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3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119171

ABSTRACT

A therapy for COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains elusive due to the lack of an effective antiviral therapeutic molecule. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which plays a vital role in the viral life cycle, is one of the most studied and validated drug targets. In Several prior studies, numerous possible chemical entities were proposed as potential Mpro inhibitors; however, most failed at various stages of drug discovery. Repositioning of existing antiviral compounds accelerates the discovery and development of potent therapeutic molecules. Hence, this study examines the applicability of anti-dengue compounds against the substrate binding site of Mpro for disrupting its polyprotein processing mechanism. An in-silico structure-based virtual screening approach is applied to screen 330 experimentally validated anti-dengue compounds to determine their affinity to the substrate binding site of Mpro. This study identified the top five compounds (CHEMBL1940602, CHEMBL2036486, CHEMBL3628485, CHEMBL200972, CHEMBL2036488) that showed a high affinity to Mpro with a docking score > -10.0 kcal/mol. The best-docked pose of these compounds with Mpro was subjected to 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation followed by MM/GBSA binding energy. This showed the maximum stability and comparable ΔG binding energy against the reference compound (X77 inhibitor). Overall, we repurposed the reported anti-dengue compounds against SARS-CoV-2-Mpro to impede its polyprotein processing for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Polyproteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116187

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is caused by a DNA virus known as the monkeypox virus (MPXV) belonging to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease where the primary significant hosts are rodents and non-human primates. There is an increasing global incidence with a 2022 outbreak that has spread to Europe in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. The new outbreak has novel, previously undiscovered mutations and variants. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved poxvirus treatment involving the use of tecovirimat. However, there has otherwise been limited research interest in monkeypox. Mitoxantrone (MXN), an anthracycline derivative, an FDA-approved therapeutic for treating cancer and multiple sclerosis, was previously reported to exhibit antiviral activity against the vaccinia virus and monkeypox virus. In this study, virtual screening, molecular docking analysis, and pharmacophore ligand-based modelling were employed on anthracene structures (1-13) closely related to MXN to explore the potential repurposing of multiple compounds from the PubChem library. Four chemical structures (2), (7), (10) and (12) show a predicted high binding potential to suppress viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Animals , Humans , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mitoxantrone/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Pandemics , Receptors, Drug , Primates , Rodentia
5.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110189

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, also known as SARS-CoV-2, is the causative agent of the COVID-19 global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 has a highly conserved non-structural protein 12 (NSP-12) involved in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. For the identification of potential inhibitors for NSP-12, computational approaches such as the identification of homologous proteins that have been previously targeted by FDA-approved antivirals can be employed. Herein, homologous proteins of NSP-12 were retrieved from Protein DataBank (PDB) and the evolutionary conserved sequence and structure similarity of the active site of the RdRp domain of NSP-12 was characterized. The identified homologous structures of NSP-12 belonged to four viral families: Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Picornaviridae, and Caliciviridae, and shared evolutionary conserved relationships. The multiple sequences and structural alignment of homologous structures showed highly conserved amino acid residues that were located at the active site of the RdRp domain of NSP-12. The conserved active site of the RdRp domain of NSP-12 was evaluated for binding affinity with the FDA-approved antivirals, i.e., Sofosbuvir and Dasabuvir in a molecular docking study. The molecular docking of Sofosbuvir and Dasabuvir with the active site that contains conserved motifs (motif A-G) of the RdRp domain of NSP-12 revealed significant binding affinity. Furthermore, MD simulation also inferred the potency of Sofosbuvir and Dasabuvir. In conclusion, targeting the active site of the RdRp domain of NSP-12 with Dasabuvir and Sofosbuvir might reduce viral replication and pathogenicity and could be further studied for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Drug Repositioning , Sofosbuvir , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has undergone mutations, yielding clinically relevant variants. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that in SARS-CoV-2, two highly conserved Orf3a and E channels directly related to the virus replication were a target for the detection and inhibition of the viral replication, independent of the variant, using FDA-approved ion channel modulators. METHODS: A combination of a fluorescence potassium ion assay with channel modulators was developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 Orf3a/E channel activity. Two FDA-approved drugs, amantadine (an antiviral) and amitriptyline (an antidepressant), which are ion channel blockers, were tested as to whether they inhibited Orf3a/E channel activity in isolated virus variants and in nasal swab samples from COVID-19 patients. The variants were confirmed by PCR sequencing. RESULTS: In isolated SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants, the channel activity of Orf3a/E was detected and inhibited by emodin and gliclazide (IC50 = 0.42 mM). In the Delta swab samples, amitriptyline and amantadine inhibited the channel activity of viral proteins, with IC50 values of 0.73 mM and 1.11 mM, respectively. In the Omicron swab samples, amitriptyline inhibited the channel activity, with an IC50 of 0.76 mM. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an efficient method to screen FDA-approved ion channel modulators that could be repurposed to detect and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication, independent of variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ion Channels , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Amantadine/pharmacology , Amitriptyline/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ion Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning
7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099669

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), belonging to the betacoronavirus genus can cause severe respiratory illnesses, accompanied by pneumonia, multiorgan failure, and ultimately death. CoVs have the ability to transgress species barriers and spread swiftly into new host species, with human-to-human transmission causing epidemic diseases. Despite the severe public health threat of MERS-CoV, there are currently no vaccines or drugs available for its treatment. MERS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) is a key enzyme that plays an important role in its replication. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory activities of doxorubicin (DOX) against the recombinant MERS-CoV PLpro by employing protease inhibition assays. Hydrolysis of fluorogenic peptide from the Z-RLRGG-AMC-peptide bond in the presence of DOX showed an IC50 value of 1.67 µM at 30 min. Subsequently, we confirmed the interaction between DOX and MERS-CoV PLpro by thermal shift assay (TSA), and DOX increased ΔTm by ~20 °C, clearly indicating a coherent interaction between the MERS-CoV PL protease and DOX. The binding site of DOX on MERS-CoV PLpro was assessed using docking techniques and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. DOX bound to the thumb region of the catalytic domain of the MERS-CoV PLpro. MD simulation results showed flexible BL2 loops, as well as other potential residues, such as R231, R233, and G276 of MERS-CoV PLpro. Development of drug repurposing is a remarkable opportunity to quickly examine the efficacy of different aspects of treating various diseases. Protease inhibitors have been found to be effective against MERS-CoV to date, and numerous candidates are currently undergoing clinical trials to prove this. Our effort follows a in similar direction.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Papain/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/metabolism
8.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099667

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) helicase is an essential enzyme for viral replication and has been identified as an attractive target for the development of new antiviral drugs. In detail, the helicase catalyzes the unwinding of double-stranded DNA or RNA in a 5' to 3' direction and acts in concert with the replication-transcription complex (nsp7/nsp8/nsp12). In this work, bioinformatics and computational tools allowed us to perform a detailed conservation analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 helicase genome and to further predict the druggable enzyme's binding pockets. Thus, a structure-based virtual screening was used to identify valuable compounds that are capable of recognizing multiple nsp13 pockets. Starting from a database of around 4000 drugs already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we chose 14 shared compounds capable of recognizing three out of four sites. Finally, by means of visual inspection analysis and based on their commercial availability, five promising compounds were submitted to in vitro assays. Among them, PF-03715455 was able to block both the unwinding and NTPase activities of nsp13 in a micromolar range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Drug Repositioning , RNA Helicases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099576

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated type 1 interferon (IFN-1) production, the pathophysiology of which involves sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization and the cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway. As a result, type I interferonopathies are exacerbated. Aspirin inhibits cGAS-mediated signaling through cGAS acetylation. Acetylation contributes to cGAS activity control and activates IFN-1 production and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling via STING. Aspirin and dapsone inhibit the activation of both IFN-1 and NF-κB by targeting cGAS. We define these as anticatalytic mechanisms. It is necessary to alleviate the pathologic course and take the lag time of the odds of achieving viral clearance by day 7 to coordinate innate or adaptive immune cell reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Acetylation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Aspirin , Immunity, Innate/genetics
10.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221132736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089126

ABSTRACT

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. The viral outbreak led in turn to an exponential growth of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, that is, a multiorgan disease that has led to more than 6.3 million deaths worldwide, as of June 2022. There are currently few effective drugs approved for treatment of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 patients. Many of the compounds tested so far have been selected through a drug repurposing approach, that is, by identifying novel indications for drugs already approved for other conditions. We here present an up-to-date review of the main Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs repurposed against SARS-CoV-2 infection, discussing their mechanism of action and their most important preclinical and clinical results. Reviewed compounds were chosen to privilege those that have been approved for use in SARS-CoV-2 patients or that have completed phase III clinical trials. Moreover, we also summarize the evidence on some novel and promising repurposed drugs in the pipeline. Finally, we discuss the current stage and possible steps toward the development of broadly effective drug combinations to suppress the onset or progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Repositioning , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 156: 113850, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085961

ABSTRACT

As diseases caused by new and emerging viruses continue to be a major threat to humans and animals worldwide the need for new therapeutic options intensifies. A wide variety of viruses including Influenza A virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus require ion channels for efficient replication. Thus, targeting host ion channels may serve as an effective means to attenuate virus replication and help treat viral diseases. Targeting host ion channels is an attractive therapeutic option because a range of ion channel-blocking compounds already exist for the treatment of other human diseases and some of these possess in vitro and sometimes in vivo antiviral activity. Therefore, identifying the specific ion channels involved in replicative cycles could provide opportunities to repurpose these ion channel inhibitors for treating viral diseases. Furthermore, optimised methodologies for identifying effective ion channel targeting drugs and their mechanisms of action could enable rapid responses to newly emerged viruses. This review discusses the potential of ion channels as suitable drug targets to treat diseases caused by viruses by describing known ion channel targeting drugs including their antiviral activity; by summarising prior research demonstrating the requirement for host ion channels for efficient replication of some viruses; and by hypothesising about the role these drugs might play in our ongoing fight against viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Drug Repositioning , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Virus Replication , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ion Channels
12.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1595-1603, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084929

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effectiveness of ivermectin to shorten symptom duration or prevent hospitalization among outpatients in the US with mild to moderate symptomatic COVID-19 is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin, 400 µg/kg, daily for 3 days compared with placebo for the treatment of early mild to moderate COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: ACTIV-6, an ongoing, decentralized, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled platform trial, was designed to evaluate repurposed therapies in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. A total of 1591 participants aged 30 years and older with confirmed COVID-19, experiencing 2 or more symptoms of acute infection for 7 days or less, were enrolled from June 23, 2021, through February 4, 2022, with follow-up data through May 31, 2022, at 93 sites in the US. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive ivermectin, 400 µg/kg (n = 817), daily for 3 days or placebo (n = 774). Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to sustained recovery, defined as at least 3 consecutive days without symptoms. There were 7 secondary outcomes, including a composite of hospitalization or death by day 28. Results: Among 1800 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 48 [12] years; 932 women [58.6%]; 753 [47.3%] reported receiving at least 2 doses of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine), 1591 completed the trial. The hazard ratio (HR) for improvement in time to recovery was 1.07 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.96-1.17; posterior P value [HR >1] = .91). The median time to recovery was 12 days (IQR, 11-13) in the ivermectin group and 13 days (IQR, 12-14) in the placebo group. There were 10 hospitalizations or deaths in the ivermectin group and 9 in the placebo group (1.2% vs 1.2%; HR, 1.1 [95% CrI, 0.4-2.6]). The most common serious adverse events were COVID-19 pneumonia (ivermectin [n = 5]; placebo [n = 7]) and venous thromboembolism (ivermectin [n = 1]; placebo [n = 5]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve time to recovery. These findings do not support the use of ivermectin in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04885530.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Ivermectin , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Ambulatory Care , Drug Repositioning , Time Factors , Recovery of Function , Male , Adult
13.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 47, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075759

ABSTRACT

The current strategy of searching for an effective treatment for COVID-19 relies mainly on repurposing existing therapies developed to target other diseases. Conflicting results have emerged in regard to the efficacy of several tested compounds but later results were negative. The number of conducted and ongoing trials and the urgent need for a treatment pose the risk that false-positive results will be incorrectly interpreted as evidence for treatments' efficacy and a ground for drug approval. Our purpose is twofold. First, we show that the number of drug-repurposing trials can explain the false-positive results. Second, we assess the evidence for treatments' efficacy from the perspective of evidential pluralism and argue that considering mechanistic evidence is particularly needed in cases when the evidence from clinical trials is conflicting or of low quality. Our analysis is an application of the program of Evidence Based Medicine Plus (EBM+) to the drug repurposing trials for COVID. Our study shows that if decision-makers applied EBM+, authorizing the use of ineffective treatments would be less likely. We analyze the example of trials assessing the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 and mechanistic evidence in favor of and against its therapeutic power to draw a lesson for decision-makers and drug agencies on how excessive hypothesis testing can lead to spurious findings and how studying negative mechanistic evidence can be helpful in discriminating genuine from spurious results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Research Design
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071511

ABSTRACT

Caloric restriction promotes longevity in multiple animal models. Compounds modulating nutrient-sensing pathways have been suggested to reproduce part of the beneficial effect of caloric restriction on aging. However, none of the commonly studied caloric restriction mimetics actually produce a decrease in calories. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a class of drugs which lower glucose by promoting its elimination through urine, thus inducing a net loss of calories. This effect promotes a metabolic shift at the systemic level, fostering ketones and fatty acids utilization as glucose-alternative substrates, and is accompanied by a modulation of major nutrient-sensing pathways held to drive aging, e.g., mTOR and the inflammasome, overall resembling major features of caloric restriction. In addition, preliminary experimental data suggest that SGLT-2i might also have intrinsic activities independent of their systemic effects, such as the inhibition of cellular senescence. Consistently, evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies have also suggested a marked ability of SGLT-2i to ameliorate low-grade inflammation in humans, a relevant driver of aging commonly referred to as inflammaging. Considering also the amount of data from clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses suggesting a tangible effect on age-related outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, kidney disease, and all-cause mortality also in patients without diabetes, here we propose a framework where at least part of the benefit provided by SGLT-2i is mediated by their ability to blunt the drivers of aging. To support this postulate, we synthesize available data relative to the effect of this class on: 1- animal models of healthspan and lifespan; 2- selected molecular pillars of aging in preclinical models; 3- biomarkers of aging and especially inflammaging in humans; and 4- COVID-19-related outcomes. The burden of evidence might prompt the design of studies testing the potential employment of this class as anti-aging drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Animals , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes , Drug Repositioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Aging , Glucose/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Sodium , Ketones/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066139

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic which has claimed more than 6.5 million lives worldwide, devastating the economy and overwhelming healthcare systems globally. The development of new drug molecules and vaccines has played a critical role in managing the pandemic; however, new variants of concern still pose a significant threat as the current vaccines cannot prevent all infections. This situation calls for the collaboration of biomedical scientists and healthcare workers across the world. Repurposing approved drugs is an effective way of fast-tracking new treatments for recently emerged diseases. To this end, we have assembled and curated a database consisting of 7817 compounds from the Compounds Australia Open Drug collection. We developed a set of eight filters based on indicators of efficacy and safety that were applied sequentially to down-select drugs that showed promise for drug repurposing efforts against SARS-CoV-2. Considerable effort was made to evaluate approximately 14,000 assay data points for SARS-CoV-2 FDA/TGA-approved drugs and provide an average activity score for 3539 compounds. The filtering process identified 12 FDA-approved molecules with established safety profiles that have plausible mechanisms for treating COVID-19 disease. The methodology developed in our study provides a template for prioritising drug candidates that can be repurposed for the safe, efficacious, and cost-effective treatment of COVID-19, long COVID, or any other future disease. We present our database in an easy-to-use interactive interface (CoviRx that was also developed to enable the scientific community to access to the data of over 7000 potential drugs and to implement alternative prioritisation and down-selection strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(10): 1225-1231, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051064

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Drug repurposing represented an important contribution in the management of COVID-19, becoming the first line of defense to mitigate the effects of the new coronavirus. In a brief time, drug repurposing (DR) provided potentially effective and already available drugs for COVID-19, while specific therapies against SARS-CoV-2 and/or vaccines were developing. Identifying repurposed drugs requires a multidisciplinary approach, where clinical pharmacology represents the missing piece of the puzzle. AREAS COVERED: Nowadays, clinical pharmacology is recognized as a discipline at the core of translational science, whose activities lead to the identification of the right drug for the right patient. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, its role in drug development and therapy choice has been decisive and itself repositioned. In this review, we tried to highlight the important role of clinical pharmacology in the identification and evaluation of possible repurposed drugs for COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: We believe that clinical pharmacology had an important role in identifying patient-oriented therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, DR was just one of the challenges for clinical pharmacology, which proved that this discipline is ready to respond to future threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacology, Clinical , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(85): 11913-11916, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050566

ABSTRACT

The single-stranded RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 contains some G-quadruplex-forming G-rich elements which are putative drug targets. Here, we performed a ligand-based pharmacophore virtual screening of FDA approved drugs to find candidates targeting such RNA structures. Further in silico and in vitro assays identified three drugs as emerging SARS-CoV-2 RNA G-quadruplex binders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , G-Quadruplexes
20.
Antiviral Res ; 207: 105419, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041573

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen that caused the global COVID-19 outbreak. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 plays a key role in virus replication and has become an ideal target for antiviral drug design. In this work, we have employed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology to establish a cell-based assay for screening inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, and then applied the assay to screen a collection of known HIV/HCV protease inhibitors. Our results showed that the assay is capable of quantification of the cleavage efficiency of 3CLpro with good reproducibility (Z' factor is 0.59). Using the assay, we found that 9 of 26 protease inhibitors effectively inhibited the activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a dose-dependent manner. Among them, four compounds exhibited the ability to bind to 3CLproin vitro. HCV protease inhibitor simeprevir showed the most potency against 3CLpro with an EC50 vale of 2.6 µM, bound to the active site pocket of 3CLpro in a predicted model, and importantly, exhibited a similar activity against the protease containing the mutations P132H in Omicron variants. Taken together, this work demonstrates the feasibility of using the cell-based BRET assay for screening 3CLpro inhibitors and supports the potential of simeprevir for the development of 3CLpro inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Protease Inhibitors , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Simeprevir
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