Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 47
Filter
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391521

ABSTRACT

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Subject(s)
Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Police/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Domestic Violence/ethnology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 40(2): 87-91, 2021.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285226

ABSTRACT

. Domestic violence in Val Camonica: survey on the accesses to the emergency deparment in the period post Covid-19. INTRODUCTION: The lock-down due to COVID-19 has caused hard times to everybody, but especially for women victim of domestic violence, locked up in their own home with violent partners. OBJECTIVE: To describe how and to what extent the lockdown caused by the first wave of COVID-19 influenced the domestic violence in Val Camonica. METHOD: Using the informatic system of the Esine Emergency Department, accesses for domestic, psychological and/or physical violence in the years 2017-2020 were analyzed. RESULTS: In 2020, following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in the observed accesses for domestic violence and aggressions displayed during violent episodes was. As in previous years, women victims of domestic violence were between 30 and 40 years old and of Italian nationality; men were also victims of domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Also in Val Camonica violence against women is a widespread phenomenon. For this reason the Valcamonica local Authorities are taking action to expand the available network service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
6.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211019854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249513

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on the 11th of March 2020, leading to some form of lockdown across almost all countries of the world. The extent of the global pandemic due to COVID-19 has a significant impact on our lives that must be studied carefully to combat it. This study highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on crucial aspects of daily life globally, including; Food security, Global economy, Education, Tourism, hospitality, sports and leisure, Gender Relation, Domestic Violence/Abuse, Mental Health and Environmental air pollution through a systematic search of the literature. The COVID-19 global lockdown was initiated to stem the spread of the virus and 'flatten the curve' of the pandemic. However, the impact of the lockdown has had far-reaching effects in different strata of life, including; changes in the accessibility and structure of education delivery to students, food insecurity as a result of unavailability and fluctuation in prices, the depression of the global economy, increase in mental health challenges, wellbeing and quality of life amongst others. This review article highlights the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown across the globe. As the global lockdown is being lifted in a phased manner in various countries of the world, it is necessary to explore its impacts to understand its consequences comprehensively. This will guide future decisions that will be made in a possible future wave of the COVID-19 pandemic or other global disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Domestic Violence/psychology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/transmission , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Education/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Food Security/statistics & numerical data , Global Health/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Masks/supply & distribution , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sports/psychology , Tourism
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19831, 2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172930

ABSTRACT

Before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), 1 in 3 women and girls, globally, were victimized by an abusive partner in intimate relationships. However, the current pandemic has amplified cases of domestic violence (DV) against women and girls, with up to thrice the prevalence in DV cases compared to the same time last year. Evidence of the adverse effects of the pandemic on DV is still emerging, even as violence prevention strategies are iteratively being refined by service providers, advocacy agencies, and survivors to meet stay-at-home mandates. Emotional and material support for survivors is a critical resource increasingly delivered using digital and technology-based modalities, which offer several advantages and challenges. This paper rapidly describes current DV mitigation approaches using digital solutions, signaling emerging best practices to support survivors, their children, and abusers during stay-at-home advisories. Some examples of technology-based strategies and solutions are presented. An immediate priority is mapping out current digital solutions in response to COVID-19-related DV and outlining issues with uptake, coverage, and meaningful use of digital solutions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Social Support , Survivors/psychology
8.
Health Care Women Int ; 42(3): 335-350, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152978

ABSTRACT

In this study, researchers aimed to assess the situation of domestic violence against women during the pandemic. 332 women participated in the study. It was found that emotional, verbal and total violence scores of the literate ones were higher. The emotional violence scores of the women who do not work and whose partners do not work due to the pandemic are higher (p < 0.05). The researchers reached the conclusion that emotional violence is higher during the pandemic process, and that failing to work in an income-generating job triggers this situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
9.
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100991, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152328

ABSTRACT

This paper considers whether the COVID-19 stay-at-home order affected crimes targeting women. To answer this question, we use national municipal-level crime data from Mexico's National Public Security System. The NPSS reports sexual crimes, lapses in alimony, domestic violence, and femicides. Using the NPSS, we track monthly changes in crimes targeting women using an event-study design. Our results show that lapses in alimony, sexual crimes, and domestic violence follow a U-shaped trend. Each crime declined during the stay-at-home order, and then rose back to pre-COVID levels by October. Then, we analyze potential mechanisms for the reduction in crimes against women. We find that infection risk, victim-criminal match, and banning the sale of alcohol are related to higher declines in crime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Crime/statistics & numerical data , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Offenses/statistics & numerical data
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 714-721, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a statewide stay-at-home (SAH) order in California beginning March 19, 2020, forcing large-scale behavioral changes and taking an emotional and economic toll. The effects of SAH orders on the trauma population remain unknown. We hypothesized an increase in rates of penetrating trauma, gunshot wounds, suicide attempts, and domestic violence in the Southern California trauma population after the SAH order. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to 11 American College of Surgeons levels I and II trauma centers spanning seven counties in California was performed. Demographic data, injury characteristics, clinical data, and outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into three groups based on injury date: before SAH from January 1, 2020, to March 18, 2020 (PRE), after SAH from March 19, 2020, to June 30, 2020 (POST), and a historical control from March 19, 2019, to June 30, 2019 (CONTROL). POST was compared with both PRE and CONTROL in two separate analyses. RESULTS: Across all periods, 20,448 trauma patients were identified (CONTROL, 7,707; PRE, 6,022; POST, 6,719). POST had a significantly increased rate of penetrating trauma (13.0% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001 and 13.0% vs. 9.9%, p < 0.001) and gunshot wounds (4.5% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002 and 4.5% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.025) compared with PRE and CONTROL, respectively. POST had a suicide attempt rate of 1.9% and a domestic violence rate of 0.7%, which were similar to PRE (p = 0.478, p = 0.514) and CONTROL (p = 0.160, p = 0.618). CONCLUSION: This multicenter Southern California study demonstrated an increased rate of penetrating trauma and gunshot wounds after the COVID-19 SAH orders but no difference in attempted suicide or domestic violence rates. These findings may provide useful information regarding resource utilization and a target for societal intervention during the current or future pandemic(s). LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level IV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , California/epidemiology , Female , Historically Controlled Study , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Interpers Violence ; 36(9-10): 4899-4915, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127656

ABSTRACT

During the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments instituted a series of measures to control the spread of the virus. The measures were widely believed to increase women's risk of violent victimization, most of which is by an intimate partner. We examined help-seeking during this period in a large U.S. city and used an interrupted time series analysis to assess the effects of three government interventions on domestic violence and sexual assault hotline calls and on "911" calls regarding domestic violence, assault, and rape. Declaration of an emergency appeared to reduce victim calls to the rape crisis hotline and the few "911" calls about rape. School closure was associated with a reduction in "911" calls about assault and rape and victim calls to the domestic violence hotline. Implementation of stay-at-home orders was associated with a gradual increase in domestic violence hotline calls. Although "911" calls regarding assault fell by nearly half, calls to police for domestic violence were unchanged. In sum, there was a decrease in help-seeking for sexual assault and assault in general but not for domestic violence during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak. The analysis underscores the importance of distinguishing between the violence itself, calls to police, and calls to helplines when claims are made about changes over time in violence against women. The opportunities and constraints for each can differ widely under usual circumstances, circumstances that were altered by public health interventions related to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Help-Seeking Behavior , Intimate Partner Violence/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Spouse Abuse/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Domestic Violence/psychology , Domestic Violence/trends , Female , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Rape/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spouse Abuse/psychology , Spouse Abuse/trends
17.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 40(1): 3-7, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066651

ABSTRACT

Alcohol's impact on global health is substantial and of a similar order of magnitude to that from COVID-19. Alcohol now also poses specific concerns, such as increased risk of severe lung infections, domestic violence, child abuse, depression and suicide. Its use is unlikely to aid physical distancing or other preventative behavioural measures. Globally, alcohol contributes to 20% of injury and 11.5% of non-injury emergency room presentations. We provide some broad comparisons between alcohol-attributable and COVID-19-related hospitalisations and deaths in North America using most recent data. For example, for Canada in 2017 it was recently estimated there were 105 065 alcohol-attributable hospitalisations which represent a substantially higher rate over time than the 10 521 COVID-19 hospitalisations reported during the first 5 months of the pandemic. Despite the current importance of protecting health-care services, most governments have deemed alcohol sales to be as essential as food, fuel and pharmaceuticals. In many countries, alcohol is now more readily available and affordable than ever before, a situation global alcohol producers benefit from and have helped engineer. We argue that to protect frontline health-care services and public health more generally, it is essential that modest, evidence-based restrictions on alcohol prices, availability and marketing are introduced. In particular, we recommend increases in excise taxation coupled with minimum unit pricing to both reduce impacts on health-care services and provide much-needed revenues for governments at this critical time.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages/supply & distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hand Disinfection , Health Services , Hospitalization , Humans , North America/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Taxes/legislation & jurisprudence
18.
Surgeon ; 19(1): e9-e13, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065610

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The restrictions imposed on social activity in response to the Covid-19 pandemic have had a profound impact globally. In the UK, the NHS was placed on a war-footing, with elective surgery, face-to-face outpatient clinics, and community care facilities all scaled back as a temporary measure to redistribute scarce resources. There has been concern during this period over increasing levels of violence in the domestic setting, as well as self-harm. METHODS: Data was collected on all patients presenting with traumatic penetrating injuries during the 'lockdown' period of 23rd March to 29th April 2020. Demographics and injury details were compared with the same period in the two preceding years. RESULTS: Overall trauma fell by 35% compared with the previous year. Over one in four penetrating injuries seen were a result of self-harm, which was significantly higher than in previous years (11% in 2019, 2% in 2018). There were two cases of injuries due to domestic violence, while a total of 4 cases of injury arose in separate violent domestic incidents. Self-harm commonly involved penetrating injury to the neck. DISCUSSION: Our centre has seen an increase in the proportion of penetrating injuries as a result of both self-harm and violence in the domestic setting. The number of penetrating neck injury cases, which can represent suicidal intent or a major presentation of psychiatric illness, is of particular concern. We must further investigate the effect of social restrictions on violent injury, and how home confinement may influence a changing demographic picture of victims.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Domestic Violence/statistics & numerical data , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Wounds, Penetrating/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL