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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24432, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585772

ABSTRACT

Despite the initial success of some drugs and vaccines targeting COVID-19, understanding the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 disease pathogenesis remains crucial for the development of further approaches to treatment. Some patients with severe Covid-19 experience a cytokine storm and display evidence of inflammasome activation leading to increased levels of IL-1ß and IL-18; however, other reports have suggested reduced inflammatory responses to Sars-Cov-2. In this study we have examined the effects of the Sars-Cov-2 envelope (E) protein, a virulence factor in coronaviruses, on inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. In cultured macrophages the E protein suppressed inflammasome priming and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Similarly, in mice transfected with E protein and treated with poly(I:C) to simulate the effects of viral RNA, the E protein, in an NLRP3-dependent fashion, reduced expression of pro-IL-1ß, levels of IL-1ß and IL-18 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and macrophage infiltration in the lung. To simulate the effects of more advanced infection, macrophages were treated with both LPS and poly(I:C). In this setting the E protein increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both murine and human macrophages. Thus, the Sars-Cov-2 E protein may initially suppress the host NLRP3 inflammasome response to viral RNA while potentially increasing NLRP3 inflammasome responses in the later stages of infection. Targeting the Sars-Cov-2 E protein especially in the early stages of infection may represent a novel approach to Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575253
3.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572376

ABSTRACT

To assess the biology of the lethal endpoint in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, we compared the transcriptional response to the virus in patients who survived or died during severe COVID-19. We applied gene expression profiling to generate transcriptional signatures for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time when they were placed in the Intensive Care Unit of the Pavlov First State Medical University of St. Petersburg (Russia). Three different bioinformatics approaches to RNA-seq analysis identified a downregulation of three common pathways in survivors compared with nonsurvivors among patients with severe COVID-19, namely, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle receptor activity (GO:0005041), important for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, leukocyte differentiation (GO:0002521), and cargo receptor activity (GO:0038024). Specifically, PBMCs from surviving patients were characterized by reduced expression of PPARG, CD36, STAB1, ITGAV, and ANXA2. Taken together, our findings suggest that LDL particle receptor pathway activity in patients with COVID-19 infection is associated with poor disease prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Receptors, LDL/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009928, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484868

ABSTRACT

Non-specific protective effects of certain vaccines have been reported, and long-term boosting of innate immunity, termed trained immunity, has been proposed as one of the mechanisms mediating these effects. Several epidemiological studies suggested cross-protection between influenza vaccination and COVID-19. In a large academic Dutch hospital, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was less common among employees who had received a previous influenza vaccination: relative risk reductions of 37% and 49% were observed following influenza vaccination during the first and second COVID-19 waves, respectively. The quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine induced a trained immunity program that boosted innate immune responses against various viral stimuli and fine-tuned the anti-SARS-CoV-2 response, which may result in better protection against COVID-19. Influenza vaccination led to transcriptional reprogramming of monocytes and reduced systemic inflammation. These epidemiological and immunological data argue for potential benefits of influenza vaccination against COVID-19, and future randomized trials are warranted to test this possibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Protection/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Imidazoles/immunology , Incidence , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital , Poly I-C/immunology , Proteomics , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis, RNA
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438630

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thromboembolic events associated with high mortality has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections with respiratory failure. The present study characterized post-transcriptional gene regulation by global microRNA (miRNA) expression in relation to activated coagulation and inflammation in 21 critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients. The cohort consisted of patients with moderate respiratory failure (n = 11) and severe respiratory failure (n = 10) at an acute stage (day 0-3) and in the later course of the disease (>7 days). All patients needed supplemental oxygen and severe patients were defined by the requirement of positive pressure ventilation (intubation). Levels of D-dimers, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in patients with severe compared with moderate respiratory failure. Concurrently, next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis demonstrated increased dysregulation of miRNA expression with progression of disease severity connected to extreme downregulation of miR-320a, miR-320b and miR-320c. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed involvement in the Hippo signaling pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway and in the regulation of adherens junctions. The expression of all miR-320 family members was significantly correlated with CRP, IL-6, and D-dimer levels. In conclusion, our analysis underlines the importance of thromboembolic processes in patients with respiratory failure and emphasizes miRNA-320s as potential biomarkers for severe progressive SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 345, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434094

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe immune disruption. However, it is unclear if disrupted immune regulation still exists and pertains in recovered COVID-19 patients. In our study, we have characterized the immune phenotype of B cells from 15 recovered COVID-19 patients, and found that healthy controls and recovered patients had similar B-cell populations before and after BCR stimulation, but the frequencies of PBC in patients were significantly increased when compared to healthy controls before stimulation. However, the percentage of unswitched memory B cells was decreased in recovered patients but not changed in healthy controls upon BCR stimulation. Interestingly, we found that CD19 expression was significantly reduced in almost all the B-cell subsets in recovered patients. Moreover, the BCR signaling and early B-cell response were disrupted upon BCR stimulation. Mechanistically, we found that the reduced CD19 expression was caused by the dysregulation of cell metabolism. In conclusion, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism, which may provide a new intervention target to cure COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Vero Cells
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Cytokine ; 148: 155702, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401408

ABSTRACT

Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are indicated to play a prominent role in mediating the immunopathogenesis of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Interleukin (IL-37) is one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines that has been proposed to be involved in disease progression but the data are not overwhelming. Therefore, a case-control study was performed to analyze IL-37 levels in serum of 100 patients with severe COVID-19 and 100 blood donors (control group). Median age was significantly higher in COVID-19 cases than in controls. Stratification by gender, body mass index and ABO and Rh blood group systems showed no significant differences between patients and controls. Chronic diseases (cardiovascular and diabetes) were observed in 57.0% of patients. Serum levels of IL-37 and vitamin D were significantly decreased in patients compared to controls. The low level of IL-37 was more pronounced in males, overweight/obese cases, blood group B or AB cases, Rh-positive cases, and cases with no chronic disease. Low producers of IL-37 were more likely to develop COVID-19 (odds ratio = 2.66; 95% confidence interval = 1.51-4.70; corrected probability = 0.015). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that a low serum level of IL-37 was a good predictor of COVID-19. Spearman's rank correlation analysis showed that IL-37 and vitamin D were significantly correlated. In conclusion, IL-37 was down-regulated in serum of patients with severe COVID-19 compared to controls. This down-regulation may be associated with an increased risk of disease. Gender, body mass index, blood groups and chronic disease status may also affect IL-37 levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Down-Regulation , Interleukin-1/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Confidence Intervals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
12.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16843, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366832

ABSTRACT

Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in organs that are potential targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Previous reports show that ACE2 alter its tissue-specific expression patterns under various pathological conditions, including renal diseases. Here, we examined changes in pulmonary ACE2 expression in two mouse chronic kidney disease (CKD) models: adenine-induced (adenine mice) and aristolochic acid-induced (AA mice). We also investigated changes in pulmonary ACE2 expression due to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (olmesartan) treatment in these mice. Adenine mice showed significant renal functional decline and elevated blood pressure, compared with controls. AA mice also showed significant renal functional decline, compared with vehicles; blood pressure did not differ between groups. Renal ACE2 expression was significantly reduced in adenine mice and AA mice; pulmonary expression was unaffected. Olmesartan attenuated urinary albumin excretion in adenine mice, but did not affect renal or pulmonary ACE2 expression levels. The results suggest that the risk of COVID-19 infection may not be elevated in patients with CKD because of their stable pulmonary ACE2 expression. Moreover, RAS blockers can be used safely in treatment of COVID-19 patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenine , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Aristolochic Acids , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Humans , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Kidney/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Organ Specificity , Tetrazoles/administration & dosage
14.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 123, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365373

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolism is a frequent cause of severity and mortality in COVID-19. However, the etiology of this phenomenon is not well understood. A cohort of 1186 subjects, from the GEN-COVID consortium, infected by SARS-CoV-2 with different severity was stratified by sex and adjusted by age. Then, common coding variants from whole exome sequencing were mined by LASSO logistic regression. The homozygosity of the cell adhesion molecule P-selectin gene (SELP) rs6127 (c.1807G > A; p.Asp603Asn) which has been already associated with thrombotic risk is found to be associated with severity in the male subcohort of 513 subjects (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% Confidence Interval 1.54-3.36). As the SELP gene is downregulated by testosterone, the odd ratio is increased in males older than 50 (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.53-3.82). Asn/Asn homozygotes have increased D-dimers values especially when associated with poly Q ≥ 23 in the androgen receptor (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.41-7.52). These results provide a rationale for the repurposing of antibodies against P-selectin as adjuvant therapy in rs6127 male homozygotes especially if older than 50 or with an impaired androgen receptor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , P-Selectin/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
15.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 408-411, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is the cell-surface receptor enabling cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is highly expressed in adipose tissue (AT), rendering AT a potential SARS-CoV-2 reservoir contributing to massive viral spread in COVID-19 patients with obesity. Although rodent and cell studies suggest that the polyphenol resveratrol alters ACE2, human studies are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of 30-days resveratrol supplementation on RAS components in AT and skeletal muscle in men with obesity in a placebo-controlled cross-over study. Resveratrol markedly decreased ACE2 (~40%) and leptin (~30%), but did neither alter angiotensinogen, ACE and AT1R expression in AT nor skeletal muscle RAS components. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol supplementation reduces ACE2 in AT, which might dampen SARS-CoV-2 spread in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Over Studies , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Leptin/genetics , Leptin/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/pathology , Placebo Effect , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 123, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357037

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolism is a frequent cause of severity and mortality in COVID-19. However, the etiology of this phenomenon is not well understood. A cohort of 1186 subjects, from the GEN-COVID consortium, infected by SARS-CoV-2 with different severity was stratified by sex and adjusted by age. Then, common coding variants from whole exome sequencing were mined by LASSO logistic regression. The homozygosity of the cell adhesion molecule P-selectin gene (SELP) rs6127 (c.1807G > A; p.Asp603Asn) which has been already associated with thrombotic risk is found to be associated with severity in the male subcohort of 513 subjects (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% Confidence Interval 1.54-3.36). As the SELP gene is downregulated by testosterone, the odd ratio is increased in males older than 50 (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.53-3.82). Asn/Asn homozygotes have increased D-dimers values especially when associated with poly Q ≥ 23 in the androgen receptor (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.41-7.52). These results provide a rationale for the repurposing of antibodies against P-selectin as adjuvant therapy in rs6127 male homozygotes especially if older than 50 or with an impaired androgen receptor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , P-Selectin/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4854, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354099

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presents with fever, inflammation and pathology of multiple organs in individuals under 21 years of age in the weeks following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although an autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed, the genes, pathways and cell types causal to this new disease remain unknown. Here we perform RNA sequencing of blood from patients with MIS-C and controls to find disease-associated genes clustered in a co-expression module annotated to CD56dimCD57+ natural killer (NK) cells and exhausted CD8+ T cells. A similar transcriptome signature is replicated in an independent cohort of Kawasaki disease (KD), the related condition after which MIS-C was initially named. Probing a probabilistic causal network previously constructed from over 1,000 blood transcriptomes both validates the structure of this module and reveals nine key regulators, including TBX21, a central coordinator of exhausted CD8+ T cell differentiation. Together, this unbiased, transcriptome-wide survey implicates downregulation of NK cells and cytotoxic T cell exhaustion in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Adolescent , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , CD57 Antigens/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Young Adult
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2619-2627, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the sole causative agent of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective single-center study of consecutively admitted patients between March 1st and May 15th, 2020, with a definitive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary end-point was to evaluate the association of lipid markers with 30-days all-cause mortality in COVID-19. A total of 654 patients were enrolled, with an estimated 30-day mortality of 22.8% (149 patients). Non-survivors had lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels during the entire course of the disease. Both showed a significant inverse correlation with inflammatory markers and a positive correlation with lymphocyte count. In a multivariate analysis, LDL-c ≤ 69 mg/dl (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.31), C-reactive protein >88 mg/dl (HR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.41-4.23) and lymphopenia <1000 (HR 2.68; 95% CI, 1.91-3.78) at admission were independently associated with 30-day mortality. This association was maintained 7 days after admission. Survivors presented with complete normalization of their lipid profiles on short-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Hypolipidemia in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be secondary to an immune-inflammatory response, with complete recovery in survivors. Low LDL-c serum levels are independently associated with higher 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Down-Regulation , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Spain , Time Factors
19.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e13901, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346766

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 infects lymphoid and myeloid cells, which can harbor a latent proviral reservoir responsible for maintaining lifelong infection. Glycolytic metabolism has been identified as a determinant of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but its role in the development and maintenance of HIV-1 latency has not been elucidated. By combining transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses, we here show that transition to latent HIV-1 infection downregulates glycolysis, while viral reactivation by conventional stimuli reverts this effect. Decreased glycolytic output in latently infected cells is associated with downregulation of NAD+ /NADH. Consequently, infected cells rely on the parallel pentose phosphate pathway and its main product, NADPH, fueling antioxidant pathways maintaining HIV-1 latency. Of note, blocking NADPH downstream effectors, thioredoxin and glutathione, favors HIV-1 reactivation from latency in lymphoid and myeloid cellular models. This provides a "shock and kill effect" decreasing proviral DNA in cells from people living with HIV/AIDS. Overall, our data show that downmodulation of glycolysis is a metabolic signature of HIV-1 latency that can be exploited to target latently infected cells with eradication strategies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Down-Regulation , Glycolysis , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Proteomics , Virus Activation , Virus Latency
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 773, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345547

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and especially of its complications is still not fully understood. In fact, a very high number of patients with COVID-19 die because of thromboembolic causes. A role of plasminogen, as precursor of fibrinolysis, has been hypothesized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between plasminogen levels and COVID-19-related outcomes in a population of 55 infected Caucasian patients (mean age: 69.8 ± 14.3, 41.8% female). Low levels of plasminogen were significantly associated with inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, and IL-6), markers of coagulation (D-dimer, INR, and APTT), and markers of organ dysfunctions (high fasting blood glucose and decrease in the glomerular filtration rate). A multidimensional analysis model, including the correlation of the expression of coagulation with inflammatory parameters, indicated that plasminogen tended to cluster together with IL-6, hence suggesting a common pathway of activation during disease's complication. Moreover, low levels of plasminogen strongly correlated with mortality in COVID-19 patients even after multiple adjustments for presence of confounding. These data suggest that plasminogen may play a pivotal role in controlling the complex mechanisms beyond the COVID-19 complications, and may be useful both as biomarker for prognosis and for therapeutic target against this extremely aggressive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Plasminogen/analysis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
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