the small animal clinic (one dog was infected twice resulting in 47 samples). There were 32 dogs that had never left Berlin/Brandenburg and 14 others that had not left the region in the 6 weeks prior to disease onset. PCRs targeting the 18S rRNA and the Bc28.1 merozoite surface antigen were positive in 47 and 42 samples, respectively. Sequencing of cloned PCR products identified all samples as B. canis with 17 18S rRNA and 12 Bc28.1 haplotypes. Based on network analysis for 18S rRNA sequences and a previously described polymorphic dinucleotide, samples were assigned to two distinct clusters. One contained 31 and the other 16 samples. Using network analysis, the Bc28.1 haplotypes could also be separated into two clusters differing by at least five polymorphisms. Analyses of sequences from multiple clones indicated the presence of up to five 18S rRNA and eight Bc28.1 haplotypes and thus high parasite variability in an individual host. The genetic diversity could suggest that the parasites in the region have multiple origins, but diversity in individual dogs and dog populations from endemic regions is unknown. The suitability of both markers for genotyping is questionable due to potential intragenomic diversity for the rRNA and high intergenomic variability for the Bc28.1 marker.


Subject(s)
Babesia , Babesiosis , Dermacentor , Dog Diseases , Animals , Antigens, Surface , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Babesiosis/parasitology , Berlin , Dermacentor/parasitology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Germany/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2485-e2494, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053021

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of canine leptospirosis commenced in Sydney, Australia in 2017. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine if clusters of leptospirosis occurred during this outbreak, and if these were associated with host factors, to assist investigation of the drivers of emerging leptospirosis at this location. Within the City of Sydney local government area, 13 cases were reported during the outbreak. Administrative data on the canine population were collected and mapped. Clusters of leptospirosis cases were detected using a retrospective space-time analysis and a discrete Poisson probability statistical model. Sydney dog population registration [55.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 51.8-58.1%] was lower than the Australian national average (80%). The distribution of dog types, based on the United Kennel Club standards, was significantly (p < .0001) different to that of the national profile: there was a distinct preference in Sydney for companion dogs. The age distribution of dogs in Sydney did not reflect a typical right-skewed curve; instead, a relatively uniform distribution was observed between the age group of 1 to 8 years. A primary disease cluster (radius 1.1 km) in the eastern area of the Sydney City Council was identified (4 cases observed between 24 May and 9 August 2019 vs. 0.10 cases expected), p = .0450. When adjusted for the age, breed type and sex distribution of the population, similar clusters were identified; in the case of age-adjustment, the spatiotemporal cluster identified was larger and of longer duration (seven cases observed between 28 June and 11 November 2019 versus 0.34 cases expected), p = .0025. The presence of clusters of canine leptospirosis in the City of Sydney during this outbreak, which persisted after adjustment for demographics (age, sex, breed type), suggest that environmental factors - rather than host or pathogen factors - might be responsible for the emergence of leptospirosis. Environmental factors that potentially might be linked to this outbreak of canine leptospirosis and the clusters observed require investigation.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Leptospira , Leptospirosis , Age Distribution , Animals , Australia , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Retrospective Studies
18.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(4): 1363-1368, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041311

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly contagious canine pathogens; dogs with these diseases are difficult to treat. In a previous study, we developed a recombinant adenovirus expressing canine interferon lambda 3 (Ad-caIFNλ3) in canine epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antiviral activity of Ad-caIFNλ3 against CCoV, CPV, and CDV in two canine cell lines, A72 and MDCK. Ad-caIFNλ3 transduction suppressed replication of these viruses without cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that Ad-caIFNλ3 may be a therapeutic candidate for canine viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Distemper Virus, Canine , Distemper , Dog Diseases , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus, Canine , Dogs , Animals , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Adenoviridae , Antiviral Agents , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Antibodies, Viral , Adenoviridae Infections/veterinary
19.
Injury ; 53(10): 3293-3296, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036142

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A strict lockdown was decided from 17/03/2020 to 11/05/2020 in France in order to tackle the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic. In the Great Paris region, several areas are severely affected by overcrowding, creating difficult conditions for children and their families during a period of nearly two months. The objective was to assess the effects of the 2020 spring lockdown on injuries, child abuse and neglect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The central medical data warehouse was screened for all pediatric admissions at emergency and critical care departments of 20 hospitals, in a cohort of 12942 children. Specific keywords were used to screen for both injuries and child abuse and neglect. RESULTS: We found head and neck trauma (1.2% in 2020 vs. 0.7% in 2019, p<0.001), burns (0.6% in 2020 vs. 0.1% in 2019, p < 0.001), lacerations (0.5% in 2020 vs. 0.3% in 2019, p<0.001), fractures (0.5% in 2020 vs. 0.3% in 2019, p<0.017), dog bites (0.1% in 2020 vs. 0.0% in 2019, p<0.001), and child abuse and neglect (18 cases during the 2020 lockdown vs. 24 cases in 2019, p=0.005) were significantly more prevalent during this period than during the same control period in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that specific prevention measures are crucial if strict lockdowns are to be decided in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Dogs , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1724, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663979

ABSTRACT

This study introduces localized surface plasmon resonance (L-SPR) mediated heating filter membrane (HFM) for inactivating universal viral particles by using the photothermal effect of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs). Plasmonic metal NPs were coated onto filter membrane via a conventional spray-coating method. The surface temperature of the HFM could be controlled to approximately 40-60 °C at room temperature, owing to the photothermal effect of the gold (Au) NPs coated on them, under irradiation by visible light-emitting diodes. Due to the photothermal effect of the HFMs, the virus titer of H1Npdm09 was reduced by > 99.9%, the full inactivation time being < 10 min, confirming the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay. Crystal violet staining showed that the infectious samples with photothermal inactivation lost their infectivity against Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Moreover, photothermal inactivation could also be applied to reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, showing reduction rate of 99%. We used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques to confirm the existence of viral genes on the surface of the HFM. The results of the TCID50 assay, crystal violet staining method, and qRT-PCR showed that the effective and immediate reduction in viral infectivity possibly originated from the denaturation or deformation of membrane proteins and components. This study provides a new, simple, and effective method to inactivate viral infectivity, leading to its potential application in various fields of indoor air quality control and medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hot Temperature , Light , Metal Nanoparticles , Micropore Filters , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Virion , Virus Inactivation , Air Pollution, Indoor , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Gold/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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