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1.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
2.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103856, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many repurposed drugs have progressed rapidly to Phase 2 and 3 trials in COVID19 without characterisation of Pharmacokinetics /Pharmacodynamics including safety data. One such drug is nafamostat mesylate. METHODS: We present the findings of a phase Ib/IIa open label, platform randomised controlled trial of intravenous nafamostat in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonitis. Patients were assigned randomly to standard of care (SoC), nafamostat or an alternative therapy. Nafamostat was administered as an intravenous infusion at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/h for a maximum of seven days. The analysis population included those who received any dose of the trial drug and all patients randomised to SoC. The primary outcomes of our trial were the safety and tolerability of intravenous nafamostat as an add on therapy for patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonitis. FINDINGS: Data is reported from 42 patients, 21 of which were randomly assigned to receive intravenous nafamostat. 86% of nafamostat-treated patients experienced at least one AE compared to 57% of the SoC group. The nafamostat group were significantly more likely to experience at least one AE (posterior mean odds ratio 5.17, 95% credible interval (CI) 1.10 - 26.05) and developed significantly higher plasma creatinine levels (posterior mean difference 10.57 micromol/L, 95% CI 2.43-18.92). An average longer hospital stay was observed in nafamostat patients, alongside a lower rate of oxygen free days (rate ratio 0.55-95% CI 0.31-0.99, respectively). There were no other statistically significant differences in endpoints between nafamostat and SoC. PK data demonstrated that intravenous nafamostat was rapidly broken down to inactive metabolites. We observed no significant anticoagulant effects in thromboelastometry. INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, we did not observe evidence of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant or antiviral activity with intravenous nafamostat, and there were additional adverse events. FUNDING: DEFINE was funded by LifeArc (an independent medical research charity) under the STOPCOVID award to the University of Edinburgh. We also thank the Oxford University COVID-19 Research Response Fund (BRD00230).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Benzamidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Benzamidines/adverse effects , Benzamidines/pharmacokinetics , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Guanidines/adverse effects , Guanidines/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
4.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 837-846, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in infants. Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody to the RSV fusion protein that has an extended half-life. The efficacy and safety of nirsevimab in healthy late-preterm and term infants are uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, infants who had been born at a gestational age of at least 35 weeks to receive a single intramuscular injection of nirsevimab or placebo before the start of an RSV season. The primary efficacy end point was medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. The secondary efficacy end point was hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. RESULTS: A total of 1490 infants underwent randomization: 994 were assigned to the nirsevimab group and 496 to the placebo group. Medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 12 infants (1.2%) in the nirsevimab group and in 25 infants (5.0%) in the placebo group; these findings correspond to an efficacy of 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6 to 87.1; P<0.001) for nirsevimab. Hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 6 infants (0.6%) in the nirsevimab group and in 8 infants (1.6%) in the placebo group (efficacy, 62.1%; 95% CI, -8.6 to 86.8; P = 0.07). Among infants with data available to day 361, antidrug antibodies after baseline were detected in 58 of 951 (6.1%) in the nirsevimab group and in 5 of 473 (1.1%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 67 of 987 infants (6.8%) who received nirsevimab and in 36 of 491 infants (7.3%) who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: A single injection of nirsevimab administered before the RSV season protected healthy late-preterm and term infants from medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by MedImmune/AstraZeneca and Sanofi; MELODY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03979313.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections, Intramuscular , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671753

ABSTRACT

Due to the enormous economic, health, and social costs of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are high expected social returns to investing in parallel in multiple approaches to accelerating vaccination. We argue there are high expected social returns to investigating the scope for lowering the dosage of some COVID-19 vaccines. While existing evidence is not dispositive, available clinical data on the immunogenicity of lower doses combined with evidence of a high correlation between neutralizing antibody response and vaccine efficacy suggests that half or even quarter doses of some vaccines could generate high levels of protection, particularly against severe disease and death, while potentially expanding supply by 450 million to 1.55 billion doses per month, based on supply projections for 2021. An epidemiological model suggests that, even if fractional doses are less effective than standard doses, vaccinating more people faster could substantially reduce total infections and deaths. The costs of further testing alternative doses are much lower than the expected public health and economic benefits. However, commercial incentives to generate evidence on fractional dosing are weak, suggesting that testing may not occur without public investment. Governments could support either experimental or observational evaluations of fractional dosing, for either primary or booster shots. Discussions with researchers and government officials in multiple countries where vaccines are scarce suggests strong interest in these approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Models, Statistical , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Developed Countries , Developing Countries , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/economics , Off-Label Use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , Vaccination/economics
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of different doses of corticosteroids on the evolution of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, based on the potential benefit of the non-genomic mechanism of these drugs at higher doses. METHODS: Observational study using data collected from the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. We evaluated the epidemiological, radiological and analytical scenario between patients treated with megadoses therapy of corticosteroids vs low-dose of corticosteroids and the development of complications. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality according to use of corticosteroids megadoses. RESULTS: Of a total of 14,921 patients, corticosteroids were used in 5,262 (35.3%). Of them, 2,216 (46%) specifically received megadoses. Age was a factor that differed between those who received megadoses therapy versus those who did not in a significant manner (69 years [IQR 59-79] vs 73 years [IQR 61-83]; p < .001). Radiological and analytical findings showed a higher use of megadoses therapy among patients with an interstitial infiltrate and elevated inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19. In the univariate study it appears that steroid use is associated with increased mortality (OR 2.07 95% CI 1.91-2.24 p < .001) and megadose use with increased survival (OR 0.84 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p 0.011), but when adjusting for possible confounding factors, it is observed that the use of megadoses is also associated with higher mortality (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.80; p < .001). There is no difference between megadoses and low-dose (p .298). Although, there are differences in the use of megadoses versus low-dose in terms of complications, mainly infectious, with fewer pneumonias and sepsis in the megadoses group (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.71-0.95; p < .001 and OR 0.80 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p < .001) respectively. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in mortality with megadoses versus low-dose, but there is a lower incidence of infectious complications with glucocorticoid megadoses.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sepsis/drug therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/mortality , Sepsis/virology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(2): 143-150, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extended interval (EI) dosing for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) mono- or consolidation therapy initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in ICI-related site visits for patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer. Here we report the safety and efficacy compared to standard dose (SD) schedules. METHOD: In this retrospective analysis, patients who received ICI mono- or consolidation therapy, or adjuvant ICI therapy were assessed. Safety and efficacy of EI dosing with data of SD schedules were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients received EI dosing for ICI and 88 patients SD. Patient characteristics were comparable. We observed 237 adverse events in the EI dosing cohort versus 118 in the SD group (P= .02). Overall, there was no difference in the occurrence of grade ≥3 adverse events (EI dosing: 21/237 [8.9%]; SD group: 20/118 [17.0%], P = .42), except for the pembrolizumab EI dosing cohort. Of all patients who received an EI dosing schedule, however, only 8 (6.8%) were reduced to SD because of toxicity. In 5 (4.3%) patients ICI was permanently stopped because of severe toxicity compared to 11 (12.5%) discontinuations in the SD group. Short-term treatment interruption occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were comparable in patients receiving pembrolizumab and in those receiving adjuvant durvalumab. Progression-free survival and OS were better in the EI dosing cohort of nivolumab. CONCLUSION: EI dosing for ICI did not lead to an increase of clinically relevant toxicities resulting in dose reduction and/or treatment discontinuation. Efficacy of EI dosing of pembrolizumab and durvalumab were comparable to SD. Based on our safety and efficacy data EI dosing for ICI seems a safe and effective strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nivolumab/administration & dosage , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 11(1): 94-103, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520276

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, a prodrug of the nucleoside analog GS-441524, plays a key role in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, owing to limited information on clinical trials and inexperienced clinical use, there is a lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data in patients with COVID-19 with special characteristics. In this study, we aimed to measure serum GS-441524 concentrations and develop a population PK (PopPK) model. Remdesivir was administered at a 200 mg loading dose on the first day followed by 100 mg from day 2, based on the package insert, in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) greater than or equal to 30 ml/min. In total, 190 concentrations from 37 Japanese patients were used in the analysis. The GS-441524 trough concentrations were significantly higher in the eGFR less than 60 ml/min group than in the eGFR greater than or equal to 60 ml/min group. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in four patients hardly affected the total body clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vd ) of GS-441524. A one-compartment model described serum GS-441524 concentration data. The CL and Vd of GS-441524 were significantly affected by eGFR readjusted by individual body surface area and age, respectively. Simulations proposed a dose regimen of 200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg once every 2 days from day 2 in patients with an eGFR of 30 ml/min or less. In conclusion, we successfully established a PopPK model of GS-441524 using retrospectively obtained serum GS-441524 concentrations in Japanese patients with COVID-19, which would be helpful for optimal individualized therapy of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/blood , Adenosine/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Body Surface Area , COVID-19/blood , Drug Administration Schedule , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Monte Carlo Method , Precision Medicine , Retrospective Studies
12.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2556-2565, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526359

ABSTRACT

Nezulcitinib (TD-0903), a lung-selective pan-Janus-associated kinase (JAK) inhibitor designed for inhaled delivery, is under development for treatment of acute lung injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This two-part, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose (part A) and multiple ascending dose (part B) phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of nezulcitinib in healthy participants. Part A included three cohorts randomized 6:2 to receive a single inhaled dose of nezulcitinib (1, 3, or 10 mg) or matching placebo. Part B included three cohorts randomized 8:2 to receive inhaled nezulcitinib (1, 3, or 10 mg) or matching placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome was nezulcitinib safety and tolerability assessed from treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). The secondary outcome was nezulcitinib PK. All participants completed the study. All TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity, and none led to treatment discontinuation. Overall (area under the plasma concentration-time curve) and peak (maximal plasma concentration) plasma exposures of nezulcitinib were low and increased in a dose-proportional manner from 1 to 10 mg in both parts, with no suggestion of clinically meaningful drug accumulation. Maximal plasma exposures were below levels expected to result in systemic target engagement, consistent with a lung-selective profile. No reductions in natural killer cell counts were observed, consistent with the lack of a systemic pharmacological effect and the observed PK. In summary, single and multiple doses of inhaled nezulcitinib at 1, 3, and 10 mg were well-tolerated in healthy participants, with dose-proportional PK supporting once-daily administration.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imidazoles/adverse effects , Indazoles/adverse effects , Piperidines/adverse effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Area Under Curve , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Imidazoles/administration & dosage , Imidazoles/pharmacokinetics , Indazoles/administration & dosage , Indazoles/pharmacokinetics , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Young Adult
13.
BMJ ; 375: e068060, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495140

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if inhaled and intranasal ciclesonide are superior to placebo at decreasing respiratory symptoms in adult outpatients with covid-19. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Three Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia). PARTICIPANTS: 203 adults aged 18 years and older with polymerase chain reaction confirmed covid-19, presenting with fever, cough, or dyspnoea. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive either inhaled ciclesonide (600 µg twice daily) and intranasal ciclesonide (200 µg daily) or metered dose inhaler and nasal saline placebos for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was symptom resolution at day 7. Analyses were conducted on the modified intention-to-treat population (participants who took at least one dose of study drug and completed one follow-up survey) and adjusted for stratified randomisation by sex. RESULTS: The modified intention-to-treat population included 203 participants: 105 were randomly assigned to ciclesonide (excluding two dropouts and one loss to follow-up) and 98 to placebo (excluding three dropouts and six losses to follow-up). The median age was 35 years (interquartile range 27-47 years) and 54% were women. The proportion of participants with resolution of symptoms by day 7 did not differ significantly between the intervention group (42/105, 40%) and control group (34/98, 35%); absolute adjusted risk difference 5.5% (95% confidence interval -7.8% to 18.8%). Results might be limited to the population studied, which mainly included younger adults without comorbidities. The trial was stopped early, therefore could have been underpowered. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, the combination of inhaled and intranasal ciclesonide did not show a statistically significant increase in resolution of symptoms among healthier young adults with covid-19 presenting with prominent respiratory symptoms. As evidence is insufficient to determine the benefit of inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids in the treatment of covid-19, further research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04435795.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnenediones/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnenediones/therapeutic use , Self Report , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Mucosal Immunol ; 15(2): 198-210, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493071

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, and considering the lack of efficacy of antiviral strategies to this date, and the reactive hyperinflammation leading to tissue lesions and pneumonia, effective treatments targeting the dysregulated immune response are more than ever required. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs have been repurposed in severe COVID-19 with contrasting results. The heterogeneity in the timing of treatments administrations could be accountable for these discrepancies. Indeed, many studies included patients at different timepoints of infection, potentially hiding the beneficial effects of a time-adapted intervention. We aim to review the available data on the kinetics of the immune response in beta-coronaviruses infections, from animal models and longitudinal human studies, and propose a four-step model of severe COVID-19 timeline. Then, we discuss the results of the clinical trials of immune interventions with regards to the timing of administration, and finally suggest a time frame in order to delineate the best timepoint for each treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulating Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunomodulating Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1974-1982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475880
16.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 395(1): 99-104, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473988

ABSTRACT

A massive vaccination campaign against the global COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus began worldwide in January 2021. However, studies continue to investigate the most effective and safe drug therapies to manage the various stages of viral infection. It is critical in the therapeutic management of the patient, with ongoing COVID-19 infection, to reduce viral load and replication, and to regulate the generalized hyperinflammatory state caused by the cytokine storm that occurs in the most severe phases. Probably the right drug therapy is represented by the use of different drugs acting in different modalities and on different targets, to avoid also viral drug resistance. In this article, we describe an interesting scientific pharmacological hypothesis arising from the evidence in the literature; we believe that the association of baricitinib/remdesivir/rhACE2, administered at the right time and dose, represents an important pharmacological synergism that can be therapeutically more effective for the treatment of COVID-19 infection than the single administration of drugs and avoid the phenomenon of drug resistance caused by the virus.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azetidines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Management , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans
17.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(11): 1376-1384, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are no head-to-head trials of different dose escalation strategies of methotrexate (MTX) in RA. We compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of 'usual' (5 mg every 4 weeks) versus 'fast' (5 mg every 2 weeks) escalation of oral MTX. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label (assessor blinded) RCT included patients 18-55 years of age having active RA with disease duration <5 years, and not on DMARDs. Patients were randomized 1:1 into usual or fast escalation groups, both groups starting MTX at 15 mg/week till a maximum of 25 mg/week. Primary outcome was EULAR good response at 16 weeks, secondary outcomes were ΔDAS28 and adverse effects (AE). Analyses were intention-to-treat. RESULTS: 178 patients with mean DAS28-CRP of 5.4(1.1) were randomized to usual (n=89) or fast escalation groups (n=89). At 16 weeks, there was no difference in good EULAR response in the usual (28.1%) or fast escalation (22.5%) groups (p=0.8). There was no difference in mean ΔDAS28-CRP at 8 weeks (-0.9, -0.8, p=0.72) or 16 weeks (-1.3, -1.3, p=0.98). Even at 24 weeks (extended follow-up), responses were similar. There were no inter-group differences in ΔHAQ, or MTX-polyglutamates 1-3 levels at 8 or 16 weeks. Gastrointestinal AE were higher in the fast escalation group over initial 8 weeks (27%, 40%, p=0.048), but not over 16 weeks. There was no difference in cytopenias, transaminitis, or drug discontinuation/dose reduction between the groups. No serious AE were seen. CONCLUSION: A faster MTX escalation strategy in RA was not more efficacious over 16-24 weeks, and did not significantly increase AE, except higher gastrointestinal AE initially. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2018/12/016549.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Leukopenia/chemically induced , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/analogs & derivatives , Methotrexate/blood , Middle Aged , Polyglutamic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Polyglutamic Acid/blood , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD014484, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol given orally is a commonly used labour induction method. Our Cochrane Review is restricted to studies with low-dose misoprostol (initially ≤ 50 µg), as higher doses pose unacceptably high risks of uterine hyperstimulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral misoprostol for labour induction in women with a viable fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov,  the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (14 February 2021) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing low-dose oral misoprostol (initial dose ≤ 50 µg) versus placebo, vaginal dinoprostone, vaginal misoprostol, oxytocin, or mechanical methods; or comparing oral misoprostol protocols (one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly; 20 µg to 25 µg versus 50 µg; or 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using Covidence, two review authors independently screened reports, extracted trial data, and performed quality assessments. Our primary outcomes were vaginal birth within 24 hours, caesarean section, and hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 trials involving 20,026 women. GRADE assessments ranged from moderate- to very low-certainty evidence, with downgrading decisions based on imprecision, inconsistency, and study limitations. Oral misoprostol versus placebo/no treatment (four trials; 594 women) Oral misoprostol may make little to no difference in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.11; 4 trials; 594 women; moderate-certainty evidence), while its effect on uterine hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 5.15, 95% CI 0.25 to 105.31; 3 trials; 495 women; very low-certainty evidence). Vaginal births within 24 hours was not reported. In all trials, oxytocin could be commenced after 12 to 24 hours and all women had pre-labour ruptured membranes. Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone (13 trials; 9676 women) Oral misoprostol probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.90; 13 trials, 9676 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicated that 10 µg to 25 µg (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87; 9 trials; 8652 women) may differ from 50 µg (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.34; 4 trials; 1024 women) for caesarean section. Oral misoprostol may decrease vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.00; 10 trials; 8983 women; low-certainty evidence) and hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.59; 11 trials; 9084 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus vaginal misoprostol (33 trials; 6110 women) Oral use may result in fewer vaginal births within 24 hours (average RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 16 trials, 3451 women; low-certainty evidence), and less hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92, 25 trials, 4857 women, low-certainty evidence), with subgroup analysis suggesting that 10 µg to 25 µg orally (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57; 6 trials, 957 women) may be superior to 50 µg orally (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11; 19 trials; 3900 women). Oral misoprostol probably does not increase caesarean sections overall (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.16; 32 trials; 5914 women; low-certainty evidence) but likely results in fewer caesareans for foetal distress (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99; 24 trials, 4775 women). Oral misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (6 trials; 737 women, 200 with ruptured membranes) Misoprostol may make little or no difference to vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33; 3 trials; 466 women; low-certainty evidence), but probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.90; 6 trials; 737 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect on hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.19 to 2.26; 3 trials, 331 women; very low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus mechanical methods (6 trials; 2993 women) Six trials compared oral misoprostol to transcervical Foley catheter. Misoprostol may increase vaginal birth within 24 hours (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.79; 4 trials; 1044 women; low-certainty evidence), and probably reduces the risk of caesarean section (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95; 6 trials; 2993 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.21; 4 trials; 2828 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly (1 trial; 64 women) The evidence on hourly titration was very uncertain due to the low numbers reported. Oral misoprostol 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static (2 trials; 296 women) The difference in regimen may have little or no effect on the rate of vaginal births in 24 hours (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.16; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is of very low certainty for all other reported outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose oral misoprostol is probably associated with fewer caesarean sections (and therefore more vaginal births) than vaginal dinoprostone, and lower rates of hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes. However, time to birth may be increased, as seen by a reduced number of vaginal births within 24 hours. Compared to transcervical Foley catheter, low-dose oral misoprostol is associated with fewer caesarean sections, but equivalent rates of hyperstimulation. Low-dose misoprostol given orally rather than vaginally is probably associated with similar rates of vaginal birth, although rates may be lower within the first 24 hours. However, there is likely less hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes, and fewer caesarean sections performed due to foetal distress. The best available evidence suggests that low-dose oral misoprostol probably has many benefits over other methods for labour induction. This review supports the use of low-dose oral misoprostol for induction of labour, and demonstrates the lower risks of hyperstimulation than when misoprostol is given vaginally. More trials are needed to establish the optimum oral misoprostol regimen, but these findings suggest that a starting dose of 25 µg may offer a good balance of efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Labor, Induced/methods , Misoprostol/administration & dosage , Oxytocics/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravaginal , Administration, Oral , Apgar Score , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Dinoprostone/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Heart Rate, Fetal/drug effects , Humans , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Oxytocin/administration & dosage , Parturition , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Time Factors , Uterus/drug effects
20.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(11): 889-902, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AMP kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor implicated in regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of PXL770, a novel direct AMPK activator, in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: STAMP-NAFLD, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a study, was done across 15 US clinical sites. Patients aged 18-75 years with liver fat content of at least 10% at baseline when assessed by MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), via an interactive web response system, to receive oral PXL770 250 mg once daily, 250 mg twice daily, or 500 mg once daily, or matched placebo. Patients were stratified according to type 2 diabetes status and study site. The primary endpoint was relative change in liver fat content from baseline compared with placebo at week 12, assessed by MRI-PDFF. The primary endpoint was analysed in an ANCOVA model with treatment and stratification criteria as factors and baseline liver fat content as a covariate in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all as-randomised patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Safety was analysed in the safety population, defined as all as-treated patients receiving at least one dose of the study treatment. The trial has been completed and the final results are reported. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03763877. FINDINGS: Between March 29, 2019, and March 13, 2020, 387 patients were screened, of whom 120 were included in the modified intention-to-treat and safety analyses (30 in the 250 mg once daily group, 30 in the 250 mg twice daily group, 29 in the 500 mg once daily group, and 31 in the placebo group). The mean relative change from baseline in liver fat content at week 12 was -1·1% in the placebo group, -1·0% in the 250 mg once daily group (mean difference versus placebo 0·1% [95% CI -15·4 to 15·7], p=0·99), -14·3% in the 250 mg twice daily group (-13·1% [-28·1 to 1·8], p=0·084), and -14·7% in the 500 mg once daily group (-13·5% [-28·5 to 1·4], p=0·076). At least one treatment-emergent adverse event occurred in 23 (77%) of 30 patients in the 250 mg once daily group, 20 (67%) of 30 patients in the 250 mg twice daily group, 21 (72%) of 29 patients in the 500 mg once daily group, and 21 (68%) of 31 patients in the placebo group. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was diarrhoea (five [17%] of patients in the 250 mg once daily group, seven [23%] in the 250 mg twice daily group, six [21%] in the 500 mg once daily group, and none in the placebo group). No life-threatening events or treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: PXL770 treatment did not meet the primary outcome of liver fat improvement compared with placebo. Treatment was well tolerated. Given indications that metabolic features improved with PXL770 treatment, AMPK activation might be a promising pharmacological target for patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD, and could also be considered for further assessment in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. FUNDING: Poxel.


Subject(s)
Adenylate Kinase/metabolism , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Tetrahydronaphthalenes/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Pyridones/adverse effects , Tetrahydronaphthalenes/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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