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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444334

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses and can cause deadly diseases in animals and humans. Cell entry is the first and essential step of successful virus infection and can be divided into two ongoing steps: cell binding and membrane fusion. Over the past two decades, stimulated by the global outbreak of SARS-CoV and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, numerous efforts have been made in the CoV research. As a result, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of the cell entry process. Here, we review the current knowledge of this essential process, including the viral and host components involved in cell binding and membrane fusion, molecular mechanisms of their interactions, and the sites of virus entry. We highlight the recent findings of host restriction factors that inhibit CoVs entry. This knowledge not only enhances our understanding of the cell entry process, pathogenesis, tissue tropism, host range, and interspecies-transmission of CoVs but also provides a theoretical basis to design effective preventive and therapeutic strategies to control CoVs infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization , Animals , Cats/virology , Cattle/virology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Dogs/virology , Livestock/virology , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17422, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380912

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has raised concerns in the identification of the hosts of the virus since the early stages of the outbreak. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning method, DeepHoF, based on extracting viral genomic features automatically, to predict the host likelihood scores on five host types, including plant, germ, invertebrate, non-human vertebrate and human, for novel viruses. DeepHoF made up for the lack of an accurate tool, reaching a satisfactory AUC of 0.975 in the five-classification, and could make a reliable prediction for the novel viruses without close neighbors in phylogeny. Additionally, to fill the gap in the efficient inference of host species for SARS-CoV-2 using existing tools, we conducted a deep analysis on the host likelihood profile calculated by DeepHoF. Using the isolates sequenced in the earliest stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, we inferred that minks, bats, dogs and cats were potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, while minks might be one of the most noteworthy hosts. Several genes of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated their significance in determining the host range. Furthermore, a large-scale genome analysis, based on DeepHoF's computation for the later pandemic in 2020, disclosed the uniformity of host range among SARS-CoV-2 samples and the strong association of SARS-CoV-2 between humans and minks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cats/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs/virology , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Algorithms , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Deep Learning , Host Specificity , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA
3.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273517

ABSTRACT

Pets play a crucial role in the development of human feelings, social life, and care. However, in the era of the prevailing global pandemic of COVID-19 disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), many questions addressing the routes of the virus spread and transmission to humans are dramatically emerging. Although cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found in pets including dogs, cats, and ferrets, to date there is no strong evidence for pet-to-human transmission or sustained pet-to-pet transmission of SARS-CoV-2. However, an increasing number of studies reporting detection of SARS-CoV-2 in farmed minks raises suspicion of potential viral transmission from these animals to humans. Furthermore, due to the high susceptibility of cats, ferrets, minks and hamsters to COVID-19 infection under natural and/or experimental conditions, these animals have been extensively explored as animal models to study the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and transmission. In this review, we present the latest reports focusing on SARS-CoV-2 detection, isolation, and characterization in pets. Moreover, based on the current literature, we document studies aiming to broaden the knowledge about pathogenicity and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the development of viral therapeutics, drugs and vaccines. Lastly, considering the high rate of SARS-CoV-2 evolution and replication, we also suggest routes of protection against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cats/virology , Dogs/virology , Farms , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234836

ABSTRACT

Understanding the ecological and epidemiological roles of pets in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for animal and human health, identifying household reservoirs, and predicting the potential enzootic maintenance of the virus. We conducted a longitudinal household transmission study of 76 dogs and cats living with at least one SARS-CoV-2-infected human in Texas and found that 17 pets from 25.6% of 39 households met the national case definition for SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals. This includes three out of seventeen (17.6%) cats and one out of fifty-nine (1.7%) dogs that were positive by RT-PCR and sequencing, with the virus successfully isolated from the respiratory swabs of one cat and one dog. Whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from all four PCR-positive animals were unique variants grouping with genomes circulating among people with COVID-19 in Texas. Re-sampling showed persistence of viral RNA for at least 25 d-post initial test. Additionally, seven out of sixteen (43.8%) cats and seven out of fifty-nine (11.9%) dogs harbored SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies upon initial sampling, with relatively stable or increasing titers over the 2-3 months of follow-up and no evidence of seroreversion. The majority (82.4%) of infected pets were asymptomatic. 'Reverse zoonotic' transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected people to animals may occur more frequently than recognized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats/virology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Texas/epidemiology
6.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(4): 81-82, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008394

ABSTRACT

Despite fast-tracked research, the precise origin, transmission and evolution of COVID-19 are still unknown. While the bat genus Rhinolophus is likely the primary source of the zoonotic-origin pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19, its transmission route into the human population is still being studied.[1,2] Coronaviruses (CoV) affect humans and various animal species. Bats were the original hosts of the CoV that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), for example, with masked palm civet cats and dromedaries, respectively, the intermediate hosts of those two viruses. Research is ongoing regarding intermediate species for SARS-CoV-2, but one possibility is the large stray cat and dog population around the live animal market in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic is thought to have started.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Animals , Camelus/virology , Cats/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Mink/virology , Viverridae/virology
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108878, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808435

ABSTRACT

Canine chaphamaparvovirus (CaChPV) is a newly recognised parvovirus discovered by metagenomic analysis during an outbreak of diarrhoea in dogs in Colorado, USA, in 2017 and more recently detected in diarrhoeic dogs in China. Whether the virus plays a role as canine pathogen and whether it is distributed elsewhere, in other geographical areas, is not known. We performed a case-control study to investigate the possible association of CaChPV with enteritis in dogs. CaChPV DNA was detected both in the stools of diarrhoeic dogs (1.9 %, 3/155) and of healthy animals (1.6 %, 2/120). All the CaChPV-infected dogs with diarrhea were mixed infected with other enteric viruses such as canine parvovirus (formerly CPV-2), canine bufavirus (CBuV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV), whilst none of the asymptomatic CaChPV positive animals resulted co-infected. The nearly full-length genome and the partial capsid protein (VP) gene of three canine strains, Te/36OVUD/19/ITA, Te/37OVUD/19/ITA and Te/70OVUD/19/ITA, were reconstructed. Upon phylogenetic analyses based on the NS1 and VP aa sequences, the Italian CaChPV strains tightly clustered with the American reference viruses. Distinctive residues could be mapped to the deduced variable regions of the VP of canine and feline chaphamaparvoviruses, considered as important markers of host range and pathogenicity for parvoviruses.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Genome, Viral , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Parvovirus, Canine/classification , Animals , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Diarrhea/virology , Dogs/virology , Feces/virology , Host Specificity , Italy , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Parvovirus, Canine/isolation & purification , Pets/virology , Phylogeny , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
8.
Vet Res Commun ; 44(3-4): 119-130, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756542

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are known to infect both humans and animals. However, the evidence of inter-transmission of coronavirus between humans and companion animals is still a debatable issue. There is substantial evidence that the virus outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission because this new virus belongs to the same family of viruses as SARS-CoV associated with civet cats, and MERS-CoV associated with dromedary camels. While the whole world is investigating the possibility about the transmission of this virus, the transmission among humans is established, but the interface between humans and animals is not much evident. Not only are the lives of human beings at risk, but there is an equal potential threat to the animal world. With multiple reports claiming about much possibility of transmission of COVID-19 from humans to animals, there has been a significant increase in the number of pets being abandoned by their owners. Additionally, the risk of reverse transmission of COVID-19 virus from companion pets like cats and dogs at home is yet another area of concern. The present article highlights different evidence of human-animal interface and necessitates the precautionary measures required to combat with the consequences of this interface. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested various ways to promote awareness and corroborate practices for helping people as well as animals to stay secure and healthy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cats/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine/virology , Zoonoses/virology
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733593

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Zoonoses/transmission , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cats/virology , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/virology
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