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1.
Med Oncol ; 39(3): 32, 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633699

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on prostate cancer cell survival. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on LNCaP prostate cancer cell survival were assessed using clonogenic cell survival assay, quick cell proliferation assay, and caspase-3 activity kits. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was found to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation as well as promote apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that anti-proliferative effects were associated with downregulation of the pro-proliferative molecule cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). The increased rate of apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecule Fas ligand (FasL). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein inhibits the growth of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro by a two-pronged approach of downregulating the expression of CDK4 and upregulating FasL. The introduction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein into the body via COVID-19 vaccination may have the potential to inhibit prostate cancer in patients. This potential beneficial association between COVID-19 vaccines and prostate cancer inhibition will require more extensive studies before any conclusions can be drawn about any in vivo effects in a human model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Apoptosis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Humans , Male , Up-Regulation/immunology , Vaccination/methods
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 345, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434094

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe immune disruption. However, it is unclear if disrupted immune regulation still exists and pertains in recovered COVID-19 patients. In our study, we have characterized the immune phenotype of B cells from 15 recovered COVID-19 patients, and found that healthy controls and recovered patients had similar B-cell populations before and after BCR stimulation, but the frequencies of PBC in patients were significantly increased when compared to healthy controls before stimulation. However, the percentage of unswitched memory B cells was decreased in recovered patients but not changed in healthy controls upon BCR stimulation. Interestingly, we found that CD19 expression was significantly reduced in almost all the B-cell subsets in recovered patients. Moreover, the BCR signaling and early B-cell response were disrupted upon BCR stimulation. Mechanistically, we found that the reduced CD19 expression was caused by the dysregulation of cell metabolism. In conclusion, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism, which may provide a new intervention target to cure COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Vero Cells
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009705, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311291

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is a disease affecting several organ systems. A model that captures all clinical symptoms of COVID-19 as well as long-haulers disease is needed. We investigated the host responses associated with infection in several major organ systems including the respiratory tract, the heart, and the kidneys after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Syrian hamsters. We found significant increases in inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF) and type II interferons whereas type I interferons were inhibited. Examination of extrapulmonary tissue indicated inflammation in the kidney, liver, and heart which also lacked type I interferon upregulation. Histologically, the heart had evidence of myocarditis and microthrombi while the kidney had tubular inflammation. These results give insight into the multiorgan disease experienced by people with COVID-19 and possibly the prolonged disease in people with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Kidney/immunology , Myocardium/immunology , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Myocardium/pathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238060

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 993-999, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cellular immune system is of pivotal importance with regard to the response to severe infections. Monocytes/macrophages are considered key immune cells in infections and downregulation of the surface expression of monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) within the major histocompatibility complex class II reflects a state of immunosuppression, also referred to as injury-associated immunosuppression. As the role of immunosuppression in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently unclear, we seek to explore the level of mHLA-DR expression in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a preliminary prospective monocentric observational study, 16 COVID-19-positive patients (75% male, median age: 68 [interquartile range 59-75]) requiring hospitalization were included. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score in 9 intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute respiratory failure was 30 (interquartile range 25-32). Standardized quantitative assessment of HLA-DR on monocytes (cluster of differentiation 14+ cells) was performed using calibrated flow cytometry at baseline (ICU/hospital admission) and at days 3 and 5 after ICU admission. Baseline data were compared to hospitalized noncritically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: While normal mHLA-DR expression was observed in all hospitalized noncritically ill patients (n = 7), 89% (8 of 9) critically ill patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory failure showed signs of downregulation of mHLA-DR at ICU admission. mHLA-DR expression at admission was significantly lower in critically ill patients (median, [quartiles]: 9280 antibodies/cell [6114, 16,567]) as compared to the noncritically ill patients (30,900 antibodies/cell [26,777, 52,251]), with a median difference of 21,508 antibodies/cell (95% confidence interval [CI], 14,118-42,971), P = .002. Reduced mHLA-DR expression was observed to persist until day 5 after ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to noncritically ill hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease showed reduced mHLA-DR expression on circulating CD14+ monocytes at ICU admission, indicating a dysfunctional immune response. This immunosuppressive (monocytic) phenotype remained unchanged over the ensuing days after ICU admission. Strategies aiming for immunomodulation in this population of critically ill patients should be guided by an immune-monitoring program in an effort to determine who might benefit best from a given immunological intervention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Critical Illness , HLA-DR Antigens/biosynthesis , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , APACHE , Aged , Antibodies/analysis , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Down-Regulation/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
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