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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 294, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected societies globally, prompting rising unemployment, insufficient household incomes, and stress and undermining women's and children's health within families. This study examined family violence and identified influencing factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used, entailing a questionnaire followed by focus group interviews. A cross-sectional survey was administered to investigate family violence among 1285 female respondents aged 15 years and above who were recruited through stratified sampling. The Cronbach alpha and and inter-raters Kappa coefficient values for the questionnaire were 0.67 and 1.00, respectively. In addition, a descriptive qualitative instrument was employed to analyze the data sets from four focus group interviews held with 32 staff members from agencies that deal with family violence. The researchers jointly developed the focus group questions, which focused on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on family violence. They independently analyzed data using content analysis. RESULTS: The majority of the study participants were aged above 45 years (>50%), married (61.1%), lived in single-family settings (52.5%), had lost their jobs (64.4%), and had economic constraints that were moderate (37.8%) to severe (40.6%). The prevalence of family violence, which was primarily physical, was 42.2%. Family income, stress, and substance abuse were the main factors associated with family violence. These findings were correlated with those from the qualitative interviews. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had indirect impacts through family violence. Women were subjected to family violence behaviors, which were associated with household income, economic status, stress, and substance abuse. These behaviors included psychological and physical violence, as well as sexual abuse. Future interventions should focus on financial support and stress reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Substance-Related Disorders , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Women's Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Health , Risk Factors
2.
Br J Gen Pract ; 73(732): e519-e527, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying and responding to patients affected by domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is vital in primary care. There may have been a rise in the reporting of DVA cases during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdown measures. Concurrently general practice adopted remote working that extended to training and education. IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) is an example of an evidence-based UK healthcare training support and referral programme, focusing on DVA. IRIS transitioned to remote delivery during the pandemic. AIM: To understand the adaptations and impact of remote DVA training in IRIS-trained general practices by exploring perspectives of those delivering and receiving training. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative interviews and observation of remote training of general practice teams in England were undertaken. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants (three practice managers, three reception and administrative staff, eight general practice clinicians, and seven specialist DVA staff), alongside observation of eight remote training sessions. Analysis was conducted using a framework approach. RESULTS: Remote DVA training in UK general practice widened access to learners. However, it may have reduced learner engagement compared with face-to-face training and may challenge safeguarding of remote learners who are domestic abuse survivors. DVA training is integral to the partnership between general practice and specialist DVA services, and reduced engagement risks weakening this partnership. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a hybrid DVA training model for general practice, including remote information delivery alongside a structured face-to-face element. This has broader relevance for other specialist services providing training and education in primary care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , General Practice , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Domestic Violence/prevention & control
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242335

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had several negative impacts on child and adolescent victims of domestic violence, especially on those who lived in the residential foster care system. The main goal of the present study was to understand these negative impacts through the perspectives of professionals in Portuguese residential foster care structures using both individual interviews and an online survey. One hundred and three professionals aged between 22 and 64 years (M = 38.39; SD = 8.34) participated in the online survey (86 females and 17 males). Of those, seven professionals, four females and three males aged between 29 and 49 years (M = 38.43, SD = 7.50), were also interviewed. According to the participants, the conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic contributed adversely not only to the increase in domestic violence against children and adolescents but also to the aggravation of the conditions children and adolescents living in the Portuguese residential foster care system were exposed to, namely concerning family relationships, access to resources and services, and institutional dynamics. The results suggest the necessity to develop standard procedures to cope with pandemic situations in the residential foster care system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Foster Home Care
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 219, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) includes any physical, sexual, psychological, economic harms, and any suffering of women in the form of limiting their freedom in personal or social life. As a global crisis, COVID-19 has exposed women to more violence, which requires serious actions. This work aims to review the most critical dimensions of the GBV against women, effective factors on it, and strategies for combating it during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to provide recommendations for future pandemics. METHODS: This study was conducted based on PRISMA-ScR. First, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar were searched in April 2021 with no time limitation and location using the related keywords to COVID-19 and GBV. The searched keywords were COVID-19, gender-based violence, domestic violence, sexual violence, women, violence, abuse, and their synonyms in MESH and EMTREE. Duplicates were removed, titles and abstracts were screened, and then the characteristics and main results of included studies were recorded in the data collection form in terms of thematic content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 6255 records were identified, of which 3433 were duplicates. Based on inclusion criteria 2822 titles and abstracts were screened. Finally, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion in this study. Most of these studies were conducted in the United States, the Netherlands, and Iran, mostly with interventional and qualitative methods. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening ICT infrastructure, providing comprehensive government policies and planning, government economic support, social support by national and international organizations should be considered by countries worldwide. It is suggested that countries provide sufficient ICT infrastructure, comprehensive policies and planning, economic support, social support by collaboration between national and international organizations, and healthcare supporting to manage incidence of GBV against women in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Gender-Based Violence , Sex Offenses , Female , Humans , Domestic Violence/psychology , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Pandemics
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(4): 250-251, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313350

Subject(s)
Domestic Violence , Humans
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113925, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301274
7.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 67(3): 303-314, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298428

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 lockdown may lead to rising numbers of domestic violence (DV), especially among previously victimized individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the development and influential factors of DV during the early COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: In this telephone-based study, previous participants with (n = 34) and without (n = 33) DV completed questionnaires on DV, attachment and COVID-19 related stressors. Development of DV and influential factors were investigated with repeated measures ANOVAs and linear regression models. Results: Individuals with prior DV reported significantly higher DV than previously not affected individuals. However, a statistically significant decrease of DV was found in the group with prior DV. Past DV, childlessness and insecure attachment, but not COVID-19 related stressors predicted current DV. Conclusions: In light of an insecure attachment style lockdown measures may have led to a temporary relationship stabilization. However, a reassessment is necessary to evaluate whether this stabilization was a short-time trend only.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 715, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic have been far-reaching, disproportionately impacting vulnerable populations. Of particular concern is the impact on individuals experiencing domestic violence (DV), an urgent public health issue. There have been numerous reports of pandemic-related surges in DV, and it has been speculated that prolonged periods of state-mandated isolation may be the source of these surges. The current study utilized publicly available records to examine fluctuations in DV coinciding with COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in a diverse metropolitan county. METHODS: Data were extracted from local police blotters and mapping engines in Orange County, California (United States), documenting police-reported DV assault. All incidents were coded for time to examine the time course of DV among other types of assault, allowing for a longitudinal view of incidents over a 66-week window. Changepoint analyses were used to determine whether and when DV assaults changed when mapped with coinciding tightening or loosening of restrictions county-wide. Piecewise regression analyses evaluated whether any detected fluctuations were statistically meaningful. RESULTS: In Santa Ana, rates saw a small but significant spike in the week following the first major lockdown in March 2020 (b = .04, SE = .02, t = 2.37, p = .01), remaining stable at this higher level thereafter (b = -.003, SE = .003, t = -1.29, p = .20). In Anaheim, no meaningful change in DV assault rates was observed at any time interval. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that surges in DV vary between communities and that systemic issues may set the stage for the surge of an already endemic problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crime Victims , Domestic Violence , Humans , United States , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
14.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(15-16): 9290-9314, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268747

ABSTRACT

Concerns have been raised over the experiences of violence such as domestic violence (DV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media such as Reddit represent an alternative outlet for reporting experiences of violence where healthcare access has been limited. This study analyzed seven violence-related subreddits to investigate the trends of different violence patterns from January 2018 to February 2022 to enhance the health-service providers' existing service or provide some new perspective for existing violence research. Specifically, we collected violence-related texts from Reddit using keyword searching and identified six major types with supervised machine learning classifiers: DV, IPV, physical violence, sexual violence, emotional violence, and nonspecific violence or others. The increase rate (IR) of each violence type was calculated and temporally compared in five phases of the pandemic. The phases include one pre-pandemic phase (Phase 0, the date before February 26, 2020) and four pandemic phases (Phases 1-4) with separation dates of June 17, 2020, September 7, 2020, and June 4, 2021. We found that the number of IPV-related posts increased most in the earliest phase; however, that for COVID-citing IPV was highest in the mid-pandemic phase. IRs for DV, IPV, and emotional violence also showed increases across all pandemic phases, with IRs of 26.9%, 58.8%, and 28.8%, respectively, from the pre-pandemic to the first pandemic phase. In the other three pandemic phases, all the IRs for these three types of violence were positive, though lower than the IRs in the first pandemic phase. The findings highlight the importance of identifying and providing help to those who suffer from such violent experiences and support the role of social media site monitoring as a means of informative surveillance for help-providing authorities and violence research groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Sex Offenses , Humans , Pandemics , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268162

ABSTRACT

Belgian authorities, like most authorities in European countries, resorted to unprecedented measures in response to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic between March 2020 and May 2022. This exceptional context highlighted the issue of intimate partner violence (IPV) in an unprecedented way. At a time when many other issues are being put on hold, IPV is being brought to the fore. This article investigated the processes that have led to increasing political attention to domestic violence in Belgium. To this end, a media analysis and a series of semi-structured interviews were conducted. The materials, collected and analyzed by mobilizing the framework of Kingdon's streams theory, allowed us to present the agenda-setting process in its complexity and the COVID-19 as a policy window. The main policy entrepreneurs were NGOs and French-speaking feminist women politicians. Together, they rapidly mobilized sufficient resources to implement public intervention that had already been proposed in the preceding years, but which had been waiting for funding. By doing so, they responded during the peak of the pandemic to requests and needs that had already been expressed in a "non-crisis" context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Health Policy
16.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 78, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reporting of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) increased globally during the pandemic. General Practice has a central role in identifying and supporting those affected by DVA. Pandemic associated changes in UK primary care included remote initial contacts with primary care and predominantly remote consulting. This paper explores general practice's adaptation to DVA care during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Remote semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone with staff from six localities in England and Wales where the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) primary care DVA programme is commissioned.  We conducted interviews between April 2021 and February 2022 with three practice managers, three reception and administrative staff, eight general practice clinicians and seven specialist DVA staff. Patient and public involvement and engagement (PPI&E) advisers with lived experience of DVA guided the project. Together we developed recommendations for primary care teams based on our findings. RESULTS: We present our findings within four themes, representing primary care adaptations in delivering DVA care: 1. Making general practice accessible for DVA care: staff adapted telephone triaging processes for appointments and promoted availability of DVA support online. 2. General practice team-working to identify DVA: practices developed new approaches of collaboration, including whole team adaptations to information processing and communication 3. Adapting to remote consultations about DVA: teams were required to adapt to challenges including concerns about safety, privacy, and developing trust remotely. 4. Experiences of onward referrals for specialist DVA support: support from specialist services was effective and largely unchanged during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption caused by pandemic restrictions revealed how team dynamics and interactions before, during and after clinical consultations contribute to identifying and supporting patients experiencing DVA. Remote assessment complicates access to and delivery of DVA care. This has implications for all primary and secondary care settings, within the NHS and internationally, which are vital to consider in both practice and policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , General Practice , Remote Consultation , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
17.
J Dent Hyg ; 97(1): 33-42, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255273

ABSTRACT

Purpose The prevalence of intimate partner domestic violence (DV) increased in frequency during the global COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess dental hygienists' knowledge, attitudes, and readiness to manage patients experiencing DV in the state of Minnesota.Methods A cross-sectional study design was used on a convenience sample of dental hygienists. The validated Physician Readiness to Manage Intimate Partner Violence Survey (PREMIS) was used to collect the data. Survey items included demographic variables and measured attitudes and knowledge regarding intimate partner DV. Paper surveys were distributed to attendees at the Minnesota Dental Hygienist Association Annual Meeting. ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess associations between domestic violence knowledge scores and respondent demographics and attitudes.Results Eighty-eight surveys were distributed; 31 surveys were completed and met the inclusion criteria for data analysis. The overall mean knowledge score was 11.6 from a possible score of 17. No significant differences were found by age, degree type, or years in practice and domestic violence knowledge or attitudes. Most respondents (64.5%) indicated a lack of preparedness to ask appropriate questions regarding DV and only a little more than half knew how to respond to disclosures of DV (51.6%) or were aware of the state's legal requirements for reporting DV (58.0%).Conclusion Participants demonstrated moderate knowledge of DV and recognized the importance of identifying and providing support for DV victims. However, participants were unsure of current state-mandated guidelines for reporting DV. Future exploration of reporting mandates will better support dental hygienists in their professional obligations identifying victims of DV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Humans , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Hygienists , Minnesota , Pandemics
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240747

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic left no one untouched, and reports of domestic violence (DV) increased during the crisis. DV victims rarely seek professional help, yet when they do so, they often disclose it to their general practitioner (GP), with whom they have a trusting relationship. GPs rarely screen and hence rarely take the initiative to discuss DV with patients, although victims indicate that offering this opportunity would facilitate their disclosure. This paper aims to describe the frequency of screening for DV by GPs and disclosure of DV by patients to the GP during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify key elements that could potentially explain differences in screening for and disclosure of DV. The PRICOV-19 data of 4295 GP practices from 33 countries were included in the analyses, with practices nested in countries. Two stepwise forward clustered ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Only 11% of the GPs reported (much) more disclosure of DV by patients during COVID-19, and 12% reported having screened for DV (much). Most significant associations with screening for and disclosure of DV concerned general (pro)active communication. However, (pro)active communication was performed less frequently for DV than for health conditions, which might indicate that GPs are insufficiently aware of the general magnitude of DV and its impact on patients and society, and its approach/management. Thus, professional education and training for GPs about DV seems highly and urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disclosure , Pandemics , Mass Screening , Domestic Violence/prevention & control
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242910

ABSTRACT

Research has shown that rates of domestic violence generally increased during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, likely related to mitigation efforts that promoted staying at home and lockdown protocols. However, the link between pandemic-related domestic violence victimization and mental health outcomes has been less explored. The present study examined the possible association between exposure to domestic physical and psychological violence during the COVID-19 pandemic and depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in an online sample of American adults recruited in December 2021. Data from 604 participants were analyzed. Forty-four percent of participants (n = 266) reported experiencing physical domestic violence, psychological domestic violence, or both during the pandemic, with psychological violence more commonly reported than physical violence. Exposure to both forms of violence was associated with higher rates of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Given the high rates and negative associations between psychological domestic violence and mental health symptoms in this sample, healthcare providers should assess for domestic violence exposure even if no indications of physical abuse are present or if there were not concerns about domestic violence exposure prior to the pandemic. Potential psychological sequalae should also be assessed if a patient has a positive history of domestic violence victimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Adult , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Domestic Violence/psychology
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e068916, 2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the mediating role of psychological distress and domestic violence in the association of fear of COVID-19 with marital satisfaction and sexual quality of life (QoL) among Iranian women of reproductive age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising 324 married women was conducted. Online convenience sampling was used to collect data. SPSS PROCESS macro was used for the mediation analysis. The direct and indirect effects of the fear of COVID-19 on sexual QoL and marital satisfaction were estimated comprising a 95% CI using 5000 bootstrap samples. Pairwise comparisons between the mediators were calculated by Hayes' macros. RESULTS: A positive/negative or suspected history of COVID-19 infection had marginally significant relationship with marital satisfaction (p=0.049). The total effect of fear of COVID-19 on sexual QoL was significant (b=-1.31, SE=0.20, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 had no significant direct effect on sexual QoL (b=-0.22, SE=0.19, p=0.24) but it had an indirect effect on sexual QoL via mediation of psychological distress (b=-0.34, SE=0.09, 95% CI: -0.53 to -0.19) and domestic violence (b=-0.75, SE=0.18, 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.40). The total effect of fear of COVID-19 on marital satisfaction was significant (b=-1.91, SE=0.32, p<0.001). Fear of COVID-19 had no significant direct effect (b=0.20, SE=0.25, p=0.42) on marital satisfaction but it had an indirect effect on marital satisfaction via mediation of psychological distress (b=-0.59, SE=0.13, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.36) and domestic violence (b=-1.51, SE=0.29, 95% CI: -2.08 to -0.92). CONCLUSION: The fear of COVID-19 during the pandemic indirectly decreased women's marital satisfaction and sexual QoL via increased psychological distress and domestic violence. Consequently, in critical situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, improving couples' psychological health and reducing domestic violence are likely to improve women's sexual QoL and marital satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Psychological Distress , Female , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear , Personal Satisfaction
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