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1.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 10-17, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577575

ABSTRACT

Aerosol therapy is used to deliver medical therapeutics directly to the airways to treat respiratory conditions. A potential consequence of this form of treatment is the release of fugitive aerosols, both patient derived and medical, into the environment and the subsequent exposure of caregivers and bystanders to potential viral infections. This study examined the release of these fugitive aerosols during a standard aerosol therapy to a simulated adult patient. An aerosol holding chamber and mouthpiece were connected to a representative head model and breathing simulator. A combination of laser and Schlieren imaging was used to non-invasively visualize the release and dispersion of fugitive aerosol particles. Time-varying aerosol particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured with optical particle sizers at clinically relevant positions to the simulated patient. The influence of breathing pattern, normal and distressed, supplemental air flow, at 0.2 and 6 LPM, and the addition of a bacterial filter to the exhalation port of the mouthpiece were assessed. Images showed large quantities of fugitive aerosols emitted from the unfiltered mouthpiece. The images and particle counter data show that the addition of a bacterial filter limited the release of these fugitive aerosols, with the peak fugitive aerosol concentrations decreasing by 47.3-83.3%, depending on distance from the simulated patient. The addition of a bacterial filter to the mouthpiece significantly reduces the levels of fugitive aerosols emitted during a simulated aerosol therapy, p≤ .05, and would greatly aid in reducing healthcare worker and bystander exposure to potentially harmful fugitive aerosols.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19 , Drug Delivery Systems , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiratory Therapy , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Computer Simulation , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Models, Biological , Particle Size , Respiratory Therapy/adverse effects , Respiratory Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Theranostics ; 11(20): 10012-10029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512995

ABSTRACT

Various living organisms have proven to influence human health significantly, either in a commensal or pathogenic manner. Harnessing the creatures may remarkably improve human healthcare and cure the intractable illness that is challenged using traditional drugs or surgical approaches. However, issues including limited biocompatibility, poor biosafety, inconvenience for personal handling, and low patient compliance greatly hinder the biomedical and clinical applications of living organisms when adopting them for disease treatment. Microneedle arrays (MNAs), emerging as a promising candidate of biomedical devices with the functional diversity and minimal invasion, have exhibited great potential in the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, which is expected to improve organism-based therapies. In this review, we systemically summarize the technologies employed for the integration of MNAs with specific living organisms including diverse viruses, bacteria, mammal cells and so on. Moreover, their applications such as vaccination, anti-infection, tumor therapy and tissue repairing are well illustrated. Challenges faced by current strategies, and the perspectives of integrating more living organisms, adopting smarter materials, and developing more advanced technologies in MNAs for future personalized and point-of-care medicine, are also discussed. It is believed that the combination of living organisms with functional MNAs would hold great promise in the near future due to the advantages of both biological and artificial species.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Bacteria , Biological Therapy/trends , Cells , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Needles , Skin/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Viruses
3.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1496-1500, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause serious respiratory complications resulting in the need for invasive ventilatory support and concurrent aerosol therapy. Aerosol therapy is considered a high risk procedure for the transmission of patient derived infectious aerosol droplets. Critical-care workers are considered to be at a high risk of inhaling such infectious droplets. The objective of this work was to use noninvasive optical methods to visualize the potential release of aerosol droplets during aerosol therapy in a model of an invasively ventilated adult patient. The noninvasive Schlieren imaging technique was used to visualize the movement of air and aerosol. Three different aerosol delivery devices: (i) a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), (ii) a compressed air driven jet nebulizer (JN), and (iii) a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN), were used to deliver an aerosolized therapeutic at two different positions: (i) on the inspiratory limb at the wye and (ii) on the patient side of the wye, between the wye and endotracheal tube, to a simulated intubated adult patient. Irrespective of position, there was a significant release of air and aerosol from the ventilator circuit during aerosol delivery with the pMDI and the compressed air driven JN. There was no such release when aerosol therapy was delivered with a closed-circuit VMN. Selection of aerosol delivery device is a major determining factor in the release of infectious patient derived bioaerosol from an invasively mechanically ventilated patient receiving aerosol therapy.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Metered Dose Inhalers , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Therapy , Aerosols/administration & dosage , Aerosols/adverse effects , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/standards , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Research Design , Respiratory Therapy/adverse effects , Respiratory Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(3): 1316-1322, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943677

ABSTRACT

Under pandemic-caused emergency, evaluation of the potential of existing antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 is relevant. Triazavirin, an antiviral drug developed in Russia for per-oral administration, is involved in clinical trials against SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. This virus has affinity to epithelial cells in respiratory tract, so drug delivery directly in lungs may enhance therapeutic effect and reduce side effects for stomach, liver, kidneys. We elaborated ultrasonic method of triazavirin aerosol generation and investigated the inhalation delivery of this drug in mice. Mean particle size and number concentration of aerosol used in inhalation experiments are 560 nm and 4 × 105 cm-3, respectively. Aerosol mass concentration is 1.6 × 10-4 mg/cm3. Inhalation for 20 min in a nose-only chamber resulted in 2 mg/kg body delivered dose and 2.6 µg/mL triazavirin concentration in blood plasma. Elimination rate constant determined in aerosol administration experiments was ke = 0.077 min-1, which agrees with the value measured after intravenous delivery, but per-oral administration resulted in considerably lower apparent elimination rate constant of pseudo-first order, probably due to non-linear dependence of absorption rate on triazavirin concentration in gastrointestinal tract. The bioavailability of triazavirin aerosol is found to be 85%, which is about four times higher than for per-oral administration.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azoles/administration & dosage , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Triazines/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Oral , Aerosols/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Azoles/blood , Azoles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Elimination Routes , Equipment Design , Humans , Male , Mice , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics , Triazoles
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