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1.
Pharmaceut Med ; 37(3): 251-260, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide need for increased access to safe and effective medicines, there is a lack of innovative medicines in many low- to middle-income countries. On the African continent, this is partly due to capacity limitations of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs). One important approach to address this issue is work sharing and regulatory reliance. Therefore, the aim of this study of regulatory authorities on the African continent was to identify which risk-based approaches are being used as well as their foreseen role in the future. METHODS: The study employed a questionnaire to identify which risk-based models are used for the regulatory approval of medicines and to determine which frameworks are in place to enable a risk-based approach, as well as to provide insight into the future direction for risk-based models. The questionnaire was sent electronically to 26 NRAs in the African Continent. RESULTS: Twenty-one authorities (80%) completed the questionnaire. Work sharing was the most commonly used model, followed closely by unilaterial reliance, information sharing, and collaborative review. These methods were perceived to be an effective and efficient use of resources, enabling faster medicine availability for patients. The unilateral reliance approach by the authorities included abridged (85%), verification (70%) and recognition (50%) models for a range of products. However, challenges included a lack of guidelines to undertake a reliance review together with resource constraints, while access to assessment reports was the most common barrier to using a unilateral reliance model. CONCLUSIONS: Many authorities in Africa have adopted a risk-based approach to medicines registration and created work sharing, unilateral reliance pathways and regionalisation models to facilitate the availability of medicines. The authorities believe that in future, assessment routes should move from stand-alone reviews to risk-based models. However, this study indicated that there would be challenges to implement this approach in practice, which would include improving resource capacity and the number of expert reviewers as well as implementing electronic tracking systems.


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Drug and Narcotic Control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Africa
4.
JAMA ; 328(24): 2394-2395, 2022 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312094

ABSTRACT

This Viewpoint discusses the controversy surrounding the FDA's efforts to withdraw Makena from the market and the broader implications for the accelerated approval pathway.


Subject(s)
17 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate , Drug Approval , Drug Recalls , United States Food and Drug Administration , United States
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068981, 2023 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of clinical study report (CSR) documents published by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and for included pivotal trials, to quantify the timeliness of access to trial results from CSRs compared with conventional published sources. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of CSR documents published by the EMA from 2016 to 2018. METHODS: CSR files and medication summary information were downloaded from the EMA. Individual trials in each submission were identified using document filenames. Number and length of documents and trials were determined. For pivotal trials, trial phase, dates of EMA document publication and matched journal and registry publications were obtained. RESULTS: The EMA published documents on 142 medications that were submitted for regulatory drug approval. Submissions were for initial marketing authorisations in 64.1%. There was a median of 15 (IQR 5-46) documents, 5 (IQR 2-14) trials and 9629 (IQR 2711-26,673) pages per submission, and a median of 1 (IQR 1-4) document and 336 (IQR 21-1192) pages per trial. Of all identified pivotal trials, 60.9% were phase 3 and 18.5% were phase 1. Of 119 unique submissions to the EMA, 46.2% were supported by a single pivotal trial, with 13.4% based on a single pivotal phase 1 trial. No trial registry results were identified for 26.1% trials, no journal publications for 16.7% and 13.5% of trials had neither. EMA publication was the earliest information source for 5.8% of pivotal trials, available a median 523 days (IQR 363-882 days) before the earliest publication. CONCLUSIONS: The EMA Clinical Data website contains lengthy clinical trial documents. Almost half of submissions to the EMA were based on single pivotal trials, many of which were phase 1 trials. CSRs were the only source and a timelier source of information for many trials. Access to unpublished trial information should be open and timely to support decision-making for patients.


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Research Report , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Approval/methods , Registries , Clinical Studies as Topic
7.
CMAJ ; 195(14): E517, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299215

Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Humans , Canada
8.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 39(3): 189-190, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301030
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247813

ABSTRACT

Public heath emergencies such as the outbreak of novel infectious diseases represent a major challenge for drug regulatory bodies, practitioners, and scientific communities. In such critical situations drug regulators and public health practitioners base their decisions on evidence generated and synthesised by scientists. The urgency and novelty of the situation create high levels of uncertainty concerning the safety and effectiveness of drugs. One key tool to mitigate such emergencies is pandemic preparedness. There seems to be, however, a lack of scholarly work on methodology for assessments of new or existing drugs during a pandemic. Issues related to risk attitudes, evidence production and evidence synthesis for drug approval require closer attention. This manuscript, therefore, engages in a conceptual analysis of relevant issues of drug assessment during a pandemic. To this end, we rely in our analysis on recent discussions in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of medicine. Important unanswered foundational questions are identified and possible ways to answer them are considered. Similar problems often have similar solutions, hence studying similar situations can provide important clues. We consider drug assessments of orphan drugs and drug assessments during endemics as similar to drug assessment during a pandemic. Furthermore, other scientific fields which cannot carry out controlled experiments may guide the methodology to draw defeasible causal inferences from imperfect data. Future contributions on methodologies for addressing the issues raised here will indeed have great potential to improve pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Drug Approval , Public Health , Disease Outbreaks
11.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 396(8): 1619-1632, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265850

ABSTRACT

While new drug approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had remained stable or even increased in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 37 newly approved drugs in 2022 are considerably less than the 53 and 50 new drugs approved in 2020 and 2021, respectively, and less than the rolling 10-year average of 43. As in previous years of this annual review, we assign these new drugs to one of three levels of innovation: first drug against a condition ("first-in-indication"), first drug using a novel molecular mechanism ("first-in-class"), and "next-in-class," i.e., a drug using an already exploited molecular mechanism. We identify two "first-in-indication" (ganaxolon and teplizumab), 20 (54%) "first-in-class," and 17 (46%) "next-in-class" drugs. By treatment area, rare diseases and cancer drugs were once again the most prevalent (partly overlapping) therapeutic areas. Other continuing trends were the use of accelerated regulatory approval pathways and the reliance on biopharmaceuticals (biologics).


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , United States , Humans , United States Food and Drug Administration , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Approval
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(D1): D1276-D1287, 2023 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189411

ABSTRACT

DrugCentral monitors new drug approvals and standardizes drug information. The current update contains 285 drugs (131 for human use). New additions include: (i) the integration of veterinary drugs (154 for animal use only), (ii) the addition of 66 documented off-label uses and iii) the identification of adverse drug events from pharmacovigilance data for pediatric and geriatric patients. Additional enhancements include chemical substructure searching using SMILES and 'Target Cards' based on UniProt accession codes. Statistics of interests include the following: (i) 60% of the covered drugs are on-market drugs with expired patent and exclusivity coverage, 17% are off-market, and 23% are on-market drugs with active patents and exclusivity coverage; (ii) 59% of the drugs are oral, 33% are parenteral and 18% topical, at the level of the active ingredients; (iii) only 3% of all drugs are for animal use only; however, 61% of the veterinary drugs are also approved for human use; (iv) dogs, cats and horses are by far the most represented target species for veterinary drugs; (v) the physicochemical property profile of animal drugs is very similar to that of human drugs. Use cases include azaperone, the only sedative approved for swine, and ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Drug Approval , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Veterinary Drugs , Animals , Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/veterinary , Veterinary Drugs/administration & dosage , Veterinary Drugs/adverse effects , Off-Label Use/veterinary
14.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200550

ABSTRACT

While 2021 ended with the world engulfed in the COVID-19 Omicron wave, 2022 has ended in almost all countries, except China, with COVID-19 being likened to the flu. In this context, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized only 37 new drugs this year compared to an average of 52 in the last four years. Thus 2022 is the second lowest harvest after 2016 in the last six years. This ranking may be transient and will be confirmed in the coming years. In this regard, the reduction in the number of drugs accepted by the FDA this year applies only to the so-called small molecules as there has been no variation in the respective numbers of biologics or TIDES (peptides and oligonucleotides). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continue to be the class with the most drugs authorized (9), while proteins/enzymes (5) and an antibody-drug conjugate complete the biologics harvest. In 2022, five TIDES and seven drugs inspired by natural products have received the green light, thus showing the same tendency as in previous years. Finally, pharmaceutical agents with nitrogen aromatic heterocycles and/or fluorine atoms continue to be predominant among small molecules this year. Furthermore, three drugs have been approved for imaging, reinforcing the trend in recent years for this class of treatments. A keyword in 2022 is bispecificity since four drugs have this property (two mAbs, one protein, and one peptide). Herein, the 37 new drugs approved by the FDA in 2022 are analyzed. On the basis of chemical structure alone, these drugs are classified as the following: biologics (antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, proteins/enzymes), TIDES (peptide and oligonucleotides), combined drugs, natural products; nitrogen aromatic heterocycles, fluorine-containing molecules, and other small molecules.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Immunoconjugates , United States , Humans , Drug Approval , Fluorine , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Biological Factors , Peptides/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Products/chemistry , Drug Industry , United States Food and Drug Administration , Oligonucleotides
15.
Cancer Discov ; 12(12): 2739-2746, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153186

ABSTRACT

In 2022, cancer drug development continued to progress rapidly despite the lingering COVID-19 pandemic. Highlights of U.S. drug approvals for oncology indications this year include ongoing development in rare diseases and molecular subgroups, improved dosage optimization, and updated data for drugs granted accelerated approval, with confirmatory studies demonstrating verification of clinical benefit in some instances, as well as indication withdrawal when clinical benefit was not verified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pandemics , Humans , Medical Oncology , Drug Development , Drug Approval
17.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 249-263, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062063

ABSTRACT

The posture of American regulation of medicine is negative-we assume that a new drug is unsafe and ineffective until it is proven safe and effective.1 This regulatory posture is a heuristic normative principle, a specific instance of the so-called precautionary principle in public health law.2 It is defensible, if debatable, in many ordinary circumstances.3 But like many normative heuristics, this negative posture may compel suboptimal decision-making in emergencies, where context-specific decisions must be made and a range of unique values may apply.


Subject(s)
Decision Making/ethics , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Emergencies , Legislation, Drug/standards , Public Health , Drug Approval/organization & administration , Government , Humans , Legislation, Drug/organization & administration , Politics , United States
18.
JAMA ; 328(11): 1043-1044, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058984
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