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1.
Clin Lab Med ; 41(4): 563-577, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748122

ABSTRACT

The maintenance of an adequate and safe blood supply begins with choosing the right donor at the right time. The evolution of donor screening has been shaped by experience, donor satisfaction, and the ever-challenging emergence of relevant infectious diseases. Screening donors has been standardized over the past 6 decades to protect donor and recipient safety. In this review, we outline, define, and simplify the requirements to assess and defer donors with a focus on recent and ongoing changes to provide up to date information on donor qualification and current challenges in maintaining the blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Donor Selection , Humans
2.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1405-1422, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706459

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns for programs overseeing donation and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs (CTO) that this virus might be transmissible by transfusion or transplantation. Transplant recipients are considered particularly vulnerable to pathogens because of immunosuppression, and SARS-CoV-2 is likely to generate complications if contracted. Several signs and symptoms observed in COVID-19 positive patients reflect damage to multiple organs and tissues, raising the possibility of extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infections and risk of transmission. At the beginning of the pandemic, a consensus has emerged not to consider COVID-19 positive patients as potential living or deceased donors, resulting in a global decrease in transplantation procedures. Medical decision-making at the time of organ allocation must consider safely alongside the survival advantages offered by transplantation. To address the risk of transmission by transplantation, this review summarizes the published cases of transplantation of cells or organs from donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 until January 2021 and assesses the current state of knowledge for the detection of this virus in different biologic specimens, cells, tissues, and organs. Evidence collected to date raises the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in some CTO, which makes it impossible to exclude transmission through transplantation. However, most studies focused on evaluating transmission under laboratory conditions with inconsistent findings, rendering the comparison of results difficult. Improved standardization of donors and CTO screening practices, along with a systematic follow-up of transplant recipients could facilitate the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk by transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk
3.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1423-1432, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited current knowledge on feasibility and safety of kidney transplantation in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) survivors. METHODS: We present a retrospective cohort study of 75 kidney transplants in patients who recovered from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 performed across 22 transplant centers in India from July 3, 2020, to January 31, 2021. We detail demographics, clinical manifestations, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were accepted after documenting 2 negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 PCR tests, normal chest imaging with complete resolution of symptom for at least 28 d and significant social distancing for 14 d before surgery. RESULTS: Clinical severity in patients ranged from asymptomatic (n = 17, 22.7%), mild (n = 36.48%), moderate (n = 15.20%), and severe (n = 7.9.3%) disease. Median duration between PCR positive to transplant was 60 d (overall) and increased significantly from asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe disease (49, 57, 83, 94 d, P 0.019), respectively. All recipients and donors were asymptomatic with normal creatinine after surgery at a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 81 (56-117) d without any complications relating to surgery or COVID-19. Patient and graft survival was 100%, and acute rejection was reported in 6.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective kidney transplant recipients post-COVID-19 can be considered for transplantation after comprehensive donor and recipient screening before surgery using a combination of clinical, radiologic, and laboratory criteria, careful pretransplant evaluation, and individualized risk-benefit analysis. Further large-scale prospective studies with longer follow-up will better clarify our initial findings. To date, this remains the first and the largest study of kidney transplantation in COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Donor Selection/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Cornea ; 41(2): 238-242, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in human postmortem ocular tissues of asymptomatic donors and its implications on our eye banking protocols. METHODS: The expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in corneal rims and conjunctival tissues from 100 donors who were found suitable for transplantation as per the donor screening guidelines of the Global Alliance of Eye Bank Associations. The donor's clinical history and cause of death were assessed for secondary analysis. RESULTS: Of 200 ocular tissues (100 corneal and 100 conjunctival) from the same 1 eye of 100 surgical-intended donors, between September 2020 and April 2021, the overall positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 was ∼1% (2/200). Both the ocular samples that tested positive were conjunctival biopsies (2/100, 2%), whereas corneal samples were negative (0/100, 0%) in both donors. The causes of donor death were trauma in 51 donors, suicide in 33, cardiac arrest in 7, electric shock in 5, metabolic cause in 2, malignancy in 1, and snake bite in 1. None of the donors had a medical history suggestive of COVID infection or possible contact. None of the recipients from the donors were reported to have any systemic adverse event after keratoplasty until the follow-up of 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 1% (2% for conjunctival and 0% for corneal samples, P value = 0.5) in the donors who were found suitable for cornea recovery and transplantation. The findings of exceptionally low positive rates in our samples validate the criticality of history-based donor screening and do not support the necessity of postmortem PCR testing as a criterion for procurement and subsequent use for corneal transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctiva/virology , Cornea/virology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Donor Selection , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(9): 1027-1038, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing number of clinical trials relating to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), it is crucial to identify and recruit long-term, healthy, and regular fecal donors. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to report the outcomes of screening and recruitment of fecal donors for FMT. METHODS: Potential donors were recruited via advertisement through internal mass emails at a university. They were required to undergo a pre-screening telephone interview, a detailed questionnaire, followed by blood and stool investigations. RESULTS: From January 2017 to December 2020, 119 potential donors were assessed with 75 failed pre-screening. Reasons for failure included: inability to come back for regular and long-term donation (n = 19), high body mass index (n = 17), underlying chronic illness or on long-term medications (n = 11), being healthcare professionals (n = 10), use of antibiotics within 3 months (n = 5) and others (n = 13). Forty-four donors completed questionnaires and 11 did not fulfill the clinical criteria. Of the remaining 33 potential donors who had stool and blood tests, 21 failed stool investigations (19 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] organisms, one Clostridioides difficile, one C. difficile plus Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), one failed blood tests (high serum alkaline phosphatase level), one required long-term medication and nine withdrew consent and/or lost to follow-up. In total, only one out of 119 (0.8%) potential donors was successfully recruited as a regular donor. CONCLUSION: There was a high failure rate in donor screening for FMT. Main reasons for screening failure included high prevalence of positive ESBL organisms in stool and failed commitment to regular stool donation.


Subject(s)
Donor Selection , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Feces/microbiology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Young Adult , beta-Lactamases
7.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(11): 1232-1237, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431093

ABSTRACT

Shortages of grafts for liver transplant remain a persistent problem. The use of lacerated livers for liver transplant can add an option for extended criteria donations, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present the case of a successful liver transplant performed using a high-grade lacerated liver previously treated with superselective arterial embolization and packing for bleeding control. In view of the absence of guidelines for the use of lacerated livers for transplant, we also performed a review of the literature on injured liver grafts that were used for liver transplants. Meticulous care and careful selection of recipients were essential prerequisites for achieving successful outcomes.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries/etiology , COVID-19 , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Heart Massage/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation , Liver/injuries , Liver/surgery , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/complications , Abdominal Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Injuries/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Clinical Decision-Making , Donor Selection , End Stage Liver Disease/diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Transfusion ; 60(6): 1119-1122, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388414

ABSTRACT

Oral swabs, sputum, and blood samples from 18 asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were examined using RT-PCR testing in order to assess the risk of transfusion-related transmission. In asymptomatic patients as well as patients with flu-like symptoms and fever, no SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the blood or serum despite a clearly positive result in all throat swabs. As patients with symptoms of infectious disease will not be admitted to blood donation, the risk for transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be negligible.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Donor Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transfusion Reaction/virology , Young Adult
9.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(12): 1479-1484, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362720

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: In the face of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response, it was worthwhile to test the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) transfusion. OBJECTIVE.­: To establish a CCP donation program based on the availability of recovered COVID-19 patients and the practical limitations in recruiting clinically valid donors in a multicultural setting. DESIGN.­: From March to June 2020, we developed a program for collection of COVID-19 CCP as part of the treatment options for patients affected with COVID-19. From an initial population of 3746 candidates, only those with positive polymerase chain reaction results in at least 2 separate tests were considered. This filter reduced the eligible donor pool to 488 patients. After other exclusions were applied, such as language barrier, age, accessibility to donation, and comorbidities, the final count was 267 potentially eligible donors, which represented only 54.7% (267 of 488) of preselected candidates. RESULTS.­: Eighty donors were called. Approximately a third of the calls provided additional challenges as outlined by the following 4 reasons: limited functional understanding of English; schedule availability due to rotating work timetables; transportation restrictions since public transport services were severely restricted during lockdown; and lost to follow-up. Finally, a total of 38 valid donors participated, upon whom 45 apheresis procedures were performed. CONCLUSIONS.­: As a summary of our experience, we can conclude that despite the limitations we were able to establish an effective program. A total of 90 units of CCP were collected before the pandemic curve began to flatten toward the end of June 2020.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Component Removal , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Donor Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Blood Donors , Communicable Disease Control , Convalescence , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics
10.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103207, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336983

ABSTRACT

Blood transfusions come with risks and high costs, and should be utilized only when clinically indicated. Decisions to transfuse are however not always well informed, and lack of clinician knowledge and education on good clinical transfusion practices contribute to the inappropriate use of blood. Low and middle-income countries in particular take much strain in their efforts to address blood safety challenges, demand-supply imbalances, high blood costs as well as high disease burdens, all of which impact blood usage and blood collections. Patient blood management (PBM), which is a patient-focused approach aimed at improving patient outcomes by preemptively diagnosing and correcting anaemia and limiting blood loss by cell salvage, coagulation optimization and other measures, has become a major approach to addressing many of the challenges mentioned. The associated decrease in the use of blood and blood products may be perceived as being in competition with blood conservation measures, which is the more traditional, but primarily product-focused approach. In this article, we hope to convey the message that PBM and blood conservation should not be seen as competing concepts, but rather complimentary strategies with the common goal of improving patient care. This offers opportunity to improve the culture of transfusion practices with relief to blood establishments and clinical services, not only in South Africa and LMICs, but everywhere. With the COVID-19 pandemic impacting blood supplies worldwide, this is an ideal time to call for educational interventions and awareness as an active strategy to improve transfusion practices, immediately and beyond.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks/organization & administration , Blood Transfusion , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures , Anemia/therapy , Blood Banks/economics , Blood Loss, Surgical , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion/economics , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures/economics , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Developing Countries , Donor Selection/economics , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Postpartum Hemorrhage/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Transfusion Medicine/education
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932025, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335415

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which began in March 2020, affected organ donor acceptance and rates of heart, lung, kidney, and liver transplants worldwide. According to data reported to POLTRANSPLANT, the number of solid organ transplants decreased by over 35% and the number of patients enlisted de novo for organ transplantation was reduced to 70% of its pre-COVID-19 volume in Poland. Most transplant centers in Western Europe and the USA have also drastically reduced their activity when compared to the pre-pandemic era. Areas of high SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence, like Italy, Spain, and France, were most affected. Significant decreases in organ donation and number of transplant procedures and increase in waitlist deaths have been noted due to overload of the healthcare system as well as uncertainty of donor SARS-CoV-2 status. Intensive care unit bed shortages and less intensive care resources available for donor management are major factors limiting access to organ procurement. The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on transplant activities was not so adverse in Asia, as a result of a strategy based on experience gained during a previous SARS pandemic. This review aims to compare the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on solid organ transplantation during 2020 in Poland with countries in Western Europe, North America, and Asia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Donor Selection/organization & administration , Organ Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Asia , Europe , Humans , North America , Poland
15.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 26(4): 381-389, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261074

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To define recent changes and future directions in the practice of pancreas transplantation (PT). Two major events have occurred in the past 18 months: COVID-19 pandemic, and the first world consensus conference on PT. Several innovative studies were published after the consensus conference. RECENT FINDINGS: During COVID-19 pandemic PT activity decreased. COVID-19 in transplant recipients increases mortality rates, but data from kidney transplantation show that mortality might be higher in waitlisted patients.The world consensus conference provided 49 jury deliberations on the impact of PT on management of diabetic patients and 110 practice recommendations.Recent evidence demonstrates that PT alone is safe and effective, that results of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) remain excellent despite older recipient age and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, that use of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive donors into HCV-negative recipients is associated with good outcomes, and that use of sirolimus as primary immunosuppressant and costimulation blockade does not improve results of SPK. SUMMARY: COVID-19 pandemic and the first world consensus conference on PT were major events. Although COVID-19 pandemic should not reduce PT activity in the future, a major positive impact on both volume and outcomes of PT is awaited from the proceedings of the world consensus conference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pancreas Transplantation/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Donor Selection , Graft Survival/physiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/trends , Pancreas Transplantation/mortality , Transplant Recipients
19.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(4): 103160, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 virus has caused the world's deadliest pandemic. Early April 2020, the Delhi Government made it compulsory for people to wear face masks while going outdoors to curb disease spread. Prolonged use of surgical masks during the pandemic has been reported to cause many adverse effects. Intermittent hypoxia has been shown to activate erythropoietin (EPO leading to increased hemoglobin mass. AIM: To analyze whether face mask induced intermittent hypoxia has any effect on the hemoglobin levels of healthy blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed donor data from 1st July 2019-31st December 2020 for hemoglobin distribution across hemoglobin ranges and donor deferral on basis of hemoglobin. Study population was divided into two cohorts Group 1- (1st July 2019-31 st March 2020): before implementation of mandatory face masks Group 2- (1st April 2020-31 st December 2020): after implementation of mandatory face masks RESULTS: Mean Hb of blood donors in Group 2 (15.01 ± 1.1 g/dl) was higher than Group1 (14.49 ± 1.15 g/dl), (p < 0.0001). 47.1 % group2 donors had Hb of 16.1-18 g/dl compared to group1 (38.4 %). 52.9 % group 2 donors had Hb between 12.5-15 g/dl compared to 61.6 % Group 1 (p < 0.05). Deferral due to anemia was lesser in group 2 compared to group 1 (p < 0.00001). Group 2 had significantly higher deferral due to high Hb (>18 gm/dl) was than Group 1 (p = 0.0039). CONCLUSION: This study including 19504 blood donors spanning over one and a half year shows that prolonged use of face mask by blood donors may lead to intermittent hypoxia and consequent increase in hemoglobin mass.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , Erythropoietin/physiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hypoxia/etiology , Masks/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Donor Selection/standards , Female , Hemoglobins/biosynthesis , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(11): 1428-1432, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing rise of C. difficile infection, stool banks and donor programs have been launched to grant access to fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Our aim is to describe characteristics and outcomes of the donor program at our stool bank. METHODS: Donor candidates underwent a four-step selection process, including a clinical interview, blood and stool testing, a further questionnaire and a direct stool testing the day of each donation. From March 2020, specific changes to this process were introduced to avoid the potential transmission of COVID-19. We evaluated the rate of excluded candidates at each step of the screening, as well as the number of total fecal aliquots provided by qualified donors. RESULTS: Overall, 114 donor candidates were evaluated. Seventy-five candidates declined to join the program for logistic or personal issues, three were excluded after the questionnaire and seven for positive stool exams. Finally, 29 (25%) subjects qualified as stool donors, and provided 70 stool samples. Fifteen samples were excluded after direct molecular stool testing. A total of 127 aliquots was finally obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Donor recruitment for FMT is a challenging process, and only a small rate of candidates are eligible as donors.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Donor Selection/methods , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Adult , Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/organization & administration , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy , Male , Program Evaluation , Prospective Studies
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