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1.
Int J Pharm ; 621: 121804, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821286

ABSTRACT

COVID19 has caused a significant socioeconomic burden worldwide. Opioid crisis was further intensified with the increasing number of opioid overdose/misuse related deaths in last two years. Abusers have adopted newer/efficient methods for manipulating and abusing commercial opioid formulations. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been strategizing tirelessly to prevent misuse/abuse of prescription opioids. One of the strategies is to develop an abuse deterrent formulation (ADF). The current study aims to develop a novel 3D printed drug-releasing capsule shell filled with an aversion liquid (3D-RECAL). Primarily, metformin hydrochloride (MT, model drug) loaded printable filaments of polyvinyl alcohol was prepared using hot melt extrusion. Following extrusion, a 3D printed capsule shell was designed and fabricated using a single nozzle fuse deposition modelling 3D printer. An aversion liquid to be filled in 3D-RECAL capsules was prepared by combining sudan black and sodium polyacrylamide starch in oil base. Mechanical analysis of extruded filaments suggested that the filaments with 20%w/w MT had a higher mechanical strength compared to other drug loadings. Instantaneous gelling and large black non-snortable particles were formed during solvent extraction and physical manipulation studies, respectively. Due to the drug being embedded in the capsule shell, MT release was immediately started with >85% of MT release within 45 mins in 0.1 N HCl. Due to the everlasting need for the newer efficient ADF technologies, 3D-RECAL can be a step in the right direction towards saving lives, providing safe and effective measures to deterring abusers.


Subject(s)
Abuse-Deterrent Formulations , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid , Capsules , Drug Liberation , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tablets , Technology , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
2.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 16(3): 85-91, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758388

ABSTRACT

Mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles of haematite were synthesised using plant extracts according to bioethics principles. The structural, physical and chemical properties of mesoporous Fe2 O3 nanoparticles synthesised with the green chemistry approach were evaluated by XRD, SEM, EDAX, BET, VSM and HRTEM analysis. Then, their toxicity against normal HUVECs and MCF7 cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay for 48 h. These biogenic mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles have over 71% of doxorubicin loading efficiency, resulting in a 50% reduction of cancer cells at a 0.5 µg.ml-1 concentration. Therefore, it is suggested that mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles be used as a multifunctional agent in medicine (therapeutic-diagnostic). The produced mesoporous magnetic nanoparticles with its inherent structural properties such as polygonal structure (increasing surface area to particle volume) and porosity with large pore volume became a suitable substrate for loading the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Silicon Dioxide , Doxorubicin/chemistry , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porosity , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662678

ABSTRACT

Cordyline terminalis leaf extract (aqCT) possesses abundant polyphenols and other bioactive compounds, which are encapsulated in gelatin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine (GPT)/alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) gels to form the additional functional materials for biomedical applications. In this study, the gel compositions are optimized, and the GPT/α-CD ratios equal to or less than one half for solidification are found. The gelation time varies from 40.7 min to 5.0 h depending on the increase in GPT/α-CD ratios and aqCT amount. The aqCT extract disturbs the hydrogen bonding and host-guest inclusion of GPT/α-CD gel networks, postponing the gelation. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that all gels with or without aqCT possess a microarchitecture and porosity. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels could release polyphenols from 110 to 350 nmol/mL at the first hour and sustainably from 5.5 to 20.2 nmol/mL for the following hours, which is controlled by feeding the aqCT amount and gel properties. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels achieved significant antioxidant activity through a 100% scavenging DPPH radical. In addition, all gels are non-cytotoxic with a cell viability more than 85%. Especially, the GPT3.75α-CD10.5aqCT gels with aqCT amount of 3.1-12.5 mg/mL immensely enhanced the cell proliferation of GPT3.75α-CD10.5 gel without extract. These results suggest that the inherent bioactivities of aqCT endowed the resulting GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels with effective antioxidant and high biocompatibility, and natural polyphenols sustainably release a unique platform for a drug delivery system or other biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Cordyline/chemistry , Dermis/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gels/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Drug Liberation , Gels/administration & dosage , Humans
4.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580565

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib (BTB) is an orally administered Janus kinase inhibitor, therapeutically used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently it has also been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, four different BTB-loaded lipids (stearin)-polymer (Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) hybrid nanoparticles (B-PLN1 to B-PLN4) were prepared by the single-step nanoprecipitation method. Next, they were characterised in terms of physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential (ζP), polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Based on preliminary evaluation, the B-PLN4 was regarded as the optimised formulation with particle size (272 ± 7.6 nm), PDI (0.225), ζP (-36.5 ± 3.1 mV), %EE (71.6 ± 1.5%) and %DL (2.87 ± 0.42%). This formulation (B-PLN4) was further assessed concerning morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The in vitro release profile exhibited a sustained release pattern well-fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 = 0.879). The in vivo pharmacokinetic data showed an enhancement (2.92 times more) in bioavailability in comparison to the normal suspension of pure BTB. These data concluded that the formulated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery option to enhance the bioavailability of BTB. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the entrapment efficiency of lipid-polymer hybrid systems as promising carriers for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Purines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Animals , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/chemistry , Biological Availability , Male , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/chemistry , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/chemistry
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17263, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550348

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone (Dex) is a highly insoluble front-line drug used in cancer therapy. Data from clinical trials indicates that the pharmacokinetics of Dex vary considerably between patients and prolonging drug exposure rather than increasing absolute dose may improve efficacy. Non-toxic, fully biodegradable Dex loaded nanovectors (NV) were formulated, via simple direct hydration within 10 min, as a vehicle to extend exposure and distribution in vivo. Dex-NV were just as effective as the free drug against primary human leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, high levels of DMSO solvent were not required in the NV formulations. Broad distribution of NV was seen rapidly following inoculation into mice. NV accumulated in major organs, including bone marrow and brain, known sanctuary sites for ALL. The study describes a non-toxic, more easily scalable system for improving Dex solubility for use in cancer and can be applied to other medical conditions associated with inflammation.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays/methods , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacokinetics , Child , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Dexamethasone/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, Knockout , Mice, SCID , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Young Adult
6.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(11): 915-962, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging viral zoonotic diseases are one of the major obstacles to secure the "One Health" concept under the current scenario. Current prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches often associated with certain limitations and thus proved to be insufficient for customizing rapid and efficient combating strategy against the highly transmissible pathogenic infectious agents leading to the disastrous socio-economic outcome. Moreover, most of the viral zoonoses originate from the wildlife and poor knowledge about the global virome database renders it difficult to predict future outbreaks. Thus, alternative management strategy in terms of improved prophylactic vaccines and their delivery systems; rapid and efficient diagnostics and effective targeted therapeutics are the need of the hour. METHODS: Structured literature search has been performed with specific keywords in bibliographic databases for the accumulation of information regarding current nanomedicine interventions along with standard books for basic virology inputs. RESULTS: Multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine have proved to be an effective alternative in all the aspects regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and control of zoonotic viral diseases. The current review is focused to outline the applications of nanomaterials as anti-viral vaccines or vaccine/drug delivery systems, diagnostics and directly acting therapeutic agents in combating the important zoonotic viral diseases in the recent scenario along with their potential benefits, challenges and prospects to design successful control strategies. CONCLUSION: This review provides significant introspection towards the multi-arrayed applications of nanomedicine to combat several important zoonotic viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control , Viral Zoonoses/therapy , Viruses/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biosensing Techniques , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polymers/metabolism , Transfection , Viruses/metabolism
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118605, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370153

ABSTRACT

Advanced biomaterials provide an interesting and versatile platform to implement new and more effective strategies to fight bacterial infections. Chitosan is one of these biopolymers and possesses relevant features for biomedical applications. Here we synthesized nanoparticles of chitosan derivatized with diethylaminoethyl groups (ChiDENPs) to emulate the choline residues in the pneumococcal cell wall and act as ligands for choline-binding proteins (CBPs). Firstly, we assessed the ability of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) to sequester the CBPs present in the bacterial surface, thus promoting chain formation. Secondly, the CBP-binding ability of ChiDENPs was purposed to encapsulate a bio-active molecule, the antimicrobial enzyme Cpl-711 (ChiDENPs-711), with improved stability over non-derivatized chitosan. The enzyme-loaded system released more than 90% of the active enzybiotic in ≈ 2 h, above the usual in vivo half-life of this kind of enzymes. Therefore, ChiDENPs provide a promising platform for the controlled release of CBP-enzybiotics in biological contexts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/analogs & derivatives , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , A549 Cells , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Chitosan/chemistry , Chitosan/metabolism , Drug Carriers/metabolism , Drug Liberation , Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 5053-5064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High levels of oxidants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are typical characteristics of an inflammatory microenvironment and are closely associated with a various inflammatory pathologies, eg, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs by oxidation-responsive smart systems would be an efficient anti-inflammatory strategy that benefits from the selective drug release in an inflammatory site, a lower treatment dose, and minimizes side effects. PURPOSE: In this study, we present the feasibility of an oxidation-sensitive PEGylated alternating polyester, methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(phthalic anhydride-alter-glycidyl propargyl ether) (mPEG-b-P(PA-alt-GPBAe)), as novel nanocarrier for curcumin (CUR), and explore the application in anti-inflammatory therapy. METHODS: The copolymers used were obtained by combining a click reaction and a ring-opening-polymerization method. CUR was loaded by self-assembly. The in vitro drug release, cytotoxicity toward RAW 264.7 cells and cellular uptake were investigated. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory effects of CUR-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs-CUR) were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and tested in a murine model of ankle inflammation. RESULTS: Fast drug release from NPs-CUR was observed in trigger of 1 mM H2O2 in PBS. Compared with NPs and free drugs, the significant anti-inflammatory potential of NPs-CUR was proven in activated RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting the production of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 and increasing the level of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, a local injection of NPs-CUR at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg suppressed the acute ankle inflammatory response in mice by histological observation and further reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the affected ankle joints compared to that of free CUR. CONCLUSION: Both the significant in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory results indicated that our oxidation responsive polymeric nanoparticles are promising drug delivery systems for anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Polyesters/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/pharmacology , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Liberation , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mice , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Polyethylene Glycols
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12315-12327, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331364

ABSTRACT

Efficient viral or nonviral delivery of nucleic acids is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. Both viral and synthetic vectors have been successfully employed for genetic delivery with recent examples being DNA, adenoviral, and mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccines. Viral vectors can be target specific and very efficient but can also mediate severe immune response, cell toxicity, and mutations. Four-component lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol for mechanical properties, and PEG-conjugated lipid for stability represent the current leading nonviral vectors for mRNA. However, the segregation of the neutral ionizable lipid as droplets in the core of the LNP, the "PEG dilemma", and the stability at only very low temperatures limit their efficiency. Here, we report the development of a one-component multifunctional ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) delivery system for mRNA that exhibits high activity at a low concentration of ionizable amines organized in a sequence-defined arrangement. Six libraries containing 54 sequence-defined IAJDs were synthesized by an accelerated modular-orthogonal methodology and coassembled with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) by a simple injection method rather than by the complex microfluidic technology often used for LNPs. Forty four (81%) showed activity in vitro and 31 (57%) in vivo. Some, exhibiting organ specificity, are stable at 5 °C and demonstrated higher transfection efficiency than positive control experiments in vitro and in vivo. Aside from practical applications, this proof of concept will help elucidate the mechanisms of packaging and release of mRNA from DNPs as a function of ionizable amine concentration, their sequence, and constitutional isomerism of IAJDs.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Animals , Dendrimers/chemical synthesis , Drug Carriers/chemical synthesis , Drug Liberation , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Proof of Concept Study , Surface-Active Agents/chemical synthesis
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304670

ABSTRACT

Silk fibroin (SF) has attracted much attention due to its high, tunable mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility. Imparting the ability to respond to external stimuli can further enhance its scope of application. In order to imbue stimuli-responsive behavior in silk fibroin, we propose a new conjugated material, namely cationic SF (CSF) obtained by chemical modification of silk fibroin with ε-Poly-(L-lysine) (ε-PLL). This pH-responsive CSF hydrogel was prepared by enzymatic crosslinking using horseradish peroxidase and H2O2. Zeta potential measurements and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis show successful synthesis, with an increase in isoelectric point from 4.1 to 8.6. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the modification does not affect the crystalline structure of SF. Most importantly, the synthesized CSF hydrogel has an excellent pH response. At 10 wt.% ε-PLL, a significant change in swelling with pH is observed. We further demonstrate that the hydrogel can be glucose-responsive by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOx). At high glucose concentration (400 mg/dL), the swelling of CSF/GOx hydrogel is as high as 345 ± 16%, while swelling in 200 mg/dL, 100 mg/dL and 0 mg/dL glucose solutions is 237 ± 12%, 163 ± 12% and 98 ± 15%, respectively. This shows the responsive swelling of CSF/GOx hydrogels to glucose, thus providing sufficient conditions for rapid drug release. Together with the versatility and biological properties of fibroin, such stimuli-responsive silk hydrogels have great potential in intelligent drug delivery, as soft matter substrates for enzymatic reactions and in other biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Fibroins/chemistry , Glucose/metabolism , Hydrogels/chemical synthesis , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Fibroins/metabolism , Glucose/chemistry , Horseradish Peroxidase/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Polylysine/chemistry , Silk/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , X-Ray Diffraction
11.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1150-1165, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271847

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to confine piperine, a poor oral bioavailable herbal drug into bile salt based nano vesicles for improving its aqueous solubility, hence, its therapeutic activity. Piperine-loaded bilosomes were fabricated adopting thin film hydration technique according to 32.21 full factorial design to investigate the impact of different formulation variables on the characters of bilosomes: entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size, and % of drug released post 8 h (Q8hr). The selected optimum formula was F2 (enclosing 1% bile salt, brij72 as a surfactant, and ratio of surfactant:cholesterol was 9:1) with desirability value 0.801, exhibiting high EE% (97.2 ± 0.8%) nanosized spherical vesicles (220.2 ± 20.5 nm) and Q8hr (88.2%±5.6). The superiority of the optimized formula (F2) over the drug suspension was revealed via ex vivo permeation study, also pharmacokinetic study denoted to the boosted oral bioavailability of piperine-loaded bilosome compared to piperine suspension. Moreover, antiviral activity and safety margin of F2 was significantly higher than that of the drug suspension. The ability of piperine to interact with the key amino acids in the receptor binding domain 4L3N as indicated by its docking configuration, rationalized its observed activity. Furthermore, F2 significantly reduce oxidant markers, inflammatory cytokines in MERS-CoV-infected mice. Hence, bilosomes can be considered as a carrier of choice for piperine with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Benzodioxoles , Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacokinetics , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Alkaloids/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Benzodioxoles/administration & dosage , Benzodioxoles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Liposomes , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanostructures , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Plants, Medicinal , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/administration & dosage , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacokinetics
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118345, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271581

ABSTRACT

This work reports novel chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites combined fluorescence imaging and therapeutic functions in one agent, which can serve as a promising alternative to alleviate related diseases caused hyperinflammation. Briefly, GO was designed to be conjugated with chitosan, fluorescein-labeled peptide, toll-like receptor 4 antibody and hydroxycamptothecin/aloe emodin. We have demonstrated that such nanocomposites could effectively achieve active targeted delivery of pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drugs into inflammatory cells and cause cells apoptosis by acid-responsive drug release. Moreover, confocal fluorescence imaging confirms that the drug-induced inflammatory cells apoptosis could be visualized the light-up fluorescence of fluorescein activated by caspase-3. Meanwhile, inflammatory-related biomarkers have down-regulated after the nanocomposites' treatment in both vitro and vivo experiments consistent with the results in histological sections. In summary, the bifunctional nanocomposites that possess anti-inflammation and fluorescence imaging could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for reducing hyperinflammation caused by numerous diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Camptothecin/chemistry , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Cattle , Cell Line , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mammary Glands, Human/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mastitis/chemically induced , Mastitis/drug therapy , Mastitis/pathology , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1769-1784, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243011

ABSTRACT

This work attempts to resolve one of the key issues related to the design and development of sustained-release spherule of aspirin for oral formulations, tailored to treat COVID-19. For that, in the Design of Experiments (DOE) an arbitrary interface, "coating efficiency" (CE) is introduced and scaled the cumulative percentage coating (CPC) to get predictable control over drug release (DR). Subsequently, the granules containing ASP are converted to spherules and then to Ethyl cellulose (EC) Coated spherules (CS) by a novel bed coating during the rolling (BCDR) process. Among spherules, one with 0.35 mm than 0.71 mm shows required properties. The CS has a low 1200 angle by Optical Microscopy (OM), smooth surface without cracks by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and better flow properties (Angle of repose 29.69 ± 0.780, Carr's index 6.73 ± 2.24%, Hausner's Ratio 1.07 ± 0.03) than granules and spherules. Once certain structure-dependent control over release is attained (EC coated spherules shows 10% reduction in burst release (BR) than uncoated spherules showing a release of 80-91%) the predictability is achieved and Design of space (DOS) by DOE (CE-70.14%and CPC-200% and DR-61.54%) is established. The results of DOE to experimentally validated results were within 20% deviation. The aspirin is changing its crystal structure by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from Form-I to Form-II showing polymorphism inside the drug reservoir with respect to the process. This CE and CPC approach in DOE can be used for delivery system design of other labile drugs similar to aspirin in emergency situations.


Subject(s)
Aspirin , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cellulose/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2 , Aspirin/chemistry , Aspirin/pharmacokinetics , Cellulose/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/pharmacokinetics , Drug Compounding , Drug Liberation , Humans
14.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 16(14): 1187-1202, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226939

ABSTRACT

Aim: To formulate an aerosolized nanoliposomal carrier for remdesivir (AL-Rem) against coronavirus disease 2019. Methods: AL-Rem was prepared using modified hydration technique. Cytotoxicity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, stability and aerodynamic characteristics of developed liposomes were evaluated. Results: AL-Rem showed high encapsulation efficiency of 99.79%, with hydrodynamic diameter of 71.46 ± 1.35 nm and surface charge of -32 mV. AL-Rem demonstrated minimal cytotoxicity in A549 cells and retained monolayer integrity of Calu-3 cells. AL-Rem showed sustained release, with complete drug release obtained within 50 h in simulated lung fluid. Long-term stability indicated >90% drug recovery at 4°C. Desirable aerosol performance, with mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.56 ± 0.55 and fine particle fraction of 74.40 ± 2.96%, confirmed successful nebulization of AL-Rem. Conclusion: AL-Rem represents an effective alternative for coronavirus disease 2019 treatment.


Lay abstract Remdesivir is one of the first drugs approved for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Currently, it is administered via an injection into the bloodstream. This means that the drug circulates around the entire body and only a limited amount reaches the diseased site ­ the lungs. Frequent dosing is therefore required, which needs expert personnel and multiple hospital visits and can result in serious side effects. In this study, the authors developed specialized, nanosized particles containing the drug remdesivir that can be administered directly into the lungs. This could drastically minimize side effects, enhance efficacy and allow easy self-administration at home. The results of the study are promising but require additional investigation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 , Drug Carriers , A549 Cells , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Alanine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Liberation , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Particle Size
15.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(12): 6540-6555, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023821

ABSTRACT

Given the various viral outbreaks in the 21st century, specifically the present pandemic situation arising from SARS-CoV-2 or the coronavirus, of unknown magnitude, there is an unmet clinical need to develop effective therapeutic and diagnostic strategies to combat this infectious disease worldwide. To develop precise anticoronavirus drugs and prophylactics, tissue engineering and biomaterial research strategies can serve as a suitable alternative to the conventional treatment options. Therefore, in this Review, we have highlighted various tissue engineering-based diagnostic systems for SARS-CoV-2 and suggested how these strategies involving organ-on-a-chip, organoids, 3D bioprinting, and advanced bioreactor models can be employed to develop in vitro human tissue models, for more efficient diagnosis, drug/vaccine development, and focusing on the need for patient-specific therapy. We believe that combining the basics of virology with tissue engineering techniques can help the researchers to understand the molecular mechanism underlying viral infection, which is critical for effective drug design. In addition, it can also serve to be a suitable platform for drug testing and delivery of small molecules that can lead to therapeutic tools in this dreaded pandemic situation. Additionally, we have also discussed the essential biomaterial properties which polarize the immune system, including dendritic cells and macrophages, toward their inflammatory phenotype, which can thus serve as a reference for exhibiting the role of biomaterial in influencing the adaptive immune response involving B and T lymphocytes to foster a regenerative tissue microenvironment. The situation arising from SARS-CoV-2 poses a challenge to scientists from almost all disciplines, and we feel that tissue engineers can thus provide new translational opportunities in this dreadful pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Liberation , Humans , Models, Animal , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tissue Engineering , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 312-323, 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997781

ABSTRACT

In this study, we present a modulated synthesis nanocrystalline defective UiO-66 metal-organic framework as a potential chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) delivery system. Increasing the concentration of hydrochloric acid during the modulated synthesis resulted in a considerable increase of pore volume, which enhanced the CQ loading in CQ@UiO-66 composites. Drug release tests for CQ@UiO-66 composites have confirmed prolonged CQ release in comparison with pure CQ. In vivo tests on a Danio reiro model organism have revealed that CQ released from CQ@UiO-66 25% showed lower toxicity and fewer cardiotoxic effects manifested by cardiac malformations and arrhythmia in comparison to analogous doses of CQ. Cytotoxicity tests proved that the CQ loaded on the defective UiO-66 cargo resulted in increased viability of cardiac cells (H9C2) as compared to incubation with pure CQ. The experimental results presented here may be a step forward in the context of reducing the cardiotoxicity CQ.


Subject(s)
Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metal-Organic Frameworks/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Animals , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Delivery Systems/adverse effects , Drug Liberation/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Heart Diseases/chemically induced , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , Hydrochloric Acid/pharmacology , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Phthalic Acids/chemistry , Phthalic Acids/pharmacology , Zebrafish/genetics
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 118: 111534, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779471

ABSTRACT

The very recent Covid-19 pandemic has made the need to understand biocompatible polymers as support material in drug delivery systems and controlled release clearer, especially for organo-hydrogels. This study aims to synthesize various new polymeric materials called gels, hydrogels, and organo-hydrogels according to the monomer used and to investigate their use as drug release systems. The agar-glycerol (AG) pair was used to synthesize the polymers, N, N, methylene bisacrylamide (MBA, m) and glutaraldehyde (GA, g) were used as cross-linkers and peppermint oil (PmO) was included to obtain the organo-hydrogels. Therefore, one AG gel and two p (AG-m) and p (GA-g) hydrogels were synthesized within the scope of the study. Six different organo-hydrogels based on p(AG-m-PmO) or p (AG-g-PmO) were also synthesized by varying the amount of peppermint oil. Paracetamol and carboplatin were selected as the sample drugs. Synthesized gels, hydrogels and organo-hydrogels were characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Additionally, swelling behaviors of the synthesized gels were investigated in different media (ID water, tap water, ethanol, acetone, ethanol/ID water (1:1), acetone/ID water (1:1) and gasoline) and at different pHs. Moreover, it was determined that organo-hydrogels were blood compatible and had antioxidant properties based on hemolysis, blood clotting and antioxidant analysis. Therefore, the release of paracetamol (a known antipyretic-painkiller, recommended and used in the treatment of Covid-19) and carboplatin (widely used in cancer treatment) were studied. Evidently, as the amount of PMO oil increases, the -OH groups in organo-hydrogels will increase and the chemical and physical bonding rates will increase; therefore it was observed that increasing peppermint oil in the organo-hydrogels structure to 0.3 mL stimulated the release of the drugs. For instance, maximum paracetamol release amount from p(AG-g-PmO) and p(AG-m-PmO) organo-hydrogels was calculated to be 72.3% at pH 7.4 and 69.8% at pH 2.0, respectively. The maximum carboplatin release amount from p(AG-g-PmO) and p(AG-m-PmO) organo-hydrogels was calculated to be 99.7% at pH 7.4 and 100% at pH 7.4, respectively. It was concluded that the synthesized organo-hydrogels might easily be used as drug carrier and controlled drug release materials.


Subject(s)
Agar/chemical synthesis , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Glycerol/chemical synthesis , Hydrogels/chemical synthesis , Plant Oils/chemical synthesis , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Antioxidants/analysis , Blood Coagulation , Carboplatin/pharmacology , Hemolysis , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Mentha piperita , Phenols/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(33): 7335-7351, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682492

ABSTRACT

Safe, therapeutically effective, and patient-compliant drug delivery systems are needed to design novel tools and strategies to combat the deadliest of diseases such as cancer, SARS, H7N9 avian influenza, and dengue infection. The major challenges in drug delivery are cytotoxicity, poor biodistribution, insufficient functionality, ineffective drug incorporation in delivery devices, and subsequent drug release. Clay minerals are a class of nanolayered silicates that have good biocompatibility, high specific surface area, chemical inertness, colloid, and thixotropy, and are attractive practical and potential nanomaterials in medicine. These properties enable the usage of nanoclays as drug carriers for the delivery of antibiotics, antihypertensive drugs, anti-psychotic, and anticancer drugs. The review examines the latest advances in nanoclay-based drug delivery systems and related applications in gene therapy and tissue engineering. Clay minerals, particularly montmorillonite, kaolinite, and halloysite are used to delay and/or target drug release or even improve drug dissolution due to their surface charge. Chemical modification of clay minerals such as intercalation of ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals or surface modification of clay minerals is a strategy to tune the properties of nanoclays for the loading and release of a drug. The modified nanoclay can take up drugs by encapsulation, immobilization, ion exchange reaction, or electrostatic interactions. Controlled drug release from the drug-clay originates from the incorporation and interactions between the drug and inorganic layers, including electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Montmorillonite has proven non-toxic through hematological, biochemical, and histopathological analyses in rat. Montmorillonite can also act as a potent detoxifier. Halloysite nanotubes can bind synthetic and biological components such as chitosan, gelatin, and alginate innate nanocarriers for the improved loading and controlled release of drugs, proteins, and DNA. The peculiar properties of clay nanoparticles lead to promising applications in drug delivery, gene delivery, tissue engineering, cancer and stem cell isolation, and bioimaging.


Subject(s)
Clay/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Animals , Drug Liberation , Humans
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