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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785661

ABSTRACT

Domestic violence (DV) is an important public health topic with a high prevalence in society. Dentists are also frontline responders to DV, as they not only treat victims of DV with dental injuries, but they can also screen for the presence of DV because they see patients for regular check-ups. Using the WHO definition, which describes domestic violence as intimate partner violence, 17 papers could be included in our analyses. The results of this review clearly indicated that although dentists, as members of the health care sector, are important frontline responders to DV, they are neither trained adequately at medical school nor do most feel competent enough to ask victims about DV or support them as needed. DV is often not taught at dentistry schools at all. The aims of this review were to provide an overview of existing literature on dentists' knowledge and beliefs regarding DV, whether and how DV is taught in medical education and to give recommendations on how to improve the education of dentists on this topic. Based on our findings, we recommend that DV education should be mandatory at dentistry schools and in further training for dentists with a focus on communication with victims, how DV can be identified and how to support victims well.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence , Dentists , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Humans , Prevalence
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 795841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753414

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Domestic violence is toxic to society. With approximately one in three women on average falling victim to domestic violence, systematic solutions are needed. To further complicate the issue, mounting research shows that COVID-19 has further exacerbated domestic violence across the world. Situations could be even more pronounced in countries like China, where though domestic violence is prevalent, there is a dearth of research, such as intervention studies, to address the issue. This study investigates key barriers to domestic violence research development in China, with a close focus on salient cultural influences. Methods: A review of the literature on domestic violence in China in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus was conducted to answer the research question. The search was focused on three themes, domestic violence, China, research, and cultural influences. Results: The study findings show that categorizing domestic violence as a "family affair" is a key barrier to domestic violence research development in China-an incremental hindrance that prevents the public and policymakers from understanding the full scale and scope of domestic violence in China. In addition to abusers, witnesses, and victims, even law enforcement in China often dismisses domestic violence crimes as "family affairs" that resides outside the reach and realm of the law. The results indicated that mistreating domestic violence crimes as "family affairs" is a vital manifestation of the deep-rooted cultural influences in China, ranging from traditional Confucian beliefs in social harmony to the assumed social norms of not interfering with other people's businesses. Conclusion: Domestic violence corrupts public health and social stability. Our study found that dismissing domestic violence cases as "family affairs" is an incremental reason why China's domestic violence research is scarce and awareness is low. In light of the government's voiced support for women's rights, we call for the Chinese government to develop effective interventions to timely and effectively address the domestic violence epidemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , China/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Public Health
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 504, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdown periods to curb COVID-19 transmission have made it harder for survivors of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) to disclose abuse and access support services. Our study describes the impact of the first COVID-19 wave and the associated national lockdown in England and Wales on the referrals from general practice to the Identification and Referral to Improve Safety (IRIS) DVA programme. We compare this to the change in referrals in the same months in the previous year, during the school holidays in the 3 years preceding the pandemic and the period just after the first COVID-19 wave. School holiday periods were chosen as a comparator, since families, including the perpetrator, are together, affecting access to services. METHODS: We used anonymised data on daily referrals received by the IRIS DVA service in 33 areas from general practices over the period April 2017-September 2020. Interrupted-time series and non-linear regression were used to quantify the impact of the first national lockdown in March-June 2020 comparing analogous months the year before, and the impact of school holidays (01/04/2017-30/09/2020) on number of referrals, reporting Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. RESULTS: The first national lockdown in 2020 led to reduced number of referrals to DVA services (27%, 95%CI = (21,34%)) compared to the period before and after, and 19% fewer referrals compared to the same period in the year before. A reduction in the number of referrals was also evident during the school holidays with the highest reduction in referrals during the winter 2019 pre-pandemic school holiday (44%, 95%CI = (32,54%)) followed by the effect from the summer of 2020 school holidays (20%, 95%CI = (10,30%)). There was also a smaller reduction (13-15%) in referrals during the longer summer holidays 2017-2019; and some reduction (5-16%) during the shorter spring holidays 2017-2019. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 led to decline in referrals to DVA services. Our findings suggest an association between decline in referrals to DVA services for women experiencing DVA and prolonged periods of systemic closure proxied here by both the first COVID-19 national lockdown or school holidays. This highlights the need for future planning to provide adequate access and support for people experiencing DVA during future national lockdowns and during the school holidays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Referral and Consultation , Wales/epidemiology
5.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(1): 89-95, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386415

ABSTRACT

Gender inequalities could lead to grave human and economic consequences, especially amid global health crises of the coronavirus 2019's (COVID-19) scale. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated gender inequalities women face and introduced new challenges that are unprecedented to society at large. Adverse effects of COVID-19, compounded by unintended consequences caused by public health policies such as lockdowns (e.g., delayed or canceled health services), have forced women to face issues ranging from COVID-19 infections and deaths, prolonged unemployment, to unparalleled scale and severity of domestic violence. However, though women face a canopy of debilitating challenges, there is a shortage of research that examines health solutions that can mitigate, if not offset, challenges women experience amid COVID-19. In this paper, we aim to shed light on why timely solutions are needed to mitigate gender inequalities and health disparities women face amid COVID-19 promptly. Furthermore, we underscore the imperative for cost-effective interventions that could shed light on the current health crisis and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Sexism , Women's Rights , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Public Policy , Unemployment
9.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 91, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The implementation of lockdowns in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a system switch to remote primary care consulting at the same time as the incidence of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) increased. Lockdown-specific barriers to disclosure of DVA reduced the opportunity for DVA detection and referral. The PRECODE (PRimary care rEsponse to domestic violence and abuse in the COvid-19 panDEmic) study will comprise quantitative analysis of the impact of the pandemic on referrals from IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) trained general practices to DVA agencies in the UK and qualitative analysis of the experiences of clinicians responding to patients affected by DVA and adaptations they have made transitioning to remote DVA training and patient support. METHODS/DESIGN: Using a rapid mixed method design, PRECODE will explore and explain the dynamics of DVA referrals and support before and during the pandemic on a national scale using qualitative data and over four years of referrals time series data. We will undertake interrupted-time series and non-linear regression analysis, including sensitivity analyses, on time series of referrals to DVA services from routinely collected data to evaluate the impact of the pandemic and associated lockdowns on referrals to the IRIS Programme, and analyse key determinants associated with changes in referrals. We will also conduct an interview- and observation-based qualitative study to understand the variation, relevance and feasibility of primary care responses to DVA before and during the pandemic and its aftermath. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative findings using rapid analysis and synthesis will enable the articulation of multiscale trends in primary care responses to DVA and complex mechanisms by which these responses have changed during the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Our findings will inform the implementation of remote primary care and DVA service responses as services re-configure. Understanding the adaptation of clinical and service responses to DVA during the pandemic is crucial for the development of evidence-based, effective remote support and referral beyond the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PRECODE is an observational epidemiologic study, not an intervention evaluation or trial. We will not be reporting results of an intervention on human participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Referral and Consultation , Research Design , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Pandemics , Program Development , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172930

ABSTRACT

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Support , Survivors/psychology
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045872, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the strategies that governments and civil society organisations implemented to prevent and respond to the anticipated rise in violence against women and/or children (VAWC) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: A scoping review and content analysis of online media reports. SETTING: WHO European region. METHODS: A scoping review of media reports and publications and a search of other grey literature (published from 1 January to 17 September 2020). Primary and secondary outcome measures included measures implemented by governments, public services and non-governmental and civil organisations to prevent or respond to VAWC during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Our study found that in 52 of the 53 member states there was at least one measure undertaken to prevent or respond to VAWC during the pandemic. Government-led or government-sponsored measures were the most common, reported in 50 member states. Non-governmental and other civil society-led prevention and response measures were reported in 40 member states. The most common measure was the use of media and social media to raise awareness of VAWC and to provide VAWC services through online platforms, followed by measures taken to expand and/or maintain helpline services for those exposed to violence. CONCLUSION: The potential increase in VAWC during COVID-19-imposed restrictions and lockdowns resulted in adaptations and/or increases in prevention and response strategies in nearly all member states. The strength of existing public health systems influenced the requirement and choice of strategies and highlights the need for sustaining and improving violence prevention and response services. Innovative strategies employed in several member states may offer opportunities for countries to strengthen prevention and responses in the near future and during similar emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Mass Media , Pandemics , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Europe , Female , Humans , Internet , World Health Organization
17.
Global Health ; 16(1): 84, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781486

ABSTRACT

Nepal, a South Asian country, was in nationwide lockdown for nearly three months in 2020 with partial restrictions still in place. Much worryingly, COVID-19 induced restrictions have confined women and young girls in their home, increasing the risk of domestic violence. The available support system to respond to violence against women and girls (VAWG) has also been disrupted during this period. The figures of violence against women, and child sexual abuse are increasingly being reported during the lockdown and thereafter. To mitigate this, a response against VAWG should not be a missing agenda. This commentary focuses on the situation of VAWG during COVID-19 induced restrictions in Nepal and offers a way forward for addressing the issue.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
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