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JCI Insight ; 6(9)2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDEstimates of seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2 vary widely and may influence vaccination response. We ascertained IgG levels across a single US metropolitan site, Chicago, from June 2020 through December 2020.METHODSParticipants (n = 7935) were recruited through electronic advertising and received materials for a self-sampled dried-blood spot assay through the mail or a minimal contact in-person method. IgG against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 was measured using an established highly sensitive and highly specific assay.RESULTSOverall seroprevalence was 17.9%, with no significant difference between method of contact. Only 2.5% of participants reported having had a diagnosis of COVID-19 based on virus detection, consistent with a 7-fold greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 measured by serology than that detected by viral testing. The range of IgG level observed in seropositive participants from this community survey overlapped with the range of IgG levels associated with COVID-19 cases having a documented positive PCR test. From a subset of those who participated in repeat testing, half of seropositive individuals retained detectable antibodies for 3 to 4 months.CONCLUSIONQuantitative IgG measurements with a highly specific and sensitive assay indicated more widespread exposure to SARS-CoV-2 than observed by viral testing. The range of IgG concentrations produced from these asymptomatic exposures was similar to IgG levels occurring after documented nonhospitalized COVID-19, which were considerably lower than those produced from hospitalized COVID-19 cases. The differing ranges of IgG response, coupled with the rate of decay of antibodies, may influence response to subsequent viral exposure and vaccine.FundingNational Science Foundation grant 2035114, NIH grant 3UL1TR001422-06S4, NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences grants UL1 TR001422 and UL1 TR002389, Dixon Family Foundation, Northwestern University Cancer Center (NIH grant P30 CA060553), and Walder Foundation's Chicago Coronavirus Assessment Network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Chicago/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
2.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(5): 979-985, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the current pandemic, antibody testing based on venous serum helps to determine whether the tested person has been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Alternatively, capillary blood can be taken via a finger prick (dried blood spots, DBS). In this study, paired DBS and venipuncture samples were tested using two serological assays to evaluate the usability of DBS for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: Paired samples of DBS and venous serum were collected from 389 volunteers, of whom 75 had a recent PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies against both viral S1 and nucleocapsid protein (NCP) antigens using two ELISAs. Degree of agreement and correlation coefficients between ELISA results based on the two sampling methods were calculated. RESULTS: Results of DBS showed almost perfect agreement and high correlations with results from corresponding serum samples in both the S1-based ELISA and the NCP-based ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA results derived from DBS showed very high agreement to those obtained with serum, supposing adequate usability and robustness of DBS as sample material for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In the near future, large-scale epidemiological screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 will be carried out. Since DBS reduce the strain on healthcare institutions regarding sample collection, they have a potential to facilitate efficient community- and population-based screening in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Dried Blood Spot Testing/statistics & numerical data , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Linear Models , Specimen Handling
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