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1.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(9): 1959-1975, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000717

ABSTRACT

In vitro tissue models hold great promise for modeling diseases and drug responses. Here, we used emulsion microfluidics to form micro-organospheres (MOSs), which are droplet-encapsulated miniature three-dimensional (3D) tissue models that can be established rapidly from patient tissues or cells. MOSs retain key biological features and responses to chemo-, targeted, and radiation therapies compared with organoids. The small size and large surface-to-volume ratio of MOSs enable various applications including quantitative assessment of nutrient dependence, pathogen-host interaction for anti-viral drug screening, and a rapid potency assay for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy. An automated MOS imaging pipeline combined with machine learning overcomes plating variation, distinguishes tumorspheres from stroma, differentiates cytostatic versus cytotoxic drug effects, and captures resistant clones and heterogeneity in drug response. This pipeline is capable of robust assessments of drug response at individual-tumorsphere resolution and provides a rapid and high-throughput therapeutic profiling platform for precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Organoids , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Microfluidics , Precision Medicine
2.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 117: 107206, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967213

ABSTRACT

The 2021 Annual Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society (SPS) meeting was held virtually October 4-8, 2021 due to the continuing COVID-19 global pandemic. This themed issue of J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods comprises articles arising from the meeting. As in previous years the manuscripts reflect various areas of innovation in SP including a perspective on aging and its impact on drug attrition during safety assessments, an integrated assessment of respiratory, cardiovascular and animal activity of in vivo nonclinical studies, development of a dynamic QT-rate correction method in primates, evaluation of the "comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmia assay" (CiPA) ion channel protocol to the automated patch clamp, and best practices regarding the conduct of hERG electrophysiology studies and an analysis of secondary pharmacology assays by the FDA. The meeting also generated 85 abstracts (reproduced in the current volume of J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods). It appears that the validation of methods remains a challenge in SP. Nevertheless, the continued efforts to mine approaches to detection of proarrhythmia liability remains a baffling obsession given the ability of Industry to completely prevent drugs entering into clinical study only to be found to have proarrhythmic properties, with no reports of such for at least ten years. Perhaps it is time to move on from CiPA and find genuine problems to solve?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Animals , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Indoles , Ion Channels , Propionates
3.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(10): 2669-2688, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905798

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic, scenario the world is facing a huge shortage of effective drugs and other prophylactic medicine to treat patients which created havoc in several countries with poor resources. With limited demand and supply of effective drugs, researchers rushed to repurpose the existing approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. The process of drug screening and testing is very costly and requires several steps for validation and treatment efficacy evaluation ranging from in-vitro to in-vivo setups. After these steps, a clinical trial is mandatory for the evaluation of treatment efficacy and side effects in humans. These processes enhance the overall cost and sometimes the lead molecule show adverse effects in humans and the trial ends up in the final stages. Recently with the advent of three-dimensional (3D) organoid culture which mimics the human tissue exactly the process of drug screening and testing can be done in a faster and cost-effective manner. Further 3D organoids prepared from stems cells taken from individuals can be beneficial for personalized drug therapy which could save millions of lives. This review discussed approaches and techniques for the synthesis of 3D-printed human organoids for drug screening. The key findings of the usage of organoids for personalized medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 have been discussed. In the end, the key challenges for the wide applicability of human organoids for drug screening with prospects of future orientation have been included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organoids , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Printing, Three-Dimensional
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22796, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758351

ABSTRACT

The current severe situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been reversed and posed great threats to global health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find out effective antiviral drugs. The 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) in SARS-CoV-2 serve as a promising anti-virus target due to its essential role in the regulation of virus reproduction. Here, we report an improved integrated approach to identify effective 3CLpro inhibitors from effective Chinese herbal formulas. With this approach, we identified the 5 natural products (NPs) including narcissoside, kaempferol-3-O-gentiobioside, rutin, vicenin-2 and isoschaftoside as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidates. Subsequent molecular dynamics simulation additionally revealed that these molecules can be tightly bound to 3CLpro and confirmed effectiveness against COVID-19. Moreover, kaempferol-3-o-gentiobioside, vicenin-2 and isoschaftoside were first reported to have SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitory activity. In summary, this optimized integrated strategy for drug screening can be utilized in the discovery of antiviral drugs to achieve rapid acquisition of drugs with specific effects on antiviral targets.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/analysis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Biological Products/analysis , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Flavonols/metabolism , Flavonols/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 169, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 proteases Mpro and PLpro are promising targets for antiviral drug development. In this study, we present an antiviral screening strategy involving a novel in-cell protease assay, antiviral and biochemical activity assessments, as well as structural determinations for rapid identification of protease inhibitors with low cytotoxicity. We identified eight compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity from a library of 64 repurposed drugs and modeled at protease active sites by in silico docking. We demonstrate that Sitagliptin and Daclatasvir inhibit PLpro, and MG-101, Lycorine HCl, and Nelfinavir mesylate inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. The X-ray crystal structure of Mpro in complex with MG-101 shows a covalent bond formation between the inhibitor and the active site Cys145 residue indicating its mechanism of inhibition is by blocking the substrate binding at the active site. Thus, we provide methods for rapid and effective screening and development of inhibitors for blocking virus polyprotein processing as SARS-CoV-2 antivirals. Additionally, we show that the combined inhibition of Mpro and PLpro is more effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 and the delta variant.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674670

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify potential inhibitors and investigate the mechanism of action on SARS-CoV-2 ACE2 receptors using a molecular modeling study and theoretical determination of biological activity. Hydroxychloroquine was used as a pivot structure and antimalarial analogues of 1,2,4,5 tetraoxanes were used for the construction and evaluation of pharmacophoric models. The pharmacophore-based virtual screening was performed on the Molport® database (~7.9 million compounds) and obtained 313 structures. Additionally, a pharmacokinetic study was developed, obtaining 174 structures with 99% confidence for human intestinal absorption and penetration into the blood-brain barrier (BBB); posteriorly, a study of toxicological properties was realized. Toxicological predictions showed that the selected molecules do not present a risk of hepatotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and skin irritation. Only 54 structures were selected for molecular docking studies, and five structures showed binding affinity (ΔG) values satisfactory for ACE2 receptors (PDB 6M0J), in which the molecule MolPort-007-913-111 had the best ΔG value of -8.540 Kcal/mol, followed by MolPort-002-693-933 with ΔG = -8.440 Kcal/mol. Theoretical determination of biological activity was realized for 54 structures, and five molecules showed potential protease inhibitors. Additionally, we investigated the Mpro receptor (6M0K) for the five structures via molecular docking, and we confirmed the possible interaction with the target. In parallel, we selected the TopsHits 9 with antiviral potential that evaluated synthetic accessibility for future synthesis studies and in vivo and in vitro tests.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tetraoxanes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674669

ABSTRACT

Recently, the world has been witnessing a global pandemic with no effective therapeutics yet, while cancer continues to be a major disease claiming many lives. The natural compound curcumin is bestowed with multiple medicinal applications in addition to demonstrating antiviral and anticancer activities. In order to elucidate the impact of curcumin on COVID-19 and cancer, the current investigation has adapted several computational techniques to unfold its possible inhibitory activity. Accordingly, curcumin and similar compounds and analogues were retrieved and assessed for their binding affinities at the binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 main protease and DDX3. The best binding pose was escalated to molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) studies to assess the time dependent stability. Our findings have rendered one compound that has demonstrated good molecular dock score complemented by key residue interactions and have shown stable MDS results inferred by root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration (Rg), binding mode, hydrogen bond interactions, and interaction energy. Essential dynamics results have shown that the systemadapts minimum energy conformation to attain a stable state. The discovered compound (curA) could act as plausible inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 and DDX3. Furthermore, curA could serve as a chemical scaffold for designing and developing new compounds.


Subject(s)
Curcumin/analogs & derivatives , Curcumin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105254, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654045

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance and urgency for potential drugs to control the pandemic. The functional importance of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in the viral life cycle, combined with structural conservation and absence of closely related homologs in humans, makes it an attractive target for designing antiviral drugs. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are still the most promising broad-spectrum class of viral RdRp inhibitors. In this study, using our previously developed cell-based SARS-CoV-2 RdRp report system, we screened 134 compounds in the Selleckchemicals NAs library. Four candidate compounds, Fludarabine Phosphate, Fludarabine, 6-Thio-20-Deoxyguanosine (6-Thio-dG), and 5-Iodotubercidin, exhibit remarkable potency in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Among these four compounds, 5-Iodotubercidin exhibited the strongest inhibition upon SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, and was resistant to viral exoribonuclease activity, thus presenting the best antiviral activity against coronavirus from a different genus. Further study showed that the RdRp inhibitory activity of 5-Iodotubercidin is closely related to its capacity to inhibit adenosine kinase (ADK).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tubercidin/analogs & derivatives , Cell Line , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxyguanosine/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thionucleosides/pharmacology , Tubercidin/pharmacology , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine/pharmacology , Vidarabine Phosphate/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine Phosphate/pharmacology
9.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 33(1): 181-188, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596214

ABSTRACT

Affinity selection-mass spectrometry, which includes magnetic microbead affinity selection-screening (MagMASS), is ideal for the discovery of ligands in complex mixtures that bind to pharmacological targets. Therapeutic agents are needed to prevent or treat COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2 involves binding of the virus spike protein subunit 1 (S1) to the human cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Like antibodies, small molecules have the potential to block the interaction of the viral S1 protein with human ACE2 and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, a MagMASS assay was developed for the discovery of ligands to the S1 protein. Unlike previous MagMASS approaches, this new assay used robotics for 5-fold enhancement of throughput and sensitivity. The assay was validated using the SBP-1 peptide, which is identical to the ACE2 amino acid sequence recognized by the S1 protein, and then applied to the discovery of natural ligands from botanical extracts. Small molecule ligands to the S1 protein were discovered in extracts of the licorice species, Glycyrrhiza inflata. In particular, the licorice ligand licochalcone A was identified through dereplication and comparison with standards using HPLC with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Fabaceae/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
10.
J Comput Biol ; 28(12): 1228-1247, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545879

ABSTRACT

The detrimental effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has manifested itself as a global crisis. Currently, no specific treatment options are available for COVID-19, so therapeutic interventions to tackle the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection must be urgently established. Therefore, cohesive and multidimensional efforts are required to identify new therapies or investigate the efficacy of small molecules and existing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Since the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) of SARS-CoV-2 is a promising therapeutic target, this study addresses the identification of antiviral molecules that can specifically target SARS-CoV-2 RdRP. The computational approach of drug development was used to screen the antiviral molecules from two antiviral libraries (Life Chemicals [LC] and ASINEX) against RdRP. Here, we report six antiviral molecules (F3407-4105, F6523-2250, F6559-0746 from LC and BDG 33693278, BDG 33693315, LAS 34156196 from ASINEX), which show substantial interactions with key amino acid residues of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP and exhibit higher binding affinity (>7.5 kcalmol-1) than Galidesivir, an Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitor of the same. Further, molecular dynamics simulation and Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area results confirmed that identified molecules with RdRP formed higher stable RdRP-inhibitor(s) complex than RdRP-Galidesvir complex. Our findings suggest that these molecules could be potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RdRP. However, further in vitro and preclinical experiments would be required to validate these potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 protein.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Chemistry/methods , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Motifs , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Databases, Chemical , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Small Molecule Libraries
11.
FEBS Open Bio ; 12(1): 285-294, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540045

ABSTRACT

Cepharanthine (CEP) is a natural biscoclaurine alkaloid of plant origin and was recently demonstrated to have anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) activity. In this study, we evaluated whether natural analogues of CEP may act as potential anti-coronavirus disease 2019 drugs. A total of 24 compounds resembling CEP were extracted from the KNApSAcK database, and their binding affinities to target proteins, including the spike protein and main protease of SARS-CoV-2, NPC1 and TPC2 in humans, were predicted via molecular docking simulations. Selected analogues were further evaluated by a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. In addition, the efficacies of CEP and its analogue tetrandrine were assessed. A comparison of the docking conformations of these compounds suggested that the diphenyl ester moiety of the molecules was a putative pharmacophore of the CEP analogues.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry , Benzylisoquinolines/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus M Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Preparations/chemistry , Plant Preparations/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stephania/chemistry , Vero Cells
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518611

ABSTRACT

Inhaled nebulized interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-ß have been shown to be effective in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to construct a virus-free rapid detection system for high-throughput screening of IFN-like compounds that induce viral RNA degradation and suppress the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We prepared a SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA expression vector which contained the SARS-CoV-2 5'-UTR, the partial sequence of ORF1a, luciferase, nucleocapsid, ORF10, and 3'-UTR under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The expression vector was transfected into Calu-3 cells and treated with IFN-α and the IFNAR2 agonist CDM-3008 (RO8191) for 3 days. SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA degradation was subsequently evaluated based on luciferase levels. IFN-α and CDM-3008 suppressed SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 193 IU/mL and 2.54 µM, respectively. HeLa cells stably expressing SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA were prepared and treated with the IFN-α and pan-JAK inhibitor Pyridone 6 or siRNA-targeting ISG20. IFN-α activity was canceled with Pyridone 6. The knockdown of ISG20 partially canceled IFN-α activity. Collectively, we constructed a virus-free rapid detection system to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA suppression. Our data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 subreplicon RNA was degraded by IFN-α-induced ISG20 exonuclease activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Genetic Vectors , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Naphthyridines/administration & dosage , Naphthyridines/pharmacology , Oxadiazoles/administration & dosage , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Replicon
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512374

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside kinases (NKs) are key enzymes involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of nucleoside analogues used as drugs to treat cancer or viral infections. Having different specificities, the characterization of NKs is essential for drug design and nucleotide analogue production in an in vitro enzymatic process. Therefore, a fast and reliable substrate screening method for NKs is of great importance. Here, we report on the validation of a well-known luciferase-based assay for the detection of NK activity in a 96-well plate format. The assay was semi-automated using a liquid handling robot. Good linearity was demonstrated (r² > 0.98) in the range of 0-500 µM ATP, and it was shown that alternative phosphate donors like dATP or CTP were also accepted by the luciferase. The developed high-throughput assay revealed comparable results to HPLC analysis. The assay was exemplarily used for the comparison of the substrate spectra of four NKs using 20 (8 natural, 12 modified) substrates. The screening results correlated well with literature data, and additionally, previously unknown substrates were identified for three of the NKs studied. Our results demonstrate that the developed semi-automated high-throughput assay is suitable to identify best performing NKs for a wide range of substrates.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides/metabolism , Phosphotransferases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Luciferases/metabolism , Phosphorylation/physiology , Substrate Specificity
14.
Biosci Rep ; 41(10)2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510636

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has become a global health emergency. Although new vaccines have been generated and being implicated, discovery and application of novel preventive and control measures are warranted. We aimed to identify compounds that may possess the potential to either block the entry of virus to host cells or attenuate its replication upon infection. Using host cell surface receptor expression (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)) analysis as an assay, we earlier screened several synthetic and natural compounds and identified candidates that showed ability to down-regulate their expression. Here, we report experimental and computational analyses of two small molecules, Mortaparib and MortaparibPlus that were initially identified as dual novel inhibitors of mortalin and PARP-1, for their activity against SARS-CoV-2. In silico analyses showed that MortaparibPlus, but not Mortaparib, stably binds into the catalytic pocket of TMPRSS2. In vitro analysis of control and treated cells revealed that MortaparibPlus caused down-regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2; Mortaparib did not show any effect. Furthermore, computational analysis on SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) that also predicted the inhibitory activity of MortaparibPlus. However, cell-based antiviral drug screening assay showed 30-60% viral inhibition in cells treated with non-toxic doses of either MortaparibPlus or Mortaparib. The data suggest that these two closely related compounds possess multimodal anti-COVID-19 activities. Whereas MortaparibPlus works through direct interactions/effects on the host cell surface receptors (ACE2 and TMPRSS2) and the virus protein (Mpro), Mortaparib involves independent mechanisms, elucidation of which warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488678

ABSTRACT

Papain-like protease is an essential enzyme in the proteolytic processing required for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, such an enzyme is an important target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents which may reduce the mortality associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2. A set of 69 semi-synthesized molecules that exhibited the structural features of SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease inhibitors (PLPI) were docked against the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLpro) enzyme (PDB ID: (4OW0). Docking studies showed that derivatives 34 and 58 were better than the co-crystallized ligand while derivatives 17, 28, 31, 40, 41, 43, 47, 54, and 65 exhibited good binding modes and binding free energies. The pharmacokinetic profiling study was conducted according to the four principles of the Lipinski rules and excluded derivative 31. Furthermore, ADMET and toxicity studies showed that derivatives 28, 34, and 47 have the potential to be drugs and have been demonstrated as safe when assessed via seven toxicity models. Finally, comparing the molecular orbital energies and the molecular electrostatic potential maps of 28, 34, and 47 against the co-crystallized ligand in a DFT study indicated that 28 is the most promising candidate to interact with the target receptor (PLpro).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Papain/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20295, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467129

ABSTRACT

Novel SARS-CoV-2, an etiological factor of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), poses a great challenge to the public health care system. Among other druggable targets of SARS-Cov-2, the main protease (Mpro) is regarded as a prominent enzyme target for drug developments owing to its crucial role in virus replication and transcription. We pursued a computational investigation to identify Mpro inhibitors from a compiled library of natural compounds with proven antiviral activities using a hierarchical workflow of molecular docking, ADMET assessment, dynamic simulations and binding free-energy calculations. Five natural compounds, Withanosides V and VI, Racemosides A and B, and Shatavarin IX, obtained better binding affinity and attained stable interactions with Mpro key pocket residues. These intermolecular key interactions were also retained profoundly in the simulation trajectory of 100 ns time scale indicating tight receptor binding. Free energy calculations prioritized Withanosides V and VI as the top candidates that can act as effective SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/drug effects , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 1114-1125, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442393

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), also known as peptidyl-dipeptidase A, belongs to the dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases family has emerged as a potential antiviral drug target against SARS-CoV-2. Most of the ACE2 inhibitors discovered till now are chemical synthesis; suffer from many limitations related to stability and adverse side effects. However, natural, and selective ACE2 inhibitors that possess strong stability and low side effects can be replaced instead of those chemicals' inhibitors. To envisage structurally diverse natural entities as an ACE2 inhibitor with better efficacy, a 3D structure-based-pharmacophore model (SBPM) has been developed and validated by 20 known selective inhibitors with their correspondence 1166 decoy compounds. The validated SBPM has excellent goodness of hit score and good predictive ability, which has been appointed as a query model for further screening of 11,295 natural compounds. The resultant 23 hits compounds with pharmacophore fit score 75.31 to 78.81 were optimized using in-silico ADMET and molecular docking analysis. Four potential natural inhibitory molecules namely D-DOPA (Amb17613565), L-Saccharopine (Amb6600091), D-Phenylalanine (Amb3940754), and L-Mimosine (Amb21855906) have been selected based on their binding affinity (-7.5, -7.1, -7.1, and -7.0 kcal/mol), respectively. Moreover, 250 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations confirmed the structural stability of the ligands within the protein. Additionally, MM/GBSA approach also used to support the stability of molecules to the binding site of the protein that also confirm the stability of the selected four natural compounds. The virtual screening strategy used in this study demonstrated four natural compounds that can be utilized for designing a future class of potential natural ACE2 inhibitor that will block the spike (S) protein dependent entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the host cell.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Biological Products/pharmacokinetics , Biological Products/toxicity , Computer Simulation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257784, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440991

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing has the potential to bring existing de-risked drugs for effective intervention in an ongoing pandemic-COVID-19 that has infected over 131 million, with 2.8 million people succumbing to the illness globally (as of April 04, 2021). We have used a novel `gene signature'-based drug repositioning strategy by applying widely accepted gene ranking algorithms to prioritize the FDA approved or under trial drugs. We mined publically available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data using CLC Genomics Workbench 20 (QIAGEN) and identified 283 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05, log2FC>1) after a meta-analysis of three independent studies which were based on severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in primary human airway epithelial cells. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed that SARS-CoV-2 activated key canonical pathways and gene networks that intricately regulate general anti-viral as well as specific inflammatory pathways. Drug database, extracted from the Metacore and IPA, identified 15 drug targets (with information on COVID-19 pathogenesis) with 46 existing drugs as potential-novel candidates for repurposing for COVID-19 treatment. We found 35 novel drugs that inhibit targets (ALPL, CXCL8, and IL6) already in clinical trials for COVID-19. Also, we found 6 existing drugs against 4 potential anti-COVID-19 targets (CCL20, CSF3, CXCL1, CXCL10) that might have novel anti-COVID-19 indications. Finally, these drug targets were computationally prioritized based on gene ranking algorithms, which revealed CXCL10 as the common and strongest candidate with 2 existing drugs. Furthermore, the list of 283 SARS-CoV-2-associated proteins could be valuable not only as anti-COVID-19 targets but also useful for COVID-19 biomarker development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Respiratory System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18985, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437690

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is raging. It revealed the importance of rapid scientific advancement towards understanding and treating new diseases. To address this challenge, we adapt an explainable artificial intelligence algorithm for data fusion and utilize it on new omics data on viral-host interactions, human protein interactions, and drugs to better understand SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and predict new drug-target interactions for COVID-19. We discover that in the human interactome, the human proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2 proteins and the genes that are differentially expressed after the infection have common neighbors central in the interactome that may be key to the disease mechanisms. We uncover 185 new drug-target interactions targeting 49 of these key genes and suggest re-purposing of 149 FDA-approved drugs, including drugs targeting VEGF and nitric oxide signaling, whose pathways coincide with the observed COVID-19 symptoms. Our integrative methodology is universal and can enable insight into this and other serious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics
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