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2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1149994, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242609
3.
Curr Pharm Des ; 29(15): 1180-1192, 2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319521

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) speeds up the drug development process and reduces its time, as well as the cost which is of enormous importance in outbreaks such as COVID-19. It uses a set of machine learning algorithms that collects the available data from resources, categorises, processes and develops novel learning methodologies. Virtual screening is a successful application of AI, which is used in screening huge drug-like databases and filtering to a small number of compounds. The brain's thinking of AI is its neural networking which uses techniques such as Convoluted Neural Network (CNN), Recursive Neural Network (RNN) or Generative Adversial Neural Network (GANN). The application ranges from small molecule drug discovery to the development of vaccines. In the present review article, we discussed various techniques of drug design, structure and ligand-based, pharmacokinetics and toxicity prediction using AI. The rapid phase of discovery is the need of the hour and AI is a targeted approach to achieve this.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , Drug Discovery/methods , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Drug Design
4.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312914

ABSTRACT

The application of computational approaches in drug discovery has been consolidated in the last decades. These families of techniques are usually grouped under the common name of "computer-aided drug design" (CADD), and they now constitute one of the pillars in the pharmaceutical discovery pipelines in many academic and industrial environments. Their implementation has been demonstrated to tremendously improve the speed of the early discovery steps, allowing for the proficient and rational choice of proper compounds for a desired therapeutic need among the extreme vastness of the drug-like chemical space. Moreover, the application of CADD approaches allows the rationalization of biochemical and interactive processes of pharmaceutical interest at the molecular level. Because of this, computational tools are now extensively used also in the field of rational 3D design and optimization of chemical entities starting from the structural information of the targets, which can be experimentally resolved or can also be obtained with other computer-based techniques. In this work, we revised the state-of-the-art computer-aided drug design methods, focusing on their application in different scenarios of pharmaceutical and biological interest, not only highlighting their great potential and their benefits, but also discussing their actual limitations and eventual weaknesses. This work can be considered a brief overview of computational methods for drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Drug Design , Drug Discovery/methods , Computers , Pharmaceutical Preparations
5.
Curr Drug Targets ; 24(2): 201-210, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291450

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diseases caused by protozoa are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in tropical regions such as Brazil. Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and malaria are responsible for around 234 million cases and more than 400,000 deaths worldwide. Despite this scenario, drugs for these diseases have several limitations, which justifies the search for new treatments. Iron superoxide dismutase is a promising target for the drug design to treat patients with these diseases. It is a validated target and protects against oxidative stress. AIM: Thus, this systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence on the importance of superoxide dismutase in the drug design to treat patients with this protozoosis. METHODS: A search was performed for in vitro and in vivo studies, without publication and language restrictions, in MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (BVS), Science Direct, and EMBASE (Elsevier). Studies that pointed to the relationship between the reduction or increase in superoxide dismutase activity and the diseases were included. 23 studies were selected for the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: The results showed that the inhibition or reduction of the enzyme activity decreases the degree of infection and reinfection and improves the results in treating these diseases. In contrast, the increase in activity caused a high degree of survival and resistance of the parasites. CONCLUSION: However, the overall quality of evidence is low and more studies with methodological rigor are provided.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Leishmaniasis , Malaria , Humans , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Drug Design , Superoxide Dismutase/therapeutic use
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1157627, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290774

ABSTRACT

Background: In the last couple of years, viral infections have been leading the globe, considered one of the most widespread and extremely damaging health problems and one of the leading causes of mortality in the modern period. Although several viral infections are discovered, such as SARS CoV-2, Langya Henipavirus, there have only been a limited number of discoveries of possible antiviral drug, and vaccine that have even received authorization for the protection of human health. Recently, another virial infection is infecting worldwide (Monkeypox, and Smallpox), which concerns pharmacists, biochemists, doctors, and healthcare providers about another epidemic. Also, currently no specific treatment is available against Monkeypox. This research gap encouraged us to develop a new molecule to fight against monkeypox and smallpox disease. So, firstly, fifty different curcumin derivatives were collected from natural sources, which are available in the PubChem database, to determine antiviral capabilities against Monkeypox and Smallpox. Material and method: Preliminarily, the molecular docking experiment of fifty different curcumin derivatives were conducted, and the majority of the substances produced the expected binding affinities. Then, twelve curcumin derivatives were picked up for further analysis based on the maximum docking score. After that, the density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine chemical characterizations such as the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), softness, and hardness, etc. Results: The mentioned derivatives demonstrated docking scores greater than 6.80 kcal/mol, and the most significant binding affinity was at -8.90 kcal/mol, even though 12 molecules had higher binding scores (-8.00 kcal/mol to -8.9 kcal/mol), and better than the standard medications. The molecular dynamic simulation is described by root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF), demonstrating that all the compounds might be stable in the physiological system. Conclusion: In conclusion, each derivative of curcumin has outstanding absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) characteristics. Hence, we recommended the aforementioned curcumin derivatives as potential antiviral agents for the treatment of Monkeypox and Smallpox virus, and more in vivo investigations are warranted to substantiate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Monkeypox , Smallpox , Variola virus , Humans , Smallpox/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
7.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296067

ABSTRACT

Despite the great technological and medical advances in fighting viral diseases, new therapies for most of them are still lacking, and existing antivirals suffer from major limitations regarding drug resistance and a limited spectrum of activity. In fact, most approved antivirals are directly acting antiviral (DAA) drugs, which interfere with viral proteins and confer great selectivity towards their viral targets but suffer from resistance and limited spectrum. Nowadays, host-targeted antivirals (HTAs) are on the rise, in the drug discovery and development pipelines, in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. These drugs target host proteins involved in the virus life cycle and are considered promising alternatives to DAAs due to their broader spectrum and lower potential for resistance. Herein, we discuss an important class of HTAs that modulate signal transduction pathways by targeting host kinases. Kinases are considered key enzymes that control virus-host interactions. We also provide a synopsis of the antiviral drug discovery and development pipeline detailing antiviral kinase targets, drug types, therapeutic classes for repurposed drugs, and top developing organizations. Furthermore, we detail the drug design and repurposing considerations, as well as the limitations and challenges, for kinase-targeted antivirals, including the choice of the binding sites, physicochemical properties, and drug combinations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Protein Kinases , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Drug Discovery , Drug Design
8.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 39(3): 189-190, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301030
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287529

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody therapies targeting immuno-modulatory targets such as checkpoint proteins, chemokines, and cytokines have made significant impact in several areas, including cancer, inflammatory disease, and infection. However, antibodies are complex biologics with well-known limitations, including high cost for development and production, immunogenicity, a limited shelf-life because of aggregation, denaturation, and fragmentation of the large protein. Drug modalities such as peptides and nucleic acid aptamers showing high-affinity and highly selective interaction with the target protein have been proposed alternatives to therapeutic antibodies. The fundamental limitation of short in vivo half-life has prevented the wide acceptance of these alternatives. Covalent drugs, also known as targeted covalent inhibitors (TCIs), form permanent bonds to target proteins and, in theory, eternally exert the drug action, circumventing the pharmacokinetic limitation of other antibody alternatives. The TCI drug platform, too, has been slow in gaining acceptance because of its potential prolonged side-effect from off-target covalent binding. To avoid the potential risks of irreversible adverse drug effects from off-target conjugation, the TCI modality is broadening from the conventional small molecules to larger biomolecules possessing desirable properties (e.g., hydrolysis resistance, drug-action reversal, unique pharmacokinetics, stringent target specificity, and inhibition of protein-protein interactions). Here, we review the historical development of the TCI made of bio-oligomers/polymers (i.e., peptide-, protein-, or nucleic-acid-type) obtained by rational design and combinatorial screening. The structural optimization of the reactive warheads and incorporation into the targeted biomolecules enabling a highly selective covalent interaction between the TCI and the target protein is discussed. Through this review, we hope to highlight the middle to macro-molecular TCI platform as a realistic replacement for the antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Drug Design , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Antibodies/chemistry , Antibodies/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
10.
Virology ; 581: 97-115, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265395

ABSTRACT

The majority of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development work has focussed on targeting the spike protein, viral polymerase and proteases. As the pandemic progressed, many studies reported that these proteins are prone to high levels of mutation and can become drug resistant. Thus, it is necessary to not only target other viral proteins such as the non-structural proteins (NSPs) but to also target the most conserved residues of these proteins. In order to understand the level of conservation among these viruses, in this review, we have focussed on the conservation across RNA viruses, conservation across the coronaviruses and then narrowed our focus to conservation of NSPs across coronaviruses. We have also discussed the various treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A synergistic melding of bioinformatics, computer-aided drug-design and in vitro/vivo studies can feed into better understanding of the virus and therefore help in the development of small molecule inhibitors against the viral proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Design , Viral Proteins/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
12.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2809-2819, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285958

ABSTRACT

Hexameric structure formation through packing of three C-terminal helices and an N-terminal trimeric coiled-coil core has been proposed as a general mechanism of class I enveloped virus entry. In this process, the C-terminal helical repeat (HR2) region of viral membrane fusion proteins becomes transiently exposed and accessible to N-terminal helical repeat (HR1) trimer-based fusion inhibitors. Herein, we describe a mimetic of the HIV-1 gp41 HR1 trimer, N3G, as a promising therapeutic against HIV-1 infection. Surprisingly, we found that in addition to protection against HIV-1 infection, N3G was also highly effective in inhibiting infection of human ß-coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV-2, possibly by binding the HR2 region in the spike protein of ß-coronaviruses to block their hexameric structure formation. These studies demonstrate the potential utility of anti-HIV-1 HR1 peptides in inhibiting human ß-coronavirus infection. Moreover, this strategy could be extended to the design of broad-spectrum antivirals based on the supercoiling structure of peptides.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Design , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/antagonists & inhibitors , HIV-1/drug effects , Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/metabolism , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245760

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has led to a global pandemic of new crown pneumonia, which has had a tremendous impact on human society. Antibody drug therapy is one of the most effective way of combating SARS-CoV-2. In order to design potential antibody drugs with high affinity, we used antibody S309 from patients with SARS-CoV as the target antibody and RBD of S protein as the target antigen. Systems with RBD glycosylated and non-glycosylated were constructed to study the influence of glycosylation. From the results of molecular dynamics simulations, the steric effects of glycans on the surface of RBD plays a role of "wedge", which makes the L335-E340 region of RBD close to the CDR3 region of the heavy chain of antibody and increases the contact area between antigen and antibody. By mutating the key residues of antibody at the interaction interface, we found that the binding affinities of antibody mutants G103A, P28W and Y100W were all stronger than that of the wild-type, especially for the G103A mutant. G103A significantly reduces the distance between the binding region of L335-K356 in the antigen and P28-Y32 of heavy chain in the antibody through structural transition. Taken together, the antibody design method described in this work can provide theoretical guidance and a time-saving method for antibody drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Antibodies , Drug Design , Protein Binding
14.
Science ; 379(6631): 427-428, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245063
15.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(29): 2395, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233681
16.
Chem Soc Rev ; 52(3): 872-878, 2023 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230297

ABSTRACT

In the wake of recent COVID-19 pandemics scientists around the world rushed to deliver numerous CADD (Computer-Aided Drug Discovery) methods and tools that could be reliably used to discover novel drug candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. With that, there emerged a trend of a significant democratization of CADD that contributed to the rapid development of various COVID-19 drug candidates currently undergoing different stages of validation. On the other hand, this democratization also inadvertently led to the surge rapidly performed molecular docking studies to nominate multiple scores of novel drug candidates supported by computational arguments only. Albeit driven by best intentions, most of such studies also did not follow best practices in the field that require experience and expertise learned through multiple rigorously designed benchmarking studies and rigorous experimental validation. In this Viewpoint we reflect on recent disbalance between small number of rigorous and comprehensive studies and the proliferation of purely computational studies enabled by the ease of docking software availability. We further elaborate on the hyped oversale of CADD methods' ability to rapidly yield viable drug candidates and reiterate the critical importance of rigor and adherence to the best practices of CADD in view of recent emergence of AI and Big Data in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Design , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Computer-Aided Design , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 159: 114247, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230211

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus, known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a highly contagious virus and has caused a massive worldwide health crisis. While large-scale vaccination efforts are underway, the management of population health, economic impact and asof-yet unknown long-term effects on physical and mental health will be a key challenge for the next decade. The papain-like protease (PLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a promising target for antiviral drugs. This report used pharmacophore-based drug design technology to identify potential compounds as PLpro inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. The optimal pharmacophore model was fully validated using different strategies and then was employed to virtually screen out 10 compounds with inhibitory. Molecular docking and non-bonding interactions between the targeted protein PLpro and compounds showed that UKR1129266 was the best compound. These results provided a theoretical foundation for future studies of PLpro inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Design , Endopeptidases
18.
J Chem Inf Model ; 63(3): 835-845, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221739

ABSTRACT

Many bioactive peptides demonstrated therapeutic effects over complicated diseases, such as antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, etc. It is possible to generate a large number of potentially bioactive peptides using deep learning in a manner analogous to the generation of de novo chemical compounds using the acquired bioactive peptides as a training set. Such generative techniques would be significant for drug development since peptides are much easier and cheaper to synthesize than compounds. Despite the limited availability of deep learning-based peptide-generating models, we have built an LSTM model (called LSTM_Pep) to generate de novo peptides and fine-tuned the model to generate de novo peptides with specific prospective therapeutic benefits. Remarkably, the Antimicrobial Peptide Database has been effectively utilized to generate various kinds of potential active de novo peptides. We proposed a pipeline for screening those generated peptides for a given target and used the main protease of SARS-COV-2 as a proof-of-concept. Moreover, we have developed a deep learning-based protein-peptide prediction model (DeepPep) for rapid screening of the generated peptides for the given targets. Together with the generating model, we have demonstrated that iteratively fine-tuning training, generating, and screening peptides for higher-predicted binding affinity peptides can be achieved. Our work sheds light on developing deep learning-based methods and pipelines to effectively generate and obtain bioactive peptides with a specific therapeutic effect and showcases how artificial intelligence can help discover de novo bioactive peptides that can bind to a particular target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Drug Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptides/pharmacology
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216327

ABSTRACT

This study presents proof of concept for designing a novel HIV-1 covalent inhibitor targeting the highly conserved Tyr318 in the HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors binding pocket to improve the drug resistance profiles. The target inhibitor ZA-2 with a fluorosulfate warhead in the structure was found to be a potent inhibitor (EC50 = 11-246 nM) against HIV-1 IIIB and a panel of NNRTIs-resistant strains, being far superior to those of NVP and EFV. Moreover, ZA-2 was demonstrated with lower cytotoxicity (CC50 = 125 µM). In the reverse transcriptase inhibitory assay, ZA-2 exhibited an IC50 value of 0.057 µM with the ELISA method, and the MALDI-TOF MS data demonstrated the covalent binding mode of ZA-2 with the enzyme. Additionally, the molecular simulations have also demonstrated that compounds can form covalent binding to the Tyr318.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV-1 , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry , HIV-1/metabolism , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/metabolism , Drug Design , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2022 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215551

ABSTRACT

Across life sciences, the steadily and rapidly increasing amount of data provide new opportunities for advancing knowledge and represent a key driver of emerging technological advancements [...].


Subject(s)
Big Data , Drug Design
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