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1.
Infect Genet Evol ; 112: 105463, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244841

ABSTRACT

Recent reports on identification of canine coronavirus (CCoV) in humans have emphasized the urgency to strengthen surveillance of animal CoVs. The fact that recombinations between CCoV with feline, porcine CoVs brought about new types of CoVs indicated that more attention should be paid to domestic animals like dogs, cats and pigs, and the CoVs they carried. However, there are about ten kinds of CoVs that infect above animals, and thus representative CoVs with zoonotic potentials were considered in this study. Multiplex RT-PCR against CCoV, Feline coronavirus (FCoV), porcine deltacoronavirus and porcine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus was developed to investigate the prevalence of CoVs from domestic dogs in Chengdu, Southwest China. Samples from a total of 117 dogs were collected from a veterinary hospital, and only CCoV (34.2%, 40/117) was detected. Therefore, this study focused on CCoV and its characteristics of S, E, M, N and ORF3abc genes. Compared with CoVs that are capable of infecting humans, CCoV strains showed highest nucleotide identity with the novel canine-feline recombinant detected from humans (CCoV-Hupn-2018). Phylogenetic analysis based on S gene, CCoV strains were not only clustered with CCoV-II strains, but also closely related to FCoV-II strains ZJU1617 and SMU-CD59/2018. As for assembled ORF3abc, E, M, N sequences, CCoV strains had the closest relationship with CCoV-II (B203_GZ_2019, B135_JS_2018 and JS2103). What's more, specific amino acid variations were found, especially in S and N proteins, and some mutations were consistent with FCoV, TGEV strains. Altogether, this study provided a novel insight into the identification, diversification and evolution of CoVs from domestic dogs. It is of top priority to recognize zoonotic potential of CoVs, and continued comprehensive surveillance will help better understand the emergence, spreading, and ecology of animal CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Dog Diseases , Animals , Dogs , Cats , Humans , Swine , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phylogeny , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , Animals, Domestic , China/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology
2.
J Pain ; 24(6): 1080-1093, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244382

ABSTRACT

Animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) is a promising treatment approach for pain, but possible mechanisms still need to be elucidated. This study set out to investigate the analgesic effects of an animal provided with a treatment rationale in a randomized controlled trial employing a standardized experimental heat-pain paradigm. We randomly assigned 128 healthy participants to: dog treatment (DT), placebo treatment (PT), dog and placebo treatment (DPT), and no treatment (NT). Primary outcomes were heat-pain tolerance and the corresponding self-reported ratings of pain unpleasantness and intensity. Results revealed no differences in heat-pain tolerance between the conditions. However, participants in the DT condition experienced heat-pain as significantly less unpleasant at the limit of their tolerance compared to participants in the NT condition (estimate = -0.96, CI = -1.58 to 0.34, P = .010). Participants in the DT condition also showed lower ratings of pain intensity at the limit of their tolerance compared to participants in the NT condition (estimate = -0.44, CI = -0.89 to 0.02, P = .060). This study indicates that a dog has analgesic effects on pain perception when integrated into the treatment rationale. We assume that providing a treatment rationale regarding the animal is important in AAIs for pain. PERSPECTIVE: This study shows that the presence of an animal is not sufficient for animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) to have an analgesic effect on pain unless they are provided with a treatment rationale. This could imply that not only the animal but also contextual factors are important in AAIs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT04361968.


Subject(s)
Pain Threshold , Pain , Humans , Animals , Dogs , Healthy Volunteers , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Perception , Analgesics/therapeutic use
3.
J Appl Lab Med ; 8(4): 726-741, 2023 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, veterinary diagnostic laboratories have tested diagnostic samples for SARS-CoV-2 both in animals and over 6 million human samples. An evaluation of the performance of those laboratories is needed using blinded test samples to ensure that laboratories report reliable data to the public. This interlaboratory comparison exercise (ILC3) builds on 2 prior exercises to assess whether veterinary diagnostic laboratories can detect Delta and Omicron variants spiked in canine nasal matrix or viral transport medium. METHODS: The ILC organizer was an independent laboratory that prepared inactivated Delta variant at levels of 25 to 1000 copies per 50 µL of nasal matrix for blinded analysis. Omicron variant at 1000 copies per 50 µL of transport medium was also included. Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) RNA was used as a confounder for specificity assessment. Fourteen test samples were prepared for each participant. Participants used their routine diagnostic procedures for RNA extraction and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR. Results were analyzed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 16140-2:2016. RESULTS: Overall, laboratories demonstrated 93% detection for Delta and 97% for Omicron at 1000 copies per 50 µL. Specificity was 97% for blank samples and 100% for blank samples with FIPV. No differences in Cycle Threshold (Ct) values were significant for samples with the same virus levels between N1 and N2 markers, nor between the 2 variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that all ILC3 participants were able to detect both Delta and Omicron variants. The canine nasal matrix did not significantly affect SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cats , Humans , Animals , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Laboratories , Pandemics , RNA , COVID-19 Testing
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 145, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, causes significant cardiopulmonary disease, with progression impacted by increasing parasite numbers and duration of infection. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important mediator of cardiac and pulmonary disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mitigates the maladaptive effects of angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin (1-7). We hypothesized that circulating ACE2 activity would be altered in dogs with high heartworm infection intensities relative to dogs without heartworms. METHODS: Frozen serum samples (-80 °C) from 30 dogs euthanized at Florida shelters were analyzed for ACE2 activity using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectroscopy and a kinetics approach with and without an ACE2 inhibitor. A convenience sample of 15 dogs without heartworms (HW0) and 15 dogs with > 50 heartworms (HW>50) was included. Heartworm number and microfilariae presence were determined at necropsy. The effects of heartworm status, body weight, and sex on ACE2 were evaluated using regression analysis. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: All HW0 dogs were D. immitis microfilariae-negative and all HW>50 dogs were D. immitis microfilariae-positive with a median adult worm count of 74 (minimum = 63, maximum = 137). The ACE2 activity of HW>50 dogs (median = 28.2 ng/ml; minimum = 13.6, maximum = 76.2) was not different from HW0 dogs (median 31.9 ng/ml; minimum = 14.1, maximum = 139.1; P = 0.53). The ACE2 activity was higher in dogs with high body weight (median 34.2 ng/ml minimum = 14.1, maximum = 76.2) than in dogs with low weight (median 27.5 ng/ml; minimum = 16.4, maximum = 139.1; P = .044). CONCLUSIONS: Heartworm infection did not impact ACE2 activity in shelter dogs with or without heartworms, but heavier dogs had higher ACE2 activity compared to lighter dogs. Comprehensive RAAS evaluation and additional clinical information would aid in understanding how ACE2 activity relates to the entire cascade and clinical status in dogs with heartworm disease.


Subject(s)
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariasis , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dirofilariasis/parasitology , Microfilariae
5.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 243-249, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315258

ABSTRACT

Several cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection transmitted from human owners to their dogs have recently been reported. The first ever case of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from a human owner to a domestic cat was confirmed on March 27, 2020. A tiger from a zoo in New York, USA, was also reportedly infected with SARS-CoV-2. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted to tigers from their caretakers, who were previously infected with this virus. On May 25, 2020, the Dutch Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality reported that two employees were infected with SARS-CoV-2 transmitted from minks. These reports have influenced us to perform a comparative analysis among angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) homologous proteins for verifying the conservation of specific protein regions. One of the most conserved peptides is represented by the peptide "353-KGDFR-357 (H. sapiens ACE2 residue numbering), which is located on the surface of the ACE2 molecule and participates in the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD). Multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins by ClustalW, whereas the three-dimensional structure of its binding region for the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by means of Spanner, a structural homology modeling pipeline method. In addition, evolutionary phylogenetic tree analysis by ETE3 was used. ACE2 works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein between humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. The three-dimensional structure of the KGDFR hosting protein region involved in direct interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD of the mink ACE2 appears to form a loop structurally related to the human ACE2 corresponding protein loop, despite of the reduced available protein length (401 residues of the mink ACE2 available sequence vs 805 residues of the human ACE2). The multiple sequence alignments of the ACE2 proteins shows high homology and complete conservation of the five amino acid residues: 353-KGDFR-357 with humans, dogs, cats, tigers, minks, and other animals, except for snakes. Where the information revealed from our examinations can support precision vaccine design and the discovery of antiviral therapeutics, which will accelerate the development of medical countermeasures, the World Health Organization recently reported on the possible risks of reciprocal infections regarding SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals to humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Cats , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Mink , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Tigers
6.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(4): 331-340, 2022 09 12.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316687

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The main approach to the rabies prevention is the vaccination of domestic and wild carnivores. For the routine evaluation the anti-rabies vaccination effectiveness, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommends various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).The aim of the study was to design and validate a competitive ELISA (cELISA) test system for the detection of antibodies to the rabies virus (RABV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The development of the cELISA was carried out following the OIE recommendations. RESULTS: The repeatability of the cELISA results within one laboratory was satisfactory (coefficient of variation 7.95-13.61%). The coefficient of determination (CD) between the results of the virus neutralization reaction (FAVN) and cELISA was 0.988, p < 0.001. The lower threshold for antibody detection was less than 0.02 IU/ml. The cELISA did not demonstrate cross-reactivity against antibodies to canine distemper virus, parainfluenza virus, parvovirus, coronavirus, and canine adenovirus (types I and II). During the study of 137 dog blood sera, diagnostic specificity (DSp) and diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) for the cELISA were 83.1% and 94.9%, respectively, and CD between the cELISA and FAVN results was 0.968, p < 0.001. DISCUSSION: Indirect ELISA test systems for determining the level of antibodies to RABV are not sensitive enough compared to reference tests, unlike cELISA. The developed test system is not inferior for its DSp and DSe to the commercial cELISA BioPro ELISA Rabies Ab (DSp 66.7%, DSe 94.4%). CONCLUSION: The developed cELISA test system can be used to detect antibodies to RABV in the blood serum of dogs for evaluating the effectiveness of mass vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Lyssavirus , Rabies virus , Rhabdoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D27-D38, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312875

ABSTRACT

The National Genomics Data Center (NGDC), part of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB), provides a family of database resources to support global research in both academia and industry. With the explosively accumulated multi-omics data at ever-faster rates, CNCB-NGDC is constantly scaling up and updating its core database resources through big data archive, curation, integration and analysis. In the past year, efforts have been made to synthesize the growing data and knowledge, particularly in single-cell omics and precision medicine research, and a series of resources have been newly developed, updated and enhanced. Moreover, CNCB-NGDC has continued to daily update SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, variants, haplotypes and literature. Particularly, OpenLB, an open library of bioscience, has been established by providing easy and open access to a substantial number of abstract texts from PubMed, bioRxiv and medRxiv. In addition, Database Commons is significantly updated by cataloguing a full list of global databases, and BLAST tools are newly deployed to provide online sequence search services. All these resources along with their services are publicly accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Animals , China , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Dogs , Epigenome , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Methylation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Synthetic Biology
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 347: 111683, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Knowing and analyzing the characteristics and trends of forensic toxicology cases in a certain area is particularly important for a local government to establish an effective prevention and control system. The purpose of this work was to summarize data from forensic toxicology cases received by the Academy of Forensic Sciences (AFS) in 2021. METHODS: As requested by the police or according to the details of cases, samples were systematically screened or analyzed by various methods. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify medicinal drugs, drugs of abuse, pesticides, poison gases, etc. RESULTS: AFS received a total of 17,758 cases in 2021, of which 314 cases underwent autopsy. The main cause of death was sudden death, and the manner of death was mainly accident. Among 13,744 drug abuse cases, the number of positive cases was 1721, with a positive rate of 12.5%, and synthetic cannabinoids were the most frequently detected substances. In 3640 traffic cases, 85.3% of drivers were suspected of drunk driving. In 103 poisoning cases, hydrogen sulfide poisoning and pesticide suicide account for a large proportion. In drug-facilitated crimes, zolpidem was the most frequently tested component. In 55 case of dog poisonings, the main poisons were cyanides and succinylcholine, and the main poisoning tools were poisonous baits and poisonous syringe darts. CONCLUSIONS: This study profiles the toxicological characteristics of forensic toxicological cases conducted at the AFS in 2021 and provides a scientific basis for poisoning cases and drug abuse prevention.


Subject(s)
Pesticides , Poisoning , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Animals , Dogs , Forensic Toxicology/methods , Retrospective Studies , Forensic Medicine , Poisoning/diagnosis
9.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(12): e628-e635, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the incidence of transfusion reactions in cats, including acute haemolysis (AH), occurring within 24 h of receiving a xenotransfusion. An additional aim was to determine whether cases with AH could be classified as having an acute haemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) as per the definition provided by the Association of Veterinary Haematology and Transfusion Medicine's Transfusion Reaction Small Animal Consensus Statement. METHODS: Medical records of cats that received canine packed red blood cells (PRBCs) between July 2018 and September 2020 at a veterinary hospital were reviewed. The incidence of AH, AHTRs, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), transfusion-associated circulatory overload and septic transfusion reactions were recorded. RESULTS: The medical records of 53 cats were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three (43%) cats had transfusion reactions. Thirteen (25%) cats had AH; however, only four (8%) met the definition of an AHTR. Ten (19%) cats were determined to have FNHTRs. Survival to discharge of cats affected by AH was 50% (25% for cases that met the definition of an AHTR). Survival to discharge of cats not suffering from AHTR was 40%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This report indicates that a higher proportion of cats undergo AH (25%) when administered canine PRBCs than previously reported, although many could not be classed as having an AHTR due to an apparently adequate packed cell volume rise. Challenges with sourcing feline blood in emergency situations occasionally necessitates the use of xenotransfusion in transfusion medicine. Clinicians should be aware that haemolysis after xenotransfusion can occur within 24 h and that a repeat feline transfusion may be required sooner than anticipated in some cases.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Transfusion Reaction , Cats , Dogs , Animals , Retrospective Studies , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Transfusion Reaction/veterinary , Erythrocytes , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/therapy
10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(7): 1397-1411, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313257

ABSTRACT

This Lilliput explores the current epidemiological and virological arguments for a zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the role of bats, pangolins and racoon dogs as viral reservoirs has not yet been proven, a spill-over of a coronavirus infection from animals into humans at the Huanan food market in Wuhan has a much greater plausibility than alternative hypotheses such as a laboratory virus escape, deliberate genetic engineering or introduction by cold chain food products. This Lilliput highlights the dynamic nature of the animal-human interface for viral cross-infections from humans into feral white tail deer or farmed minks (reverse zoonosis). Surveillance of viral infections at the animal-human interface is an urgent task since live animal markets are not the only risks for future viral spill-overs. Climate change will induce animal migration which leads to viral exchanges between animal species that have not met in the past. Environmental change and deforestation will also increase contact between animals and humans. Developing an early warning system for emerging viral infections becomes thus a societal necessity not only for human but also for animal and environmental health (One Health concept). Microbiologists have developed tools ranging from virome analysis in key suspects such as viral reservoirs (bats, wild game animals, bushmeat) and in humans exposed to wild animals, to wastewater analysis to detect known and unknown viruses circulating in the human population and sentinel studies in animal-exposed patients with fever. Criteria need to be developed to assess the virulence and transmissibility of zoonotic viruses. An early virus warning system is costly and will need political lobbying. The accelerating number of viral infections with pandemic potential over the last decades should provide the public pressure to extend pandemic preparedness for the inclusion of early viral alert systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Deer , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Dogs , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals, Wild
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 707, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main strategy to contain the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remains to implement a comprehensive testing, tracing and quarantining strategy until vaccination of the population is adequate. Scent dogs could support current testing strategies. METHODS: Ten dogs were trained for 8 days to detect SARS-CoV-2 infections in beta-propiolactone inactivated saliva samples. The subsequent cognitive transfer performance for the recognition of non-inactivated samples were tested on three different body fluids (saliva, urine, and sweat) in a randomised, double-blind controlled study. RESULTS: Dogs were tested on a total of 5242 randomised sample presentations. Dogs detected non-inactivated saliva samples with a diagnostic sensitivity of 84% (95% CI: 62.5-94.44%) and specificity of 95% (95% CI: 93.4-96%). In a subsequent experiment to compare the scent recognition between the three non-inactivated body fluids, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI: 66.67-100%) and 98% (95% CI: 94.87-100%) for urine, 91% (95% CI: 71.43-100%) and 94% (95% CI: 90.91-97.78%) for sweat, 82% (95% CI: 64.29-95.24%), and 96% (95% CI: 94.95-98.9%) for saliva respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scent cognitive transfer performance between inactivated and non-inactivated samples as well as between different sample materials indicates that global, specific SARS-CoV-2-associated volatile compounds are released across different body secretions, independently from the patient's symptoms. All tested body fluids appear to be similarly suited for reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals.


Subject(s)
Body Fluids , COVID-19 , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Odorants , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva
13.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284101, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301135

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected us in numerous ways and may consequently impact our relationships with pet dogs and cats. We conducted a longitudinal survey to examine the temporal patterns of owner-pet relationship, stress, and loneliness during four phases of the pandemic: 1) pre-pandemic (February 2020), 2) lockdown (April to June 2020), 3) reopening (September to December 2020), and 4) recovery (January 2021 to December 2021). We also investigated the effect of pet ownership on stress and loneliness, by considering a set of a priori causal assumptions. In addition, we hypothesized that the differences in the levels of stress and loneliness between dog and cat ownerships were mediated by the owner-pet relationship. A total of 4,237 participants (657 non-pet owners, 1,761 dog owners, and 1,819 cat owners) completed between one and six surveys. Overall, the closeness in the relationship between owners and their pets increased with time during the study period. We also observed that dog owners consistently showed larger decreases in the levels of stress and loneliness than cat and non-pet owners. However, after adjusting for confounders, the findings did not support a mitigating effect of pet ownership. Pet ownership did not alleviate stress, social loneliness resulting from a lack of friendships or workplace relationships, or emotional loneliness due to deficiencies in family relationships. Pet owners, however, reported a lower degree of emotional loneliness caused by deficits in romantic relationships than non-pet owners. Our results also indicated that the differences in stress and loneliness levels between dog and cat ownerships were partially explained by the owner-pet relationship, and once this was accounted for, the differences between them reduced. In summary, this study highlights the dynamic effects of COVID-19 on owner-pet relationship and mental health. It also shows the complexity of the association between pet ownership and mental health, partially mediated by owner-pet relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Humans , Dogs , Cats , Mental Health , Loneliness/psychology , Pets/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Ownership , Communicable Disease Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Longitudinal Studies
14.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300058

ABSTRACT

On a global scale, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a serious threat to the health of the human population. Not only humans can be infected, but also their companion animals. The antibody status of 115 cats and 170 dogs, originating from 177 German households known to have been SARS-CoV-2 positive, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the results were combined with information gathered from a questionnaire that was completed by the owner(s) of the animals. The true seroprevalences of SARS-CoV-2 among cats and dogs were 42.5% (95% CI 33.5-51.9) and 56.8% (95% CI 49.1-64.4), respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression accounting for data clustered in households, for cats, the number of infected humans in the household and an above-average contact intensity turned out to be significant risk factors; contact with humans outside the household was a protective factor. For dogs, on the contrary, contact outside the household was a risk factor, and reduced contact, once the human infection was known, was a significant protective factor. No significant association was found between reported clinical signs in animals and their antibody status, and no spatial clustering of positive test results was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Risk Factors , Germany/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
15.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298657

ABSTRACT

Following the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, cases of pets infected with variants circulating among humans were reported. In order to evaluate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 circulation among pets in the Republic of the Congo, we conducted a ten-month study of dogs and cats living in COVID-19-positive households in Brazzaville and neighboring localities. Real-time PCR and the Luminex platform were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S proteins, respectively. Our results show for the first time the simultaneous circulation of several variants of SARS-CoV-2, including viruses from clades 20A and 20H and a putative recombinant variant between viruses from clades 20B and 20H. We found a high seroprevalence of 38.6%, with 14% of tested pets positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thirty-four percent of infected pets developed mild clinical signs, including respiratory and digestive signs, and shed the virus for about one day to two weeks. These results highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 interspecies transmission and the benefits of a "One Health" approach that includes SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and surveillance of viral diversity in pets. This approach aims to prevent transmission to surrounding wildlife as well as spillback to humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Congo/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Testing , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Recombination, Genetic
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 85(3): 386-392, 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297856

ABSTRACT

Investigating the characteristics of tracheas can help the understanding of diseases related to the trachea, particularly tracheal collapse (TC) in dogs. This study aimed to compare the mechanical properties of tracheas from New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits and dogs and to introduce a method for inducing a model of TC in the normal trachea. Tracheal samples were obtained from NZW rabbit cadavers (n=5) weighing 3.62-3.92 kg and from dog cadavers (n=5) weighing 2.97-3.28 kg. Three live NZW rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were used to establish the model. The radial forces of both sample sets were measured using a digital force gauge and statistically compared. Subsequently, TC was surgically induced in three female NZW rabbits by physically weakening their tracheal cartilage under general anesthesia. Their clinical signs were monitored for 3 months, and radiographic examinations were performed monthly for 3 months. The mean radial forces of the two sample sets were comparable (P>0.05). The clinical signs, radiographic examinations, and macroscopic examinations were all comparable to those of dogs with TC. The cadaveric study between the rabbits and dogs demonstrated that the surgically induced rabbit model of TC is an excellent candidate for the experimental study of dogs with TC. This study also provides a reference of tracheal radial force values to enable selection of appropriate mesh types and wire diameters of self-expanding metal stents.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabbits , Female , Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/surgery , Trachea/surgery , Metals , Stents/veterinary , Prosthesis Implantation/veterinary
17.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 70(5): 393-402, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297270

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens reduces the effectiveness of these drugs in both human and veterinary medicine, making judicious antimicrobial use (AMU) an important strategy for its control. The COVID-19 pandemic modified operations in both human and veterinary healthcare delivery, potentially impacting AMU. The goal of this research is to quantify how antimicrobial drug prescribing practices for companion animals in an academic veterinary hospital changed during the pandemic. A retrospective study was performed using prescribing data for dogs and cats collected from the NC State College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) pharmacy, which included prescriptions from both the specialty referral hospital and primary care services. Records (n = 31,769) for 34 antimicrobial drugs from 2019-2020-before and during the pandemic-related measures at the NCSU-CVM-were compared. The prescribed antimicrobials' importance was categorized using the FDA's Guidance for Industry (GFI #152), classifying drugs according to medical importance in humans. A proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of more important antimicrobials being administered in patients seen during the pandemic versus before (i.e., critically important vs. highly important vs. important). Rates of AMU per week and per patient visit were also compared. During the pandemic, cumulative antimicrobials prescribed per week were significantly decreased in most services for dogs. Weekly rates for Highly Important antimicrobials were also significantly lower in dogs. For important and critically important antimicrobials, rates per week were significantly decreased in various services overall. Rates of antimicrobial administration per patient visit were significantly increased for Highly Important drugs. Patients in the internal medicine, dermatology, and surgery services received significantly more important antimicrobials during the pandemic than before, while cardiology patients received significantly less. These results suggest that the pandemic significantly impacted prescribing practices of antimicrobials for companion animals in this study.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Dogs , Pets , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal , North Carolina , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
18.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(6): 644-646, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295597

ABSTRACT

This diagnostic study describes a dog screening program used to identify COVID-19 infections among schoolchildren.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Dogs , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Schools , California/epidemiology , Pilot Projects
19.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 14(3): 1259-1273, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an age-related skeletal muscle disorder characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength leading to mobility disability. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a polyhydroxylated plant steroid that demonstrates pharmacological effects in many disease animal models including ageing/sarcopenia. BIO101 is a 20E purified investigational drug (≥97%) that previously demonstrated good toxicology profiles in rat and dog. BIO101 is evaluated in healthy young and older adults in a Phase 1 study. METHODS: This study is a Single Ascending Dose (SAD) followed by a 14-day Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD). In SAD, BIO101 was administered orally to 16 young adults at doses from 100 to 1400 mg and to 8 older adults (age ≥65 years) at 1400 mg. In MAD, doses of 350 mg once daily (qd), 350 mg twice daily (bid) and 450 mg bid were administered to 10 older adults. The primary objective was to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics (PK), including dosing of circulating metabolites. Pharmacodynamic effects were investigated with regard to myostatin, procollagen-III-amino-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), myoglobin, creatine-kinase Muscle Brain (CKMB), renin and aldosterone plasma/serum levels. RESULTS: BIO101 showed a good safety profile with only mild to moderate adverse events and a satisfactory pharmacokinetic profile. In SAD, at 100 mg to 1400 mg, mean Cmax and areas under the curve increased less than dose-proportionally. Mean half-life was short (2.4-4.9 h), and mean renal clearance was comparable in all doses (4.05-5.05 L/h). Mean plasma exposure was slightly lower in older adults (22% lower for Cmax and 13%-15% lower for AUCs) compared with young subjects. In MAD, 350 and 450 mg bid led to a slight accumulation over 14 days (mean ratio of accumulation [Rac] of 1.31 in both cohorts). Reduction of biomarkers (myoglobin, CK-MB) mean serum levels (vs. baseline) was observed at 450 mg bid. Two major metabolites of 20E (14-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone and 14-deoxypoststerone) were identified and quantified. CONCLUSIONS: BIO101 shows a good safety and pharmacokinetic profile that led to the selection of doses for the subsequent interventional clinical trials of Phase 2 in age-related sarcopenia (SARA-INT) and Phase 3 in Covid-19 (COVA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Animals , Dogs , Rats , Ecdysterone/pharmacology , Myoglobin , Double-Blind Method , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0010813, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293474

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Triatomine insects, vectors of the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), are challenging to locate in sylvatic habitats. Collection techniques used in the United States often rely on methods to intercept seasonally dispersing adults or on community scientists' encounters. Neither method is suited for detecting nest habitats likely to harbor triatomines, which is important for vector surveillance and control. Furthermore, manual inspection of suspected harborages is difficult and unlikely to reveal novel locations and host associations. Similar to a team that used a trained dog to detect sylvatic triatomines in Paraguay, we worked with a trained scent detection dog to detect triatomines in sylvatic locations across Texas. PRINCIPLE METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Ziza, a 3-year-old German Shorthaired Pointer previously naturally infected with T. cruzi, was trained to detect triatomines. Over the course of 6 weeks in the fall of 2017, the dog and her handler searched at 17 sites across Texas. The dog detected 60 triatomines at 6 sites; an additional 50 triatomines were contemporaneously collected at 1 of these sites and 2 additional sites without the assistance of the dog. Approximately 0.98 triatomines per hour were found when only humans were conducting searches; when working with the dog, approximately 1.71 triatomines per hour were found. In total, 3 adults and 107 nymphs of four species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma protracta, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma indictiva) were collected. PCR testing of a subset revealed T. cruzi infection, including DTUs TcI and TcIV, in 27% of nymphs (n = 103) and 66% of adults (n = 3). Bloodmeal analysis of a subset of triatomines (n = 5) revealed feeding on Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A trained scent detection dog enhanced triatomine detections in sylvatic habitats. This approach is effective at detecting nidicolous triatomines. Control of sylvatic sources of triatomines is challenging, but this new knowledge of specific sylvatic habitats and key hosts may reveal opportunities for novel vector control methods to block the transmission of T. cruzi to humans and domestic animals.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Lagomorpha , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humans , Female , Animals , Dogs , Child, Preschool , Texas/epidemiology , Working Dogs , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/veterinary , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Ecosystem , Nymph
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