Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 386
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
mBio ; 12(6): e0334721, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599212

ABSTRACT

The world was unprepared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and remains ill-equipped for future pandemics. While unprecedented strides have been made developing vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, there remains a need for highly effective and widely available regimens for ambulatory use for novel coronaviruses and other viral pathogens. We posit that a priority is to develop pan-family drug cocktails to enhance potency, limit toxicity, and avoid drug resistance. We urge cocktail development for all viruses with pandemic potential both in the short term (<1 to 2 years) and longer term with pairs of drugs in advanced clinical testing or repurposed agents approved for other indications. While significant efforts were launched against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in vitro and in the clinic, many studies employed solo drugs and had disappointing results. Here, we review drug combination studies against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses and introduce a model-driven approach to assess drug pairs with the highest likelihood of clinical efficacy. Where component agents lack sufficient potency, we advocate for synergistic combinations to achieve therapeutic levels. We also discuss issues that stymied therapeutic progress against COVID-19, including testing of agents with low likelihood of efficacy late in clinical disease and lack of focus on developing virologic surrogate endpoints. There is a need to expedite efficient clinical trials testing drug combinations that could be taken at home by recently infected individuals and exposed contacts as early as possible during the next pandemic, whether caused by a coronavirus or another viral pathogen. The approach herein represents a proactive plan for global viral pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 85, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that antibody responses play a role in the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiency are at increased risk of persistent infection. This challenging clinical scenario is associated with adverse patient outcome and potentially creates an ecological niche for the evolution of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with immune evasion capacity. Case reports and/or series have implied a therapeutic role for convalescent plasma (CP) to secure virological clearance, although concerns have been raised about the effectiveness of CP and its potential to drive viral evolution, and it has largely been withdrawn from clinical use in the UK. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two cases in which persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection was cleared following administration of the monoclonal antibody combination casirivimab and imdevimab (REGN-COV2, Ronapreve). A 55-year-old male with follicular lymphoma, treated with B cell depleting therapy, developed SARS-CoV-2 infection in September 2020 which then persisted for over 200 days. He was hospitalised on four occasions with COVID-19 and suffered debilitating fatigue and malaise throughout. There was no clinical response to antiviral therapy with remdesivir or CP, and SARS-CoV-2 was consistently detected in nasopharyngeal swabs. Intrahost evolution of several spike variants of uncertain significance was identified by viral sequence analysis. Delivery of REGN-COV2, in combination with remdesivir, was associated with clinical improvement and viral clearance within 6 days, which was sustained for over 150 days despite immunotherapy for relapsed follicular lymphoma. The second case, a 68-year-old female with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia on ibrutinib, also developed persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite a lack of response to remdesivir, infection promptly cleared following REGN-COV2 in combination with remdesivir, accompanied by resolution of inflammation and full clinical recovery that has been maintained for over 290 days. CONCLUSIONS: These cases highlight the potential benefit of REGN-COV2 as therapy for persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in antibody deficient individuals, including after failure of CP treatment. Formal clinical studies are warranted to assess the effectiveness of REGN-COV2 in antibody-deficient patients, especially in light of the emergence of variants of concern, such as Omicron, that appear to evade REGN-COV2 neutralisation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , /virology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lymphoma, Follicular , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 790469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581320

ABSTRACT

Background: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 are clinically efficacious when administered early, decreasing hospitalization and mortality in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. We investigated the effects of receiving mAbs (bamlanivimab alone and bamlanivimab and etesevimab together) after SARS-CoV-2 infection on the endogenous immune response. Methods: Longitudinal serum samples were collected from patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in the BLAZE-1 trial who received placebo (n=153), bamlanivimab alone [700 mg (n=100), 2800 mg (n=106), or 7000 mg (n=98)], or bamlanivimab (2800 mg) and etesevimab (2800 mg) together (n=111). A multiplex Luminex serology assay measured antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including SARS-CoV-2 protein variants that evade bamlanivimab or etesevimab binding, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assays were performed. Results: The antibody response in patients who received placebo or mAbs had a broad specificity. Titer change from baseline against a receptor-binding domain mutant (Spike-RBD E484Q), as well as N-terminal domain (Spike-NTD) and nucleocapsid protein (NCP) epitopes were 1.4 to 4.1 fold lower at day 15-85 in mAb recipients compared with placebo. Neutralizing activity of day 29 sera from bamlanivimab monotherapy cohorts against both spike E484Q and beta variant (B.1.351) were slightly reduced compared with placebo (by a factor of 3.1, p=0.001, and 2.9, p=0.002, respectively). Early viral load correlated with the subsequent antibody titers of the native, unmodified humoral response (p<0.0001 at Day 15, 29, 60 and 85 for full-length spike). Conclusions: Patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 treated with mAbs develop a wide breadth of antigenic responses to SARS-CoV-2. Small reductions in titers and neutralizing activity, potentially due to a decrease in viral load following mAb treatment, suggest minimal impact of mAb treatment on the endogenous immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544344

ABSTRACT

Due to current advances and growing experience in the management of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the outcome of COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness would be expected to be better in the second wave compared with the first wave. As our hospitalization criteria changed in the second wave, we aimed to investigate whether a favorable outcome occurred in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with only severe/critical illness. Among 642 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the first wave and 1121 in the second wave, those who met World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for severe or critical illness on admission or during follow-up were surveyed. Data on demographics, comorbidities, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on admission, and outcomes were obtained from an electronic hospital database. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the characteristics of patients in the first and second waves. There were 228 (35.5%) patients with severe/critical illness in the first wave and 681 (60.7%) in the second wave. Both groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities, other than chronic kidney disease. Median serum CRP levels were significantly higher in patients in the second wave compared with those in the first wave [109 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 65-157) vs. 87 mg/L (IQR: 39-140); p < 0.001]. However, intensive care unit admission and mortality rates were similar among the waves. Even though a lower mortality rate in the second wave has been reported in previous studies, including all hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we found similar demographics and outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with severe/critical illness in the first and second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): JC3, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518748

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Lopinavir-ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet. 2020;396:1345-52. 33031764.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(20): 1845-1855, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with symptomatic heart failure, sacubitril-valsartan has been found to reduce the risk of hospitalization and death from cardiovascular causes more effectively than an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Trials comparing the effects of these drugs in patients with acute myocardial infarction have been lacking. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97 mg of sacubitril and 103 mg of valsartan twice daily) or ramipril (5 mg twice daily) in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure (outpatient symptomatic heart failure or heart failure leading to hospitalization), whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 5661 patients underwent randomization; 2830 were assigned to receive sacubitril-valsartan and 2831 to receive ramipril. Over a median of 22 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 338 patients (11.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 373 patients (13.2%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 308 patients (10.9%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and in 335 patients (11.8%) in the ramipril group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07); death from cardiovascular causes in 168 (5.9%) and 191 (6.7%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.08); and death from any cause in 213 (7.5%) and 242 (8.5%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05). Treatment was discontinued because of an adverse event in 357 patients (12.6%) in the sacubitril-valsartan group and 379 patients (13.4%) in the ramipril group. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan was not associated with a significantly lower incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or incident heart failure than ramipril among patients with acute myocardial infarction. (Funded by Novartis; PARADISE-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02924727.).


Subject(s)
Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Ramipril/therapeutic use , Valsartan/therapeutic use , Aged , Aminobutyrates/adverse effects , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Biphenyl Compounds/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypotension/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Ramipril/adverse effects , Stroke Volume , Valsartan/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(93): 12476-12479, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500757

ABSTRACT

We identified small-molecule enhancers of cellular stress granules by observing molecular crowding of proteins and RNAs in a time-dependent manner. Hit molecules sensitized the IRF3-mediated antiviral mechanism in the presence of poly(I:C) and inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 by inducing stress granule formation. Thus, modulating multimolecular crowding can be a promising strategy against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Cytoplasmic Granules/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
9.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 61-69, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496649

ABSTRACT

North Italy emerged as an epicenter of COVID-19 in the Western world. The majority of studies of patients with COVID-19 have focused on hospitalized patients, and data on early outpatient treatment are limited. This research retrospectively examines consecutive symptomatic adults who did not present to a hospital but who experience laboratory confirmed (nasopharyngeal swabs) or probable COVID-19 infection. From March 12 to April 12, 2020, 124 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection (84%) or with epidemiologically linked exposure to a person with confirmed infection (16%) were managed at home. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made with a portable ultrasound. COVID-19 treatment was based on low-dose hydroxychloroquine with or without darunavir/cobicistat or azithromycin and enoxaparine for bedridden patients. The patients were monitored by telemedicine. The primary endpoints were clinical improvement or hospitalization, and the secondary endpoints were mortality at day 30 and at day 60. Forty-seven (37.9%) patients had mild COVID-19 infection, 44 (35.5%) had moderate COVID-19 infection, and 33 (26.6%) had severe COVID-19 infection. Four patients (3.2%) were hospitalized and there were no deaths at day 30 and at day 60. Only mild side effects were reported. Early home treatment of COVID-19 patients resulted in a low hospitalization rate with no deaths, with the limitations of the small sample size and that it was conducted within a single geographic area. We believe that this model may be easily reproduced in both cities and rural areas around the world to treat COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Home Care Services , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Telemedicine , Young Adult
10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3462-3480, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494604

ABSTRACT

AIM: Repurposing strategies to address the COVID-19 pandemic have been accelerated. As both pregnant and paediatric patients are likely to be excluded from most planned investigations, the list of repurposed options and the available data on these drugs and vaccines provide a baseline risk assessment and identify gaps for targeted investigation. METHODS: Clinical trials have been searched and reviewed; 23 repurposed drugs and drug combinations and nine candidate vaccines have been assessed regarding the availability of relevant data in paediatrics and pregnant women and to evaluate expected or unanticipated risk. RESULTS: Thirteen of the repurposed drugs or drug combinations are indicated for use in paediatrics in some age category albeit for indications other than COVID-19; 10 of these are indicated for use in pregnant women. Even in cases where these drugs are indicated in the populations, source data from which safety and or dosing could be extrapolated for use in COVID-19 is sparse. Vaccine trials are ongoing and generally exclude pregnant women; only in a few instances have paediatric subgroups been planned for enrolment. Data from individual case studies and RWD may suggest that subpopulations of both paediatric patients and pregnant women may be more at risk, particularly those in an increased inflammatory state. CONCLUSION: In conjunction with more prospective collaboration, plans are evolving to ensure that we will be better prepared to address similar situations especially in paediatrics and pregnant women where experience is limited and actual practice relies heavily on leveraging data from other populations and indications.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment
11.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(2): 316-326, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493288

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism, occlusion of dialysis catheters, circuit thrombosis in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) devices, acute limb ischemia, and isolated strokes, all in the face of prophylactic and even therapeutic anticoagulation, are features of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coagulopathy. It seems well established at this time that a COVID-19 patient deemed sick enough to be hospitalized, should receive at least prophylactic dose anticoagulation. However, should some hospitalized patients have dosage escalation to intermediate dose? Should some be considered for full-dose anticoagulation without a measurable thromboembolic event and how should that anticoagulation be monitored? Should patients receive postdischarge anticoagulation and with what medication and for how long? What thrombotic issues are related to the various medications being used to treat this coagulopathy? Is antiphospholipid antibody part of this syndrome? What is the significance of isolated ischemic stroke and limb ischemia in this disorder and how does this interface with the rest of the clinical and laboratory features of this disorder? The aims of this article are to explore these questions and interpret the available data based on the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Duration of Therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1257-1262, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478145

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 infection management for a recipient of kidney transplant has debatable prognosis and treatment. We described the case of a COVID-19 infected 70 year old female, previously had renal transplantation in 2017. The patient took immunosuppressive agents as routine drugs for transplant recipient status and received lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone daily at the hospitalization. Specific question arises about renal transplant recipients being infected by COVID-19 - whether the infection will get worse compared to those without immunosuppresive agent. In this case, author decided to stop the immunosuppressive agent followed administration of combination lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, and dexamethasone that gives a good clinical impact change to patient's condition after once getting worsened and mechanically ventilated. Nevertheless, the assessment of risk and benefit in continuing immunosuppressive drugs is concurrently essential due to the prevention of transplant rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Aged , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients
13.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
14.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 22, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475853

ABSTRACT

The emergency use authorization for REGEN-COV (a combination of two monoclonal antibodies, casirivimab and imdevimab) has been revised to include postexposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adults and children 12 years of age and older who, if they become COVID-19 positive, are at high risk for severe disease.Prophylaxis with REGEN-COV is not a substitute for vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Approval , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Drug Combinations , Humans , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
15.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470993

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the Coronaviridae family, which is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic followed by unprecedented global societal and economic disruptive impact. The innate immune system is the body's first line of defense against invading pathogens and is induced by a variety of cellular receptors that sense viral components. However, various strategies are exploited by SARS-CoV-2 to disrupt the antiviral innate immune responses. Innate immune dysfunction is characterized by the weak generation of type I interferons (IFNs) and the hypersecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to mortality and organ injury in patients with COVID-19. This review summarizes the existing understanding of the mutual effects between SARS-CoV-2 and the type I IFN (IFN-α/ß) responses, emphasizing the relationship between host innate immune signaling and viral proteases with an insight on tackling potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Humans , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/immunology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470889

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection; the pathophysiology of sepsis is complex. The incidence of sepsis is steadily increasing, with worldwide mortality ranging between 30% and 50%. Current treatment approaches mainly rely on the timely and appropriate administration of antimicrobials and supportive therapies, but the search for pharmacotherapies modulating the host response has been unsuccessful. Chinese herbal medicines, i.e., Chinese patent medicines, Chinese herbal prescriptions, and single Chinese herbs, play an important role in the treatment of sepsis through multicomponent, multipathway, and multitargeting abilities and have been officially recommended for the management of COVID-19. Chinese herbal medicines have therapeutic actions promising for the treatment of sepsis; basic scientific research on these medicines is increasing. However, the material bases of most Chinese herbal medicines and their underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the current studies of Chinese herbal medicines used for the treatment of sepsis in terms of clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacological activity, phytochemistry, bioactive constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmacokinetics, to provide an important foundation for clarifying the pathogenesis of sepsis and developing novel antisepsis drugs based on Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(10): 907-915, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sacubitril-valsartan is effective in reducing the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level of hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with a high acquisition cost compared with enalapril treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the cost utility of sacubitril-valsartan compared with enalapril for acute decompensated heart failure treatment. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to project the total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of early initiation, and a 2-month delay of sacubitril-valsartan treatment and enalapril treatment in hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure over a lifetime horizon from a Thai healthcare system perspective. Clinical inputs were mainly derived from the PIONEER-HF and PARADIGM-HF trials, together with Thai epidemiological data. Cost data were based on the Thai population. All costs and outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Compared with enalapril, sacubitril-valsartan incurred a higher total cost per year (THB 42,994 [US$1367.48] vs THB 19,787 [US$629.37]), and it gained more QALYs (4.969 vs 4.755). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was THB 108,508/QALY (US$3451.26/QALY). Early initiation of sacubitril-valsartan treatment was more cost effective than delayed treatment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that at a level of willingness to pay of THB 160,000/QALY (US$5089/QALY), sacubitril-valsartan was a cost-effective strategy of about 60%. CONCLUSIONS: Sacubitril-valsartan is cost effective in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. However, the results are highly dependent on the long-term cardiovascular mortality, and they are applicable only to Thailand or countries with a similarly structured healthcare system. Long-term registries should be pursued to decrease the uncertainty around long-term mortality.


Subject(s)
Enalapril , Heart Failure , Aminobutyrates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Biphenyl Compounds , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drug Combinations , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Stroke Volume , Tetrazoles/therapeutic use , Thailand , Valsartan
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(6): 1213-1221, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450185

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) global pandemic rages across the globe, the race to prevent and treat this deadly disease has led to the "off-label" repurposing of drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, which have the potential for unwanted QT-interval prolongation and a risk of drug-induced sudden cardiac death. With the possibility that a considerable proportion of the world's population soon could receive COVID-19 pharmacotherapies with torsadogenic potential for therapy or postexposure prophylaxis, this document serves to help health care professionals mitigate the risk of drug-induced ventricular arrhythmias while minimizing risk of COVID-19 exposure to personnel and conserving the limited supply of personal protective equipment.


Subject(s)
Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Lopinavir , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ritonavir , Torsades de Pointes , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Repositioning/ethics , Drug Repositioning/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/mortality , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Torsades de Pointes/mortality , Torsades de Pointes/therapy
20.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...