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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 108(6): 1140-1144, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313526

ABSTRACT

In 2018, a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign for malaria elimination was piloted in Haiti. The pilot treated 36,338 people with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and primaquine; no severe adverse events were detected. In 2020, another MDA campaign using the same medications was implemented to mitigate an upsurge in malaria cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Four cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) were identified among the 42,249 people who took the medications. Three of these individuals required hospitalization; all survived. In addition to SP ingestion, an investigation of potential causes for increased SJS cases identified that all four cases had human leukocyte antigens A*29 and/or B*44:03, another known risk factor for SJS. Additionally, three of the four case individuals had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, and the fourth may have been exposed around the same time. These findings raise the possibility that recent SARS-CoV-2 infection may have contributed to the increased risk for SJS associated with SP exposure during the 2020 campaign.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Humans , Primaquine/adverse effects , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/drug therapy , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/epidemiology , Haiti/epidemiology , Mass Drug Administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Pyrimethamine/adverse effects , Sulfadoxine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2924, 2023 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310483

ABSTRACT

Researchers have recently proposed the Comprehensive In-vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA) to analyze medicines' TdP risks. Using the TdP metric known as qNet, numerous single-drug effects have been studied to classify the medications as low, intermediate, and high-risk. Furthermore, multiple medication therapies are recognized as a potential method for curing patients, mainly when limited drugs are available. This work expands the TdP risk assessment of drugs by introducing a CiPA-based in silico analysis of the TdP risk of combined drugs. The cardiac cell model was simulated using the population of models approach incorporating drug-drug interactions (DDIs) models on several ion channels for various drug pairs. Action potential duration (APD90), qNet, and calcium duration (CaD90) were computed and analyzed as biomarker features. The drug combination maps were also used to illustrate combined medicines' TdP risk. We found that the combined drugs alter cell responses in terms of biomarkers such as APD90, qNet, and CaD90 in a highly nonlinear manner. The results also revealed that combinations of high-risk with low-risk and intermediate-risk with low-risk drugs could result in compounds with varying TdP risks depending on the drug concentrations.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Torsades de Pointes , Humans , Risk Assessment , Action Potentials , Myocytes, Cardiac , Drug Combinations
4.
JAMA ; 329(8): 622-623, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289556
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20446, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273782

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have been used as experimental therapies to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. Randomised controlled trials have recently shown that there are no meaningful benefits of these two therapies in hospitalised patients. Uncertainty remains regarding the potential harmful impact of these therapies as very early treatments and their burden to the health care system. The present study investigated the length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality, and costs of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir or their combination in comparison with standard of care among patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study took place in the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland (n = 840) between 26 February and 31 May 2020. Demographics, treatment regimens, comorbidities, the modified National Early Warning Score (mNEWS) on admission, and contraindications to COVID-19 treatment options were assessed. Outcomes included LOS, in-hospital mortality, and drug and LOS costs. RESULTS: After successful propensity score matching, patients treated with (1) hydroxychloroquine, (2) lopinavir/ritonavir or (3) their combination had on average 3.75 additional hospitalisation days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–6.12, p = 0.002), 1.23 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI −1.24 – 3.51, p = 0.319), and 4.19 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI 1.52–5.31, p <0.001), respectively, compared with patients treated with the standard of care. Neither experimental therapy was significantly associated with mortality. These additional hospital days amounted to 1010.77 additional days for hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine combined with lopinavir/ritonavir, resulting in an additional cost of US$ 2,492,214 (95%CI US$ 916,839–3,450,619). CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing experimental therapies for COVID-19 was not associated with a reduced LOS and might have increased the pressure put on healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Health Expenditures , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Young Adult
6.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1849-1858, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270901

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after solid organ transplant (SOT) remain unknown. We report our preliminary experience with 18 SOT (kidney [44.4%], liver [33.3%], and heart [22.2%]) recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 by March 23, 2020 at a tertiary-care center at Madrid. Median age at diagnosis was 71.0 ± 12.8 years, and the median interval since transplantation was 9.3 years. Fever (83.3%) and radiographic abnormalities in form of unilateral or bilateral/multifocal consolidations (72.2%) were the most common presentations. Lopinavir/ritonavir (usually associated with hydroxychloroquine) was used in 50.0% of patients and had to be prematurely discontinued in 2 of them. Other antiviral regimens included hydroxychloroquine monotherapy (27.8%) and interferon-ß (16.7%). As of April 4, the case-fatality rate was 27.8% (5/18). After a median follow-up of 18 days from symptom onset, 30.8% (4/13) of survivors developed progressive respiratory failure, 7.7% (1/13) showed stable clinical condition or improvement, and 61.5% (8/13) had been discharged home. C-reactive protein levels at various points were significantly higher among recipients who experienced unfavorable outcome. In conclusion, this frontline report suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe course in SOT recipients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Organ Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Combinations , Female , Fever , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Interferon-beta/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255591

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) strains presents a severe challenge to the healthcare system due to limited therapeutic options and high mortality. Since its availability, ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) has become a first-line option against KPC-Kp, but C/A-resistant strains have been reported increasingly, especially with pneumonia or prior suboptimal blood exposure to C/A treatment. A retrospective, observational study was conducted with all patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) dedicated to COVID-19 patients at the City of Health & Sciences in Turin, between 1 May 2021 and 31 January 2022, with the primary endpoint to study strains with resistance to C/A, and secondly to describe the characteristics of this population, with or without previous exposure to C/A. Seventeen patients with colonization or invasive infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, C/A resistance, and susceptibility to meropenem (MIC = 2 µg/L) were included; the blaKPC genotype was detected in all isolates revealing D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 (blaKPC-33) gene. Cluster analysis showed that 16 out of the 17 C/A-resistant KPC-Kp isolates belonged to a single clone. Thirteen strains (76.5%) were isolated in a 60-day period. Only some patients had a previous infection with non-mutant KPC at other sites (5; 29.4%). Eight patients (47.1%) underwent previous large-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and four patients (23.5%) had prior treatment with C/A. The secondary spread of the D179Y mutation in the blaKPC-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic needs to be addressed constantly by an interdisciplinary interaction between microbiologists, infection control personnel, clinicians, and infectious diseases consultants to properly diagnose and treat patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Meropenem , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Meropenem/pharmacology , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(4): 1034-1040, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who received three-drug combination regimens for treatment of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections during a single-centre outbreak. Our objective was to describe the clinical outcomes and molecular characteristics and in vitro synergy of antibiotics against CRAB isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 admitted between April and July 2020 with CRAB infections were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical success was defined as resolution of signs/symptoms of infection without need for additional antibiotics. Representative isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and in vitro synergy of two- or three-drug combinations was assessed by checkerboard and time-kill assays, respectively. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with CRAB pneumonia or bacteraemia were included. Treatment regimens included high-dose ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, plus polymyxin B (SUL/MEM/PMB; 72%), SUL/PMB plus minocycline (MIN; 17%) or other combinations (12%). Clinical resolution was achieved in 50% of patients and 30-day mortality was 22% (4/18). Seven patients had recurrent infections, during which further antimicrobial resistance to SUL or PMB was not evident. PMB/SUL was the most active two-drug combination by checkerboard. Paired isolates collected before and after treatment with SUL/MEM/PMB did not demonstrate new gene mutations or differences in the activity of two- or three-drug combinations. CONCLUSIONS: Use of three-drug regimens for severe CRAB infections among COVID-19 resulted in high rates of clinical response and low mortality relative to previous studies. The emergence of further antibiotic resistance was not detected phenotypically or through WGS analysis. Additional studies are needed to elucidate preferred antibiotic combinations linked to the molecular characteristics of infecting strains.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Humans , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Synergism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 73(3): 736, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288202
10.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(9): e683-e692, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific treatments targeting Ebola virus are crucial in managing Ebola virus disease. To support the development of clinical practice guidelines on medications for Ebola virus disease, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapies for patients with Ebola virus disease. METHODS: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Global Health, African Index Medicus, World Health Organization Global Index Medicus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ClinicalTrials.gov, Epistemonikos, bioRxiv, medRxiv, and SSRN without language restrictions for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published between database inception and Jan 1, 2022, comparing at least one therapeutic agent for Ebola virus disease against standard care or another therapeutic agent for Ebola virus disease. Two reviewers assessed study eligibility and extracted summary data independently using a standardised form. Our outcomes of interest were mortality, adverse maternal outcomes, risk of onward transmission, duration of admission to a health-care facility, functional status after Ebola virus disease, serious adverse events from medication, adverse perinatal outcomes, time to symptom resolution, and time to viral clearance. We did frequentist network meta-analyses to estimate the effect of all interventions and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the certainty of the evidence. We registered the protocol with PROSPERO, CRD42022296539. FINDINGS: We identified 7840 records through database searches, of which two RCTs with a total of 753 patients proved eligible. Only data on mortality, the duration of admission, serious adverse events, and time to viral clearance were available for meta-analysis. Compared with standard care, REGN-EB3 (relative risk [RR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·18 to 0·89; moderate certainty) and mAb114 (0·42, 0·19 to 0·93; moderate certainty) probably reduce mortality. Whether ZMapp (0·60, 0·28 to 1·26; very low certainty) and remdesivir (0·64, 0·29 to 1·39; very low certainty) reduce mortality compared with standard care is uncertain. With high certainty, REGN-EB3 reduces mortality compared with ZMapp (0·67, 0·52 to 0·88) and remdesivir (0·63, 0·49 to 0·82). With high certainty, mAb114 also reduces mortality compared with ZMapp (0·71, 0·55 to 0·91) and remdesivir (0·66, 0·52 to 0·84). Compared with standard care, REGN-EB3, mAb114, ZMapp, and remdesivir might have little or no effect on the time to viral clearance (mean difference ranged from -0·25 days to -1·14 days; low certainty). ZMapp might reduce the duration of admission compared with standard care (mean difference -2·02 days, 95% CI -4·05 to 0·01; low certainty). Findings for all comparisons suggested that there might be little or no difference in the prevalence of serious adverse events, but certainty was low or very low in all comparisons but one. INTERPRETATION: REGN-EB3 and mAb114 separately reduce mortality compared with ZMapp, remdesivir, or standard care in patients with Ebola virus disease. These findings suggest that health-care workers should prioritise the use of REGN-EB3 and mAb114 for patients with Ebola virus disease during future outbreaks. FUNDING: WHO.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Drug Combinations , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Pregnancy
11.
J Feline Med Surg ; 24(10): 943-953, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by genetic mutants of feline enteric coronavirus known as FIPV, is a highly fatal disease of cats with no currently available vaccine or US Food and Drug Administration-approved cure. Dissemination of FIPV in affected cats results in a range of clinical signs, including cavitary effusions, anorexia, fever and lesions of pyogranulomatous vasculitis and perivasculitis, with or without central nervous system or ocular involvement. The objectives of this study were to screen an array of antiviral compounds for anti-FIPV (serotype II) activity, determine cytotoxicity safety profiles of identified compounds with anti-FIPV activity and strategically combine identified monotherapies to assess compound synergy against FIPV in vitro. Based upon clinically successful combination treatment strategies for human patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus infections, we hypothesized that a combined anticoronaviral therapy approach featuring concurrent multiple mechanisms of drug action would result in an additive or synergistic antiviral effect. METHODS: This study screened 90 putative antiviral compounds for efficacy and cytotoxicity using a multimodal in vitro strategy, including plaque bioassays, real-time RT-PCR viral inhibition and cytotoxicity assays. RESULTS: Through this process, we identified 26 compounds with effective antiviral activity against FIPV, representing a variety of drug classes and mechanisms of antiviral action. The most effective compounds include GC376, GS-441524, EIDD2081 and EIDD2931. We documented antiviral efficacy for combinations of antiviral agents, with a few examined drug combinations demonstrating evidence of limited synergistic antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although evidence of compound synergy was identified for several combinations of antiviral agents, monotherapies were ultimately determined to be the most effective in the inhibition of viral transcription.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cat Diseases/drug therapy , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Drug Combinations , Humans , Serogroup
14.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e063668, 2023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This pre-post implementation study evaluated the introduction of fixed dose combination (FDC) medications for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) secondary prevention into routine care in a humanitarian setting. SETTING: Two Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) primary care clinics serving Syrian refugee and host populations in north Lebanon. PARTICIPANTS: Consenting patients ≥18 years with existing ASCVD requiring secondary prevention medication were eligible for study enrolment. Those with FDC contraindication(s) or planning to move were excluded. Of 521 enrolled patients, 460 (88.3%) were retained at 6 months, and 418 (80.2%) switched to FDC. Of these, 84% remained on FDC (n=351), 8.1% (n=34) discontinued and 7.9% (n=33) were lost to follow-up by month 12. INTERVENTIONS: Eligible patients, enrolled February-May 2019, were switched to Trinomia FDC (atorvastatin 20 mg, aspirin 100 mg, ramipril 2.5/5/10 mg) after 6 months' usual care. During the study, the COVID-19 pandemic, an economic crisis and clinic closures occurred. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and regression analyses compared key outcomes at 6 and 12 months: medication adherence, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) control. We performed per-protocol, intention-to-treat and secondary analyses of non-switchers. RESULTS: Among 385 switchers remaining at 12 months, total adherence improved 23%, from 63% (95% CI 58 to 68) at month 6, to 86% (95% CI 82 to 90) at month 12; mean non-HDL-C levels dropped 0.28 mmol/L (95% CI -0.38 to -0.18; p<0.0001), from 2.39 (95% CI 2.26 to 2.51) to 2.11 mmol/L (95% CI 2.00 to 2.22); mean SBP dropped 2.89 mm Hg (95% CI -4.49 to -1.28; p=0.0005) from 132.7 (95% CI 130.8 to 134.6) to 129.7 mm Hg (95% CI 127.9 to 131.5). Non-switchers had smaller improvements in adherence and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Implementing an ASCVD secondary prevention FDC improved adherence and CVD risk factors in MSF clinics in Lebanon, with potential for wider implementation by humanitarian actors and host health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Cholesterol
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 368-372, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222779

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes associated with monoclonal antibody use in pregnant persons with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We present a retrospective case series of pregnant patients who received anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody infusions at a single center from April 1, 2021, through October 16, 2021. Pregnant patients who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms were eligible for monoclonal antibody infusion. Exclusion criteria for administration included need for supplemental oxygen, hospitalization due to COVID-19, and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result more than 7 days before screening. All patients received either bamlanivimab plus etesevimab or casirivimab plus imdevimab based on availability and dosing instructions of the product and emerging resistance patterns in the community. RESULTS: During the study period, monoclonal antibody infusions were administered to 450 individuals at our institution, of whom 15 were pregnant. Of the 15 pregnant persons receiving monoclonal antibody, six (40%) had full-vaccination status at the time of infusion. Two individuals (13%, CI 0-31%) experienced systemic reactions during the infusion, both resulting in temporary changes in the fetal heart rate tracing that recovered with maternal and intrauterine resuscitative efforts. One patient delivered after infusion for worsening maternal and fetal status; the remainder of the patients did not require admission for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series, pregnant persons who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody infusions had generally favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Fetal Heart/drug effects , Humans , Overtreatment , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1048633, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198718

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Novel last resort beta-lactam antibiotics are now available for management of infections due to New-Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (NDM) producing Enterobacterales and non-fermenters with Difficult-to-Treat Resistance. However, data regarding the use of imipenem-cilastatin-relebactam (IMI-REL), cefiderocol (CFD) and ceftazidime-avibactam plus aztreonam (CAZ-AVI-ATM) are scarce in real-life settings. This study aimed to describe the use of last resort beta-lactam antibiotics, the microbiology and the outcome, in patients hospitalized in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a monocentric observational cohort study from 2020/01/01, to 2022/08/31. We screened all patients admitted to Nimes University Hospital who have received ≥ 1 dose of last resort beta-lactam antibiotics during the study period, using the Pharmacy database. We included patients treated with IMI-REL, CFD and CAZ-AVI-ATM. The primary endpoint was the infection-free survival rate. We also calculated rates of microbiological and clinical cure, recurrent infection, death and adverse events. Results: Twenty-seven patients were included in the study and 30 treatment courses were analyzed: CFD (N=24; 80%), CAZ-AVI-ATM (N=3; 10%) and IMI-REL (N=3; 10%). Antibiotics were used in 21 males (70%) and 9 females (30%) with a median age at 65-year-old [50-73.5] and a median Charlson index at 1 [0-2]. Almost all the patients had ≥ 1 risk factor for carbapenem resistant bacteria, a half of them was hospitalized for severe COVID-19, and most of antibiotic courses (N=26; 87%) were associated with ICU admission. In the study population, the probability of infection-free survival at day-90 after last resort beta-lactam therapy initiation was 48.4% CI95% [33.2-70.5]. Clinical failure rate was at 30%, microbiological failure rate at 33% and mortality rate at 23%. Adverse events were documented in 5 antibiotic courses (17%). In details, P. aeruginosa were mainly treated with CFD and IMI-REL, S. maltophilia with CFD and CAZ-AVI-ATM, A. baumannii with CFD, and NDM producing-K. pneumoniae with CAZ-AVI-ATM and CFD. After a treatment course with CFD, CAZ-AVI-ATM and IMI-REL, the probability of infection-free survival was 48% CI95% [10.4-73.5], 33.3% CI95% [6.7-100], 66.7% CI95% [30-100], respectively. Discussion/conclusion: Use of last resort beta-lactam antimicrobials in real-life settings was a safe and efficient therapeutic option for severe infections related to Gram-negative bacteria with Difficult-to-Treat Resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , beta-Lactamases , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Drug Combinations , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
18.
Arch Pediatr ; 30(1): 1-9, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149339

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis is a severe monogenic disease that affects around 7400 patients in France. More than 2100 mutations in the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR), the gene encoding for an epithelial ion channel that normally transports chloride and bicarbonate, lead to mucus dehydration and impaired bronchial clearance. Systematic neonatal screening in France since 2002 has enabled early diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Although highly demanding, supportive treatments including daily chest physiotherapy, inhaled aerosol therapy, frequent antibiotic courses, nutritional and pancreatic extracts have improved the prognosis. Median age at death is now beyond 30 years. Ivacaftor was the first CFTR modulator found to both reduce sweat chloride concentration and improve pulmonary function in the rare CFTR gating mutations. Combinations of modulators such as lumacaftor + ivacaftor or tezacaftor + ivacaftor were found to improve pulmonary function both in patients homozygous for the F508del mutation characterized by the lack of CFTR protein and those heterozygous for F508del with minimal CFTR activity. The triple combination of ivacaftor + tezacaftor + elexacaftor was recently shown to significantly improve pulmonary function and quality of life, to normalize sweat chloride concentration, and to reduce the need for antibiotic therapy in patients with at least one F508del mutation (83% in France). These impressive data, however, need to be confirmed in the long term. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to hear treated patients testify about their markedly improved quality of life and to observe that the number of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis decreased dramatically in France after 2020, despite the COVID pandemic, with no increase in deaths without lung transplant.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis , Adult , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Chlorides/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Drug Combinations , Mutation , Quality of Life
19.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143622

ABSTRACT

Evusheld® (tixagevimab + cilgavimab; AZD7442) was the first anti-Spike monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail designed not only for treatment but also with pre-exposure prophylaxis in mind. The immunoglobulins were engineered for prolonged half-life by modifying the Fc fragment, thus creating a long-acting antibody (LAAB). We review here preclinical development, baseline and treatment-emergent resistance, clinical efficacy from registration trials, and real-world post-marketing evidence. The combination was initially approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis at the time of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC wave based on a trial conducted in unvaccinated subjects when the Alpha VOC was dominant. Another trial also conducted at the time of the Alpha VOC wave proved efficacy as early treatment in unvaccinated patients and led to authorization at the time of the BA.4/5 VOC wave. Tixagevimab was ineffective against any Omicron sublineage, so cilgavimab has so far been the ingredient which has made a difference. Antibody monotherapy has a high risk of selecting for immune escape variants in immunocompromised patients with high viral loads, which nowadays represent the main therapeutic indication for antibody therapies. Among Omicron sublineages, cilgavimab was ineffective against BA.1, recovered efficacy against BA.2 and BA.2.12.1, but lost efficacy again against BA.4/BA.5 and BA.2.75. Our analysis indicated that Evusheld® has been used during the Omicron VOC phase without robust clinical data of efficacy against this variant and suggested that several regulatory decisions regarding its use lacked consistency. There is an urgent need for new randomized controlled trials in vaccinated, immunocompromised subjects, using COVID-19 convalescent plasma as a control arm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Serotherapy
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 935906, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123396

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a pandemic in many countries around the world. The virus is highly contagious and has a high fatality rate. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients may have higher susceptibility and mortality to COVID-19. While Paxlovid is the first oral drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for COVID-19, its specific drug mechanism for lung cancer patients infected with COVID-19 remains to be further studied. Methods: COVID-19 related genes were obtained from NCBI, GeneCards, and KEGG, and then the transcriptome data for LUAD was downloaded from TCGA. The drug targets of Paxlovid were revealed through BATMAN-TCM, DrugBank, SwissTargetPrediction, and TargetNet. The genes related to susceptibility to COVID-19 in LUAD patients were obtained through differential analysis. The interaction of LUAD/COVID-19 related genes was evaluated and displayed by STRING, and a COX risk regression model was established to screen and evaluate the correlation between genes and clinical characteristics. The Venn diagram was drawn to select the candidate targets of Paxlovid against LUAD/COVID-19, and the functional analysis of the target genes was performed using KEGG and GO enrichment analysis. Finally, Cytoscape was used to screen and visualize the Hub Gene, and Autodock was used for molecular docking between the drug and the target. Result: Bioinformatics analysis was performed by combining COVID-19-related genes with the gene expression and clinical data of LUAD, including analysis of prognosis-related genes, survival rate, and hub genes screened out by the prognosis model. The key targets of Paxlovid against LUAD/COVID-19 were obtained through network pharmacology, the most important targets include IL6, IL12B, LBP. Furthermore, pathway analysis showed that Paxlovid modulates the IL-17 signaling pathway, the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, during LUAD/COVID-19 treatment. Conclusions: Based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology, the prognostic signature of LUAD/COVID-19 patients was screened. And identified the potential therapeutic targets and molecular pathways of Paxlovid Paxlovid in the treatment of LUAD/COVID. As promising features, prognostic signatures and therapeutic targets shed light on improving the personalized management of patients with LUAD.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Lactams , Leucine , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Nitriles , Proline , Receptors, Cytokine , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States
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