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3.
Global Health ; 17(1): 67, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to COVID-19, domestic violence victims face a range of mental health challenges, possibly resulting in substantial human and economic consequences. However, there is a lack of mental health interventions tailored to domestic violence victims and in the context of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to identify interventions that can improve domestic violence victims' mental health amid the COVID-19 pandemic to address the research gap. MAIN TEXT: Drawing insights from established COVID-19 review frameworks and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information on interventions that can address domestic violence victims' mental health challenges amid COVID-19. We identified practical and timely solutions that can be utilized to address mental health challenges domestic violence victims face amid COVID-19, mainly focusing on (1) decreasing victims' exposure to the abuser and (2) increasing victims' access to mental health services. CONCLUSION: Domestic violence is a public health crisis that affects all demographics and could result in significant morbidity and mortality. In addition to emphasizing mental health challenges faced by domestic violence victims, multidisciplinary interventions are identified that could provide timely and practical solutions to domestic violence victims amid the pandemic, which range from tailored shelter home strategies, education programs, escape plans, laws and regulations, as well as more technology-based mental health solutions. There is a significant need for more multipronged and multidisciplinary strategies to address domestic violence amid and beyond the pandemic, particularly interventions that could capitalize on the ubiquity and cost-effectiveness of technology-based solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crime Victims/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211019854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249513

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of March 2020, leading to some form of lockdown across almost all countries of the world. The extent of the global pandemic due to COVID-19 has a significant impact on our lives that must be studied carefully to combat it. This study highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on crucial aspects of daily life globally, including; Food security, Global economy, Education, Tourism, hospitality, sports and leisure, Gender Relation, Domestic Violence/Abuse, Mental Health and Environmental air pollution through a systematic search of the literature. The COVID-19 global lockdown was initiated to stem the spread of the virus and 'flatten the curve' of the pandemic. However, the impact of the lockdown has had far-reaching effects in different strata of life, including; changes in the accessibility and structure of education delivery to students, food insecurity as a result of unavailability and fluctuation in prices, the depression of the global economy, increase in mental health challenges, wellbeing and quality of life amongst others. This review article highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown across the globe. As the global lockdown is being lifted in a phased manner in various countries of the world, it is necessary to explore its impacts to understand its consequences comprehensively. This will guide future decisions that will be made in a possible future wave of the COVID-19 pandemic or other global disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/transmission , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Education/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Masks/supply & distribution , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sports/psychology , Tourism
8.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(9-10): 4899-4915, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127656

ABSTRACT

During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments instituted a series of measures to control the spread of the virus. The measures were widely believed to increase women's risk of violent victimization, most of which is by an intimate partner. We examined help-seeking during this period in a large U.S. city and used an interrupted time series analysis to assess the effects of three government interventions on domestic violence and sexual assault hotline calls and on "911" calls regarding domestic violence, assault, and rape. Declaration of an emergency appeared to reduce victim calls to the rape crisis hotline and the few "911" calls about rape. School closure was associated with a reduction in "911" calls about assault and rape and victim calls to the domestic violence hotline. Implementation of stay-at-home orders was associated with a gradual increase in domestic violence hotline calls. Although "911" calls regarding assault fell by nearly half, calls to police for domestic violence were unchanged. In sum, there was a decrease in help-seeking for sexual assault and assault in general but not for domestic violence during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. The analysis underscores the importance of distinguishing between the violence itself, calls to police, and calls to helplines when claims are made about changes over time in violence against women. The opportunities and constraints for each can differ widely under usual circumstances, circumstances that were altered by public health interventions related to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Domestic Violence/trends , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Rape/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/trends
10.
Encephale ; 46(3S): S43-S52, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065048

ABSTRACT

The psychological effects of isolation have already been described in the literature (polar expeditions, submarines, prison). Nevertheless, the scale of confinement implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. In addition to reviewing the published studies, we need to anticipate the psychological problems that could arise during or at a distance from confinement. We have gone beyond the COVID-19 literature in order to examine the implications of the known consequences of confinement, like boredom, social isolation, stress, or sleep deprivation. Anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicidal or addictive behaviours, domestic violence are described effects of confinement, but the mechanisms of emergence of these disorders and their interrelationships remain to be studied. For example, what are the mechanisms of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorders in the context of confinement? We also remind the reader of points of vigilance to be kept in mind with regard to eating disorders and hallucinations. Hallucinations are curiously ignored in the literature on confinement, whereas a vast literature links social isolation and hallucinations. Due to the broad psychopathological consequences, we have to look for these various symptoms to manage them. We quickly summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches already in place, such as telemedicine, which is undergoing rapid development during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/etiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Boredom , COVID-19 , Child , Child Abuse , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/etiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , France , Hallucinations/etiology , Hallucinations/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Telemedicine
12.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 20, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little information on care-seeking patterns for sexual assault and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in emergency department (ED) admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. METHODS: Observational ED admissions data from The Ottawa Hospital were analyzed from March 4 to May 5 (62 days) in 2020 (COVID-19 period) and compared to the same period in 2018 (pre-COVID-19). Total and mean weekly admissions were calculated for all-cause ED admissions and for sexual and domestic violence cases. A Poisson regression (without offset term) was used to calculate the weekly case count ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two time periods. Case characteristics were compared using chi-square tests, and percent differences were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to pre-COVID-19, total ED admissions dropped by 1111.22 cases per week (32.9% reduction), and the Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Program cases dropped 4.66 cases per week. The weekly case count ratio for sexual assault cases was 0.47 (95% CI 0.79-0.27), equivalent of 53.49% reduction in cases, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.93-0.29), equivalent to a 48.45% reduction in physical assault cases. The characteristics of presenting cases were similar by age (median 25 years), sex (88.57% female), assault type (57.14% sexual assault, 48.57% physical assault), and location (31.43% patient's home, 40.00% assailant's home). There was a significant increase in psychological abuse (11.69% vs 28.57%) and assaults occurring outdoors (5.19% vs 22.86%). CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in ED admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence during COVID-19, despite societal conditions that elevate risk of violence. Trends in care-seeking and assault patterns will require ongoing monitoring to inform the provision of optimal support for individuals experiencing violence, particularly as countries begin to re-open or lock-down again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Sex Offenses/trends , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Sex Offenses/psychology , Young Adult
13.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200631, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to know the strategies to cope with domestic violence against women disseminated by digital media at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a documentary study with a qualitative approach. The search took place from March 11 to April 30, 2020, from four sources: newspapers and online portals, social network, official government pages and third sector portals. Thematic content analysis of the findings was performed. RESULTS: seventy-seven strategies were identified in the journalistic press, 93 in the social network, 45 in government portals and 40 in third sector organizations. From analysis, three empirical categories emerged: Strategies for communication with women; Strategies adopted by customer service; Strategies to inform the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: most of strategies were adaptations of existing services, centered on the reporting of violence by women.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Domestic Violence/psychology , Information Dissemination/methods , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women bear considerable physical and psychological stress because of their special conditions, which combined with other stress factors such as violence, makes their situation even more critical. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with the participation of 250 pregnant women in the obstetrics clinic of 29-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz city. Using a three-part questionnaire consisting of the socio-demographic and obstetrics information, the domestic violence questionnaire developed by WHO, and the SF-12 quality of life questionnaire, the required information was collected. A general linear model was then used to determine the relationship between domestic violence and quality of life, while adjusting the socio-demographic and obstetrics information. RESULTS: According to the data, more than one-third of pregnant women (35.2 %) had experienced domestic violence. The most common type of violence experienced was emotional violence (32.8 %), followed by sexual violence (12.4 %), and physical violence (4.8 %). The mean score of the physical health department of quality of life in the group of women exposed to violence (50.21) was lower compared to the unexposed group (53.45), though there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.25). However, the mean score of the mental health department of quality of life in women exposed to violence (46.27) was significantly lower compared to unexposed women (61.17) (P < 0.001). Based on the general linear model, the mean score for quality of life in the mental health dimension was significantly higher among unexposed women compared to those exposed to violence (ß = 9.3, 95 %CI: 3.5 to 15.0, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate a high prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with a low quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the findings signify the importance of screening pregnant women in terms of domestic violence in respective centers as well as the necessity of conducting proper interventions to address domestic violence to improve the quality of life in women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Quality of Life , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran , Mental Health , Physical Abuse/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Prevalence , Sex Offenses/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
J Gen Psychol ; 148(3): 305-326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044252

ABSTRACT

Psychologist Eric Miller of Kent State University has termed COVID-19 "the Loss and Trauma Event of Our Time." In this paper, I would like to problematize the public health response to the virus outbreak in light of two consequential and preventable traumas that shadow the COVID-19 calamity: femicide and suicide. As public health reaction to the pandemic is seen to negatively increase rates of domestic violence and suicidality this research accessed rapidly available data using Google Date Range analysis by utilizing queries from pre- and post-pandemic comprising the months of March-August in the years 2019 and 2020. The aim of this rapid-response research is to glimpse the possible presence of psychological stress in online searches that relate to debilitation in the four foundational strata of Maslow's Hierarchy of Human needs (basic and psychological needs). To search basic needs related to COVID-19 the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): precarity and insecurity. To search basic and psychological needs related to suicide the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): despondency and helplessness. Finally, to search basic and psychological needs related to femicide the following categories were utilized in online search phrases in Google (US): indicative male violence and intentional male violence. Results show an overwhelming upsurge from all six categories from 31% to 106%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Homicide/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Helplessness, Learned , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Male , Research , Risk Factors , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological/complications
17.
Child Abuse Negl ; 116(Pt 2): 104800, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The consequences of the coronavirus crisis are considerable for everyone in the Netherlands. Although there were concerns about the many vulnerable families who were forced to stay at home because of the measures taken by the government to contain the coronavirus in the Netherlands, there has been no increase in the number of reports of domestic violence or child abuse. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight by a mixed method study on what has happened during the lockdown within families who were already known to social services. METHODS: A quantitative study was performed among 159 families recruited before the coronavirus crisis, and 87 families recruited during the lockdown in the Netherlands through child protection services. Family members (parents, children) completed questionnaires about interparental violence, (historical) child abuse and neglect, and emotional security. In a qualitative study 39 of these respondents and 13 professionals were interviewed. RESULTS: No difference was found in violence between families who participated before and after the lockdown. The level of violence is still high in most families. The absence of assistance promoted the self-reliance of children and parents to deal with this difficult period. Professionals found new ways of connecting to families at risk. Every form of support is important to these families because it made children feel seen and heard. Isolation of families where domestic violence and child abuse occurred, remains a risk factor, even outside the coronavirus crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Child Protective Services , Coronavirus , Domestic Violence/psychology , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Parents , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , Social Work , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241658, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910301

ABSTRACT

New Zealand's early response to the novel coronavirus pandemic included a strict lockdown which eliminated community transmission of COVID-19. However, this success was not without cost, both economic and social. In our study, we examined the psychological wellbeing of New Zealanders during the COVID-19 lockdown when restrictions reduced social contact, limited recreation opportunities, and resulted in job losses and financial insecurity. We conducted an online panel survey of a demographically representative sample of 2010 adult New Zealanders in April 2020. The survey contained three standardised measures-the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the GAD-7, and the Well-Being Index (WHO-5)-as well as questions designed specifically to measure family violence, suicidal ideation, and alcohol consumption. It also included items assessing positive aspects of the lockdown. Thirty percent of respondents reported moderate to severe psychological distress (K10), 16% moderate to high levels of anxiety, and 39% low wellbeing; well above baseline measures. Poorer outcomes were seen among young people and those who had lost jobs or had less work, those with poor health status, and who had past diagnoses of mental illness. Suicidal ideation was reported by 6%, with 2% reporting making plans for suicide and 2% reporting suicide attempts. Suicidality was highest in those aged 18-34. Just under 10% of participants had directly experienced some form of family harm over the lockdown period. However, not all consequences of the lockdown were negative, with 62% reporting 'silver linings', which included enjoying working from home, spending more time with family, and a quieter, less polluted environment. New Zealand's lockdown successfully eliminated COVID-19 from the community, but our results show this achievement brought a significant psychological toll. Although much of the debate about lockdown measures has focused on their economic effects, our findings emphasise the need to pay equal attention to their effects on psychological wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depression/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/virology , Young Adult
19.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(6): 749-756, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871479

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a situation of general distress. Although the focus has been initially more on the physical health during the pandemic, mental health concerns linked to the lockdown have quickly risen. This study aims to assess the effect of the COVID-19-related lockdown on Tunisian women's mental health and gender-based violence. An online survey was conducted, using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Facebook Bergen Addiction Scale (FBAS). We chose a female-exclusive social group on Facebook and used the snowball sampling method. A total of 751 participants originating from all the Tunisian regions completed the questionnaire. More than half of the participants (57.3%) reported extremely severe distress symptoms, as per the DASS-21. Those who had a history of mental illness and who were allegedly abused during lockdown were found to have more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Around 40% of women reported problematic social media use. Violence against women also reportedly increased significantly during the lockdown (from 4.4 to 14.8%; p < 0.001). Psychological abuse was the most frequent type of violence (96%). Women who had experienced abuse before the lockdown were at an increased risk of violence during lockdown (p < 0.001; OR = 19.34 [8.71-43.00]). To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the acute impact of COVID-19 on mental health and violence against women in Tunisia, Africa, and the Arab world. It may be a sound basis for developing a more effective psychological intervention aimed at women in these regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Gender-Based Violence/statistics & numerical data , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/ethnology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/ethnology , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Female , Gender-Based Violence/ethnology , Gender-Based Violence/psychology , Health Surveys , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/ethnology , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/ethnology , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia/epidemiology
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