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1.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(3): 360-368, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory distress (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several therapeutic options are currently emerging but none with universal consensus or proven efficacy. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 because of their immunosuppressed conditions due to chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs). It is therefore likely that solid organ transplant recipients will be treated with these experimental antivirals. METHODS: This article is not intended to provide a systematic literature review on investigational treatments tested against COVID-19; rather, the authors aim to provide recommendations for therapeutic drug monitoring of ISDs in transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 based on a review of existing data in the literature. RESULTS: Management of drug-drug interactions between investigational anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs and immunosuppressants is a complex task for the clinician. Adequate immunosuppression is necessary to prevent graft rejection while, if critically ill, the patient may benefit from pharmacotherapeutic interventions directed at limiting SARS-CoV-2 viral replication. Maintaining ISD concentrations within the desired therapeutic range requires a highly individualized approach that is complicated by the pandemic context and lack of hindsight. CONCLUSIONS: With this article, the authors inform the clinician about the potential interactions of experimental COVID-19 treatments with ISDs used in transplantation. Recommendations regarding therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustments in the context of COVID-19 are provided.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Interactions , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ther Drug Monit ; 44(1): 166-197, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114574

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The increasing burden of invasive fungal infections results in growing challenges to antifungal (AF) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances in AF TDM. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search for articles during 2016-2020 using "TDM" or "pharmacokinetics" or "drug-drug-interaction" with "antifungal," consolidated for each AF. Selection was limited to English language articles with human data on drug exposure. RESULTS: More than 1000 articles matched the search terms. We selected 566 publications. The latest findings tend to confirm previous observations in real-life clinical settings. The pharmacokinetic variability related to special populations is not specific but must be considered. AF benefit-to-risk ratio, drug-drug interaction (DDI) profiles, and minimal inhibitory concentrations for pathogens must be known to manage at-risk situations and patients. Itraconazole has replaced ketoconazole in healthy volunteers DDI studies. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling is widely used to assess metabolic azole DDI. AF prophylactic use was studied more for Aspergillus spp. and Mucorales in oncohematology and solid organ transplantation than for Candida (already studied). Emergence of central nervous system infection and severe infections in immunocompetent individuals both merit special attention. TDM is more challenging for azoles than amphotericin B and echinocandins. Fewer TDM requirements exist for fluconazole and isavuconazole (ISZ); however, ISZ is frequently used in clinical situations in which TDM is recommended. Voriconazole remains the most challenging of the AF, with toxicity limiting high-dose treatments. Moreover, alternative treatments (posaconazole tablets, ISZ) are now available. CONCLUSIONS: TDM seems to be crucial for curative and/or long-term maintenance treatment in highly variable patients. TDM poses fewer cost issues than the drugs themselves or subsequent treatment issues. The integration of clinical pharmacology into multidisciplinary management is now increasingly seen as a part of patient care.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Drug Monitoring , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Drug Monitoring/methods , Fluconazole , Humans , Itraconazole , Voriconazole
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997649

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is extremely helpful in individualizing dosage regimen of drugs with narrow therapeutic ranges. It may also be beneficial in the case of drugs characterized by serious side effects and marked interpatient pharmacokinetic variability observed with leflunomide and its biologically active metabolite, teriflunomide. One of the most popular matrices used for TDM is blood. A more readily accessible body fluid is saliva, which can be collected in a much safer way comparing to blood. This makes it especially advantageous alternative to blood during life-threatening SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. However, drug's saliva concentration is not always a good representation of its blood concentration. The aim of this study was to verify whether saliva can be used in TDM of teriflunomide. We also developed and validated the first reliable and robust LC-MS/MS method for quantification of teriflunomide in saliva. Additionally, the effect of salivary flow and swab absorptive material from the collector device on teriflunomide concentration in saliva was evaluated. Good linear correlation was obtained between the concentration of teriflunomide in plasma and resting saliva (p < 0.000016, r = 0.88), and even better between plasma and the stimulated saliva concentrations (p < 0.000001, r = 0.95) confirming the effectiveness of this non-invasive method of teriflunomide's TDM. The analyzed validation criteria were fulfilled. No significant influence of salivary flow (p = 0.198) or type of swab in the Salivette device on saliva's teriflunomide concentration was detected. However, to reduce variability the use of stimulated saliva and synthetic swabs is advised.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Crotonates , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates , Nitriles , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Toluidines
4.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(22): 2058-2069, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992108
5.
Thromb Res ; 217: 52-56, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937244

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients taking warfarin require frequent international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring in healthcare settings, putting them at increased risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure during the pandemic. Thus, strategies to limit in-person visits to healthcare facilities were recommended by the Anticoagulation Forum. The objective of this study was to describe the number and types of changes made to anticoagulation therapy as a result of pharmacist intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients included in a primary care COVID-19 anticoagulation intervention was conducted. During this intervention, pharmacists provided individualized recommendations for anticoagulation changes in patients taking warfarin to limit their healthcare facility exposure while also maintaining safe anticoagulation management practices. RESULTS: As a result of pharmacist intervention, 83 (55.7 %) of the 149 patients included in the intervention had changes in anticoagulation including: switching to a direct oral anticoagulant (n = 12), extending the INR monitoring interval (n = 48), switching to home INR monitoring (n = 21), or stopping anticoagulation (n = 2). For those patients who were taking warfarin for the entire 6 months pre- and post-intervention, the total number of healthcare facility and laboratory visits with an INR completed decreased from 8.8 to 6.4 (p < 0.001) per patient without a statistically significant decrease in time in therapeutic range (p = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: This study depicts rapid implementation of a population health-based approach to assess all patients taking warfarin for options to minimize healthcare visits and decrease risk for COVID-19 exposure. Methods to reduce healthcare visit burden while maintaining patient safety should be considered as a regular component of anticoagulation management post-pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Warfarin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , International Normalized Ratio/methods , Pandemics , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies , Warfarin/adverse effects
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(18): 1586-1591, 2022 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890868

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the implementation and operationalization of a ß-lactam (BL) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) program at a large academic center. SUMMARY: BLs are the most used class of antibiotics. Suboptimal antibiotic exposure is a significant concern in hospitalized patients, particularly in those with altered pharmacokinetics. BL-TDM provides clinicians the opportunity to optimize drug concentrations to ensure maximal therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxicity. However, BL-TDM has not been widely adopted due to the lack of access to assays. The University of Florida Shands Hospital developed a BL-TDM program in 2015. This is a consultative service primarily run by pharmacists and is conducted in all patient care areas. An analysis was performed on the first BL-TDM encounter for 1,438 patients. BL-TDM was most frequently performed for cefepime (61%, n = 882), piperacillin (15%, n = 218), and meropenem (11%, n = 151). BL-TDM was performed a median of 3 days (interquartile range, 1-5 days) from BL initiation. Among patients with available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and trough concentrations, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 100% fT>MIC was attained in 308 patients (88%). BL-TDM resulted in a dosage adjustment in 25% (n = 361) of patients. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a BL-TDM program requires the concerted efforts of physicians, pharmacists, nursing staff, phlebotomists, and personnel in the analytical laboratory. Standard antibiotic dosing failed to achieve optimal PK/PD targets in all patients; utilizing BL-TDM, dose adjustments were made in 1 of every 4 patients.


Subject(s)
Drug Monitoring , Lactams , Academic Medical Centers , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , beta-Lactams/pharmacokinetics , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 218: 114875, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882269

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B (ATB) is a broad spectrum antibiotic used to combat severe systemic fungal and protozoan infections. Existing and new ATB formulations designed to address the problem of poor solubility and side effects of ATB require pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and dosing controls, especially in critically ill patients. Given that, the present study was devoted to development of competitive immunoassay of ATB and its testing on real human serum samples. A novel immunogen design was based on alternative ATB carboxyl-mediated conjugation to tetanus toxoid (TTd). The resulting conjugates retained antifungal (C.albicans) activity, which indicates the preservation and spatial availability of the ergosterol-binding site, bioactive polyene epitope. Antibody generated against click reaction product, TTd-ATB(cuaac), was able to recognize a group of polyenes ATB, nystatin, natamycin and deoxycholate ATB in heterologous ELISA as 100%, 255%, 99% and 70%, respectively. The sensitivity (IC50), detection limit (IC10) and dynamic range of assay (IC20-IC80) were 6.0, 0.1 and 0.6-46 ng/mL, respectively, and made it possible to quantify total and unbound ATB in the therapeutic range of concentrations in serum. ATB recovery from spiked serum samples was in the range of 95-106% and unbound ATB fractions in ultrafiltrates were about 12%. PK parameters were estimated in single COVID-19 patient with secondary lung Rhizopus microspores infection who was treated with ATB and received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , COVID-19 , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Immunoassay , Polyenes/pharmacology
8.
Ther Drug Monit ; 44(5): 701-706, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak has been classified as a pandemic. Because many coronaviruses are heat sensitive, heat inactivation of patient samples at 56°C before testing reduces the risk of transmission. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of heat inactivation of patient blood samples on plasma concentrations of 5 second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. METHODS: Blood samples were collected during routine clinical therapeutic drug monitoring examination between April 3, 2021, and April 19, 2021. Samples were divided into 2 groups: group A, noninactivated raw sample, and group B, inactivated samples. Inactivation was performed by a 30-minute incubation at 56°C. The levels of the 5 drugs and their metabolites before and after sample heat inactivation were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and compared. Furthermore, correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were conducted. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between the levels of the 5 drugs and their metabolites (ie, risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, aripiprazole, dehydroaripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, norquetiapine, clozapine, and norclozapine) in the noninactivated group A and the inactivated group B ( P > 0.05). Each drug's concentration values in inactivated and noninactivated treatments correlated (Spearman rs > 0.98; P < 0.001). The results of the noninactivated treatment methods and samples alone showed good consistency via Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Blood sample heat inactivation had no significant effect on the therapeutic drug monitoring of 5 second-generation antipsychotics and their metabolites. This inactivated treatment method should be recommended to effectively protect laboratory staff from virus contamination.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aripiprazole , Benzodiazepines/analysis , Drug Monitoring/methods , Hot Temperature , Humans
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(15): 1273-1280, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795385

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While some guidelines recognize the need for ß-lactam therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), there is still a paucity of data regarding the prevalence of and barriers to performing ß-lactam TDM in the United States. We sought to estimate the prevalence of ß-lactam TDM, describe monitoring practices, and identify actual and perceived barriers to implementation among health systems in the US. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional, 40-item electronic survey was distributed to all postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) infectious diseases (ID) pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) listed in the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists pharmacy residency directory. The primary outcome was the percentage of institutions with established ß-lactam TDM. Secondary outcomes included assessing ß-lactam TDM methods and identifying potential barriers to implementation. RESULTS: The survey was distributed to 126 PGY2 ID RPDs, with a response rate of 31.7% (40 of 126). Only 8% of respondents (3 of 39) performed ß-lactam TDM. Patient populations, therapeutic targets, and frequency and timing of obtaining repeat ß-lactam concentration measurements varied among institutions. The greatest barrier to implementation was lack of access to testing with a rapid turnaround time. Institutions were unlikely to implement ß-lactam TDM within the next year but were significantly more inclined to do so within 5 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ß-lactam TDM was infrequently performed at the surveyed US health systems. Lack of access to serum concentration testing with rapid turnaround and lack of US-specific guidelines appear to be considerable barriers to implementing ß-lactam TDM. Among institutions that have implemented ß-lactam TDM, there is considerable variation in monitoring approaches.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Pharmacy Residencies , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pharmacy Residencies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , beta-Lactams
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792832

ABSTRACT

Edoxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) that has been recently indicated for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Due to its pharmacokinetic variability and a narrow therapeutic index, the safe administration of the drug requires its therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients receiving the treatment. In this work, we present a label-free method for the TDM of edoxaban by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The new method utilises the thiol chemistry of the drug to chemisorb its molecules onto a highly sensitive SERS substrate. This leads to the formation of efficient hotspots and a strong signal enhancement of the drug Raman bands, thus negating the need for a Raman reporter for its SERS quantification. The standard samples were run with a concentration range of 1.4 × 10-4 M to 10-12 M using a mobile phase comprising of methanol/acetonitrile (85:15 v/v) at 291 nm followed by the good linearity of R2 = 0.997. The lowest limit of quantification (LOQ) by the SERS method was experimentally determined to be 10-12 M, whereas LOQ for HPLC-UV was 4.5 × 10-7 M, respectively. The new method was used directly and in a simple HPLC-SERS assembly to detect the drug in aqueous solutions and in spiked human blood plasma down to 1 pM. Therefore, the SERS method has strong potential for the rapid screening of the drug at pathology labs and points of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Monitoring , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles
11.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e357-e363, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior studies demonstrated reduced risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in neurosurgical patients secondary to prophylaxis with both heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. The ability to monitor low-molecular-weight heparin by obtaining anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) serum levels provides an opportunity to evaluate safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to describe characteristics of patients who have anti-Xa levels outside of the goal range (0.2-0.4/0.5 IU/mL) and investigate incidence of major bleeding and VTE. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted on neurosurgical patients receiving enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis between August 2019 and December 2020. Significance testing was conducted via Fisher exact test and independent samples t test. RESULTS: The study included 85 patients. Patients were less likely to have an anti-Xa level in the goal range if they were male, had a higher weight, or were morbidly obese. Three neuroendovascular patients (3.5%) experienced a major bleed. Serum anti-Xa levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced major bleeds compared with patients who did not (0.45 ± 0.16 IU/mL vs. 0.28 ± 0.09 IU/mL, P = 0.003). Patients with a supraprophylactic anti-Xa level (>0.5 IU/mL) were more likely to experience a major bleed (P = 0.005). One VTE event occurred: the patient experienced a pulmonary embolism with anti-Xa level at goal. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Xa-guided enoxaparin dosing for VTE prophylaxis in neurosurgical patients may help prevent major bleeding. These data suggest that a higher anti-Xa level may predispose patients to major bleeding. Further evaluation is needed to identify the goal anti-Xa level for VTE prophylaxis in this population.


Subject(s)
Enoxaparin/blood , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Hemorrhage/blood , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/trends , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity, Morbid/blood , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
12.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(3): 377-385, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In January 2021, the Dutch vaccination program against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was started. Clinical studies have shown that systemic reactions occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination could affect anticoagulation control, potentially leading to an increased risk of thrombotic events and bleeding complications. AIMS: This article investigates whether the BNT162b2 vaccine affects anticoagulation control in outpatients using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: A case-crossover study was performed in a cohort of outpatient VKA users from four Dutch anticoagulation clinics who received a BNT162b2 vaccine. International normalized ratio (INR) results and VKA dosages before the first vaccination, the reference period, were compared with those after the first and second vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 3,148 outpatient VKA users were included, with a mean age (standard deviation) of 86.7 (8.7) years, of whom 43.8% were male, 67.0% used acenocoumarol, and 33.0% phenprocoumon. We observed a decrease of 8.9% of INRs within range in the standard intensity group (target INR 2.0-3.0). There was both an increased risk of supratherapeutic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.67]) and subtherapeutic levels (OR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.08-1.83]) after first vaccination. In the high-intensity group (target INR 2.5-3.5), the risk of a supratherapeutic INR was 2.3 times higher after first vaccination (OR = 2.29 [95% CI 1.22-4.28]) and 3.3 times higher after second vaccination (OR = 3.25 [95% CI 1.06-9.97]). CONCLUSION: BNT162b2 was associated with an immediate negative effect on anticoagulation control in patients treated with VKAs, so it is advisable to monitor the INR shortly after vaccination, even in stable patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Netherlands , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Mycoses ; 65(3): 312-316, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Along with COVID-19 pandemic, India has faced an outbreak of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Due to restricted availability of amphotericin B during this outbreak, clinicians were forced to use posaconazole or isavuconazole preparations as first-line or alternate therapy in many patients. We planned an early monitoring of posaconazole trough level while using delayed release (DR) tablet as first-line or alternate therapy. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective of the study was to determine percentage of patients achieving arbitrarily decided therapeutic posaconazole levels (≥1.2 µg/ml) after using standard dosages of posaconazole. Secondary objective was to identify potential factors associated with sub-therapeutic posaconazole levels. METHODS: We performed retrospective chart review of the hospitalised patients, who received posaconazole DR tablet as first-line or alternate therapy to treat CAM during outbreak period (March 1 to May 31, 2021). High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was used to measure trough level of posaconazole. RESULTS: Posaconazole serum levels of 29 patients were analysed, who received posaconazole DR tablet. Majority (n = 23) were male with the median (range) age 53 (24-86) years. The mean (SD) posaconazole level was 1.66 (0.76) µg/ml. Sub-therapeutic posaconazole trough level was observed in 7 (24.1%) patients. Relatively younger patients were associated with lower posaconazole level (p = .046). Except two patients, all the patients tolerated posaconazole well. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the posaconazole trough level measurement on day 4 while using posaconazole DR tablet as first-line or alternate therapy to treat mucormycosis during limited supply of amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Administration, Oral , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets , Triazoles
15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 914: 174615, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549762

ABSTRACT

In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of quercetin in combination with remdesivir and favipiravir, were evaluated in severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our main objective was to assess the ability of quercetin for preventing the progression of the disease into critical phase, and reducing the levels of inflammatory markers related to SARS-Cov-2 pathogenesis. Through an open-label clinical trial, 60 severe cases were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. During a 7-day period, patients in the control group received antivirals, i.e., remdesivir or favipiravir, while the intervention group was treated with 1000 mg of quercetin daily in addition to the antiviral drugs. According to the results, taking quercetin was significantly associated with partial earlier discharge and reduced serum levels of ALP, q-CRP, and LDH in the intervention group. Furthermore, although the values were in normal range, the statistical outputs showed significant increase in hemoglobin level and respiratory rate in patients who were taking quercetin. Based on our observations, quercetin is safe and effective in lowering the serum levels of ALP, q-CRP, and LDH as critical markers involved in COVID-19 severity. However, according to the non-significant borderline results in comparing the mortality, the ICU-admission rate, and the duration of ICU-admission, further studies can be helpful to compensate the limitations of our study and clarify the therapeutic potential of quercetin in COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides , COVID-19 , Pyrazines , Quercetin , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Quercetin/adverse effects , Respiratory Rate/drug effects
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 522-532, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated proinflammatory cytokines are associated with greater COVID-19 severity. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of sarilumab, an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, in patients with severe (requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula or face mask) or critical (requiring greater supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal support) COVID-19. METHODS: We did a 60-day, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial at 45 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Spain. We included adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia, who required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1 with permuted blocks of five) to receive intravenous sarilumab 400 mg, sarilumab 200 mg, or placebo. Patients, care providers, outcome assessors, and investigators remained masked to assigned intervention throughout the course of the study. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of two or more points (seven point scale ranging from 1 [death] to 7 [discharged from hospital]) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The key secondary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at day 29. Safety outcomes included adverse events and laboratory assessments. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04327388; EudraCT, 2020-001162-12; and WHO, U1111-1249-6021. FINDINGS: Between March 28 and July 3, 2020, of 431 patients who were screened, 420 patients were randomly assigned and 416 received placebo (n=84 [20%]), sarilumab 200 mg (n=159 [38%]), or sarilumab 400 mg (n=173 [42%]). At day 29, no significant differences were seen in median time to an improvement of two or more points between placebo (12·0 days [95% CI 9·0 to 15·0]) and sarilumab 200 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 12·0]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·03 [95% CI 0·75 to 1·40]; log-rank p=0·96) or sarilumab 400 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 13·0]; HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·84 to 1·54]; log-rank p=0·34), or in proportions of patients alive (77 [92%] of 84 patients in the placebo group; 143 [90%] of 159 patients in the sarilumab 200 mg group; difference -1·7 [-9·3 to 5·8]; p=0·63 vs placebo; and 159 [92%] of 173 patients in the sarilumab 400 mg group; difference 0·2 [-6·9 to 7·4]; p=0·85 vs placebo). At day 29, there were numerical, non-significant survival differences between sarilumab 400 mg (88%) and placebo (79%; difference +8·9% [95% CI -7·7 to 25·5]; p=0·25) for patients who had critical disease. No unexpected safety signals were seen. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 65% (55 of 84) in the placebo group, 65% (103 of 159) in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 70% (121 of 173) in the sarilumab 400 mg group, and of those leading to death 11% (nine of 84) were in the placebo group, 11% (17 of 159) were in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 10% (18 of 173) were in the sarilumab 400 mg group. INTERPRETATION: This trial did not show efficacy of sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and receiving supplemental oxygen. Adequately powered trials of targeted immunomodulatory therapies assessing survival as a primary endpoint are suggested in patients with critical COVID-19. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 511-521, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533423

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is essential for voriconazole to ensure optimal drug exposure, mainly in critically ill patients for whom voriconazole demonstrated a large variability. The study aimed at describing factors associated with trough voriconazole concentrations in critically ill patients and evaluating the impact of voriconazole concentrations on adverse effects. A 2-year retrospective multicenter cohort study (NCT04502771) was conducted in six intensive care units. Adult patients who had at least one voriconazole TDM were included. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of voriconazole concentrations, and univariable logistic regression analysis, to study the relationship between voriconazole concentrations and adverse effects. During the 2-year study period, 70 patients were included. Optimal trough voriconazole concentrations were reported in 37 patients (52.8%), subtherapeutic in 20 (28.6%), and supratherapeutic in 13 (18.6%). Adverse effects were reported in six (8.6%) patients. SOFA score was identified as a factor associated with an increase in voriconazole concentration (p = 0.025), mainly in the group of patients who had SOFA score ≥ 10. Moreover, an increase in voriconazole concentration was shown to be a risk factor for occurrence of adverse effects (p = 0.011). In that respect, critically ill patients who received voriconazole treatment must benefit from a TDM, particularly if they have a SOFA score ≥ 10. Indeed, identifying patients who are overdosed will help to prevent voriconazole related adverse effects. This result is of utmost importance given the recognized COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in ICU patients for whom voriconazole is among the recommended first-line treatment.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Critical Illness/therapy , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Voriconazole/adverse effects
19.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Health Service (NHS) recommended that appropriate patients anticoagulated with warfarin should be switched to direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), requiring less frequent blood testing. Subsequently, a national safety alert was issued regarding patients being inappropriately coprescribed two anticoagulants following a medication change and associated monitoring. OBJECTIVE: To describe which people were switched from warfarin to DOACs; identify potentially unsafe coprescribing of anticoagulants; and assess whether abnormal clotting results have become more frequent during the pandemic. METHODS: With the approval of NHS England, we conducted a cohort study using routine clinical data from 24 million NHS patients in England. RESULTS: 20 000 of 164 000 warfarin patients (12.2%) switched to DOACs between March and May 2020, most commonly to edoxaban and apixaban. Factors associated with switching included: older age, recent renal function test, higher number of recent INR tests recorded, atrial fibrillation diagnosis and care home residency. There was a sharp rise in coprescribing of warfarin and DOACs from typically 50-100 per month to 246 in April 2020, 0.06% of all people receiving a DOAC or warfarin. International normalised ratio (INR) testing fell by 14% to 506.8 patients tested per 1000 warfarin patients each month. We observed a very small increase in elevated INRs (n=470) during April compared with January (n=420). CONCLUSIONS: Increased switching of anticoagulants from warfarin to DOACs was observed at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic in England following national guidance. There was a small but substantial number of people coprescribed warfarin and DOACs during this period. Despite a national safety alert on the issue, a widespread rise in elevated INR test results was not found. Primary care has responded rapidly to changes in patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/standards , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , State Medicine/standards , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation Tests , Drug Monitoring , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Substitution/adverse effects , Drug Utilization/standards , England , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care/standards , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Warfarin/adverse effects
20.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(2): 399-406, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511317

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Summary of Product Characteristics for the direct thrombin inhibitor argatroban states monitoring should be by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), with a target range of 1.5-3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT. APTT may be influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. Previous studies have shown sensitivity differences of APTT reagents to argatroban. Some recent publications have favoured the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. This study aims to compare the anti-IIa assays: Hemoclot thrombin inhibitor assay (HTI) and Ecarin chromogenic assay (ECA) alongside the APTT. METHODS: Residual plasma of 25 samples from 8 patients (3 with COVID-19 and HIT: n = 18, 5 with HIT: n = 7) was tested at two sites: site A: Sysmex CS5100 by HTI and APTT (Actin FS and SynthASil), and also on Stago STA Compact Max: ECA and APTT (CK Prest); and site B: Stago STA R Max 2 by ECA and APTT (Cephascreen). RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio was 1.96 (Actin FS), 1.84 (SynthASil), 1.59 (CK Prest) and 2.48 (Cephascreen). Mean argatroban concentration by HTI was 0.60 µg/mL and by ECA was 0.65 µg/mL (site A) and 0.70 µg/mL (site B). There was a poor correlation to HTI in APTT ratios (range r2  = .0235-0.4181) with stronger correlations between ECA methods to HTI (r2  = .8998 site A, r2  = .8734 site B). CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous publications on the unsuitability of APTT and expands this by being multisited and included APTT reagents that use mechanical clot detection. Both anti-IIa methods are more suitable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Monitoring/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Sulfonamides , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
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