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1.
J Virol ; 96(2): e0106021, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759286

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause recurrent infections of the nasal and pulmonary tracts, life-threatening conditions in chronic respiratory illness patients, predisposition of children to asthmatic exacerbation, and large economic cost. RVs are difficult to treat. They rapidly evolve resistance and are genetically diverse. Here, we provide insight into RV drug resistance mechanisms against chemical compounds neutralizing low pH in endolysosomes. Serial passaging of RV-A16 in the presence of the vacuolar proton ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) or the endolysosomotropic agent ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) promoted the emergence of resistant virus populations. We found two reproducible point mutations in viral proteins 1 and 3 (VP1 and VP3), A2526G (serine 66 to asparagine [S66N]), and G2274U (cysteine 220 to phenylalanine [C220F]), respectively. Both mutations conferred cross-resistance to BafA1, NH4Cl, and the protonophore niclosamide, as identified by massive parallel sequencing and reverse genetics, but not the double mutation, which we could not rescue. Both VP1-S66 and VP3-C220 locate at the interprotomeric face, and their mutations increase the sensitivity of virions to low pH, elevated temperature, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 receptor. These results indicate that the ability of RV to uncoat at low endosomal pH confers virion resistance to extracellular stress. The data endorse endosomal acidification inhibitors as a viable strategy against RVs, especially if inhibitors are directly applied to the airways. IMPORTANCE Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the predominant agents causing the common cold. Anti-RV drugs and vaccines are not available, largely due to rapid evolutionary adaptation of RVs giving rise to resistant mutants and an immense diversity of antigens in more than 160 different RV types. In this study, we obtained insight into the cell biology of RVs by harnessing the ability of RVs to evolve resistance against host-targeting small chemical compounds neutralizing endosomal pH, an important cue for uncoating of normal RVs. We show that RVs grown in cells treated with inhibitors of endolysosomal acidification evolved capsid mutations yielding reduced virion stability against elevated temperature, low pH, and incubation with recombinant soluble receptor fragments. This fitness cost makes it unlikely that RV mutants adapted to neutral pH become prevalent in nature. The data support the concept of host-directed drug development against respiratory viruses in general, notably at low risk of gain-of-function mutations.


Subject(s)
Capsid/chemistry , Mutation/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , Virus Uncoating/physiology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Capsid/drug effects , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Endosomes/chemistry , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Rhinovirus/chemistry , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/genetics , Virion/chemistry , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/drug effects , Virus Uncoating/genetics
3.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105247, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632314

ABSTRACT

Massive usage of antiviral compounds during a pandemic creates an ideal ground for emergence of resistant strains. Remdesivir, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), was extensively prescribed under emergency use authorization during the first 18 months of the COVID19 pandemic, before randomized controlled trials showed poor efficacy in hospitalized patients. RdRp mutations conferring resistance to remdesivir are well known from in vitro studies, and the huge SARS-CoV-2 sequencing effort during the ongoing COVID19 pandemic represents an unprecedented opportunity to assess emergence and fitness of antiviral resistance in vivo. We mined the GISAID database to extrapolate the frequency of remdesivir escape mutations. Our analysis reveals very low levels of remdesivir resistance worldwide despite massive usage.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten healthcare systems worldwide due to the limited access to vaccines, suboptimal treatment options, and the continuous emergence of new and more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants. Reverse-genetics studies of viral genes and mutations have proven highly valuable in advancing basic virus research, leading to the development of therapeutics. We developed a functional and highly versatile full-length SARS-CoV-2 infectious system by cloning the sequence of a COVID-19 associated virus isolate (DK-AHH1) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Viruses recovered after RNA-transfection of in vitro transcripts into Vero E6 cells showed growth kinetics and remdesivir susceptibility similar to the DK-AHH1 virus isolate. Insertion of reporter genes, green fluorescent protein, and nanoluciferase into the ORF7 genomic region led to high levels of reporter activity, which facilitated high throughput treatment experiments. We found that putative coronavirus remdesivir resistance-associated substitutions F480L and V570L-and naturally found polymorphisms A97V, P323L, and N491S, all in nsp12-did not decrease SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility to remdesivir. A nanoluciferase reporter clone with deletion of spike (S), envelope (E), and membrane (M) proteins exhibited high levels of transient replication, was inhibited by remdesivir, and therefore could function as an efficient non-infectious subgenomic replicon system. The developed SARS-CoV-2 reverse-genetics systems, including recombinants to modify infectious viruses and non-infectious subgenomic replicons with autonomous genomic RNA replication, will permit high-throughput cell culture studies-providing fundamental understanding of basic biology of this coronavirus. We have proven the utility of the systems in rapidly introducing mutations in nsp12 and studying their effect on the efficacy of remdesivir, which is used worldwide for the treatment of COVID-19. Our system provides a platform to effectively test the antiviral activity of drugs and the phenotype of SARS-CoV-2 mutants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Reverse Genetics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Replicon/drug effects , Replicon/genetics , Vero Cells
6.
Euro Surveill ; 26(27)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577032

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInfluenza virus presents a considerable challenge to public health by causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Nanopore metagenomic sequencing has the potential to be deployed for near-patient testing, providing rapid infection diagnosis, rationalising antimicrobial therapy, and supporting infection-control interventions.AimTo evaluate the applicability of this sequencing approach as a routine laboratory test for influenza in clinical settings.MethodsWe conducted Oxford Nanopore Technologies (Oxford, United Kingdom (UK)) metagenomic sequencing for 180 respiratory samples from a UK hospital during the 2018/19 influenza season, and compared results to routine molecular diagnostic standards (Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay; BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 assay). We investigated drug resistance, genetic diversity, and nosocomial transmission using influenza sequence data.ResultsCompared to standard testing, Nanopore metagenomic sequencing was 83% (75/90) sensitive and 93% (84/90) specific for detecting influenza A viruses. Of 59 samples with haemagglutinin subtype determined, 40 were H1 and 19 H3. We identified an influenza A(H3N2) genome encoding the oseltamivir resistance S331R mutation in neuraminidase, potentially associated with an emerging distinct intra-subtype reassortant. Whole genome phylogeny refuted suspicions of a transmission cluster in a ward, but identified two other clusters that likely reflected nosocomial transmission, associated with a predominant community-circulating strain. We also detected other potentially pathogenic viruses and bacteria from the metagenome.ConclusionNanopore metagenomic sequencing can detect the emergence of novel variants and drug resistance, providing timely insights into antimicrobial stewardship and vaccine design. Full genome generation can help investigate and manage nosocomial outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Influenza, Human , Nanopores , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metagenome , Neuraminidase/genetics , Seasons , United Kingdom
7.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260670, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) are major barriers to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). In China, sexual intercourse is the most frequent route of HIV-1 transmission. However, few studies have analyzed PDR and transmission networks in detail among individuals in China with acute HIV-1 infection and their sexual contacts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Baoding City, Hebei Province, China from 2019-2020. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were assessed and a HIV-1 genotypic PDR assay was developed in-house. Transmission networks were visualized using Cytoscape with a threshold genetic distance of 0.015 among HIV-1 subtypes. RESULTS: From 139 newly diagnosed and drug-naïve individuals with HIV-1, 132 pol gene sequences were obtained and revealed eight HIV-1 subtypes. Circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE was the most frequent subtype (53.0%, 70/132) followed by CRF07_BC (26.5%, 35/132), B (13.6%, 18/132), unique recombinant forms (2.3%, 3/132), CRF55_01B (1.5%, 2/132), CRF103_01B (1.5%, 2/132), CRF65_cpx (0.8%, 1/132), and C (0.8%, 1/132). A total of 47 pol gene sequences were used to generate 10 molecular transmission networks. The overall prevalence of PDR was 7.6% and that of PDR to non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 6.1%. Of three transmission networks for PDR, two were closely associated with Beijing and Tianjin, while another was restricted to sequences determined in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that during acute HIV-1 infection, PDR is transmitted in dynamic networks. This suggests that early detection, diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment are critical to effectively control HIV-1 spread.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genotype , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Young Adult , pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/classification , pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 81: 104270, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452334

ABSTRACT

In the endemic settings of India, high CFR (3.6-7.02%) was observed in the consecutive 2009, 2015 and 2017 A/H1N1pdm09 outbreaks, though in eastern India CFR varied between 0 and 5.5% during same period. Recurrent outbreaks of pandemic Influenza A/H1N1pdm09, fragmented nationwide incidence data, lack of national policy for Influenza vaccination in India underscores the necessity for generating regional level data. Thus, during 2017-19, 4106 referred samples from patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in eastern India were tested for A/H1N1pdm09 infection. Among which 16.5% (n = 677/4106) were found A/H1N1pdm09 positive. Individuals <20 years and middle-aged persons (40-60 years) were most susceptible to A/H1N1pdm09 infection. The vaccine strain (A/human/California/07/2009) which was globally used before 2017, clustered in a different lineage away from the representative eastern Indian strains in the phylogenetic dendrogram. The vaccine strain (A/human/Michigan/45/2015) used in India during the study period and the WHO recommended strain (A/human/Brisbane/02/2018) for 2019-20 flu season for the northern hemisphere, clustered with the circulating isolates in the same lineage-6b. Dissimilarities in the amino acids encompassing the antigenic epitopes were seen to be highest with the vaccine strain- A/human/California/07/2009. The significant amino acid variations in the circulating strains with the current WHO recommended vaccine strain, implies the exigency of continuous pandemic A/H1N1pdm09 surveillance studies in this epidemiological setting. The absence of any Oseltamivir resistant mutation (H275Y) in the neuraminidase gene of the current isolates suggests continuing use of Tamiflu® as an antiviral therapy in suspected subjects in this region.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation/genetics , Antigenic Variation/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Female , Humans , India , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neuraminidase/genetics , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
9.
Mol Cell Probes ; 60: 101771, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432043

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus with the NA-H275Y mutation, which confers oseltamivir resistance, must be monitored, especially in patients undergoing neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. In this study, we developed a reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay that has high sensitivity (detection limit: 1.0 × 101 copies/µL) and specificity for detecting the oseltamivir-resistant H275Y mutation; the assay is performed within 30 min at a constant temperature of 39° Celsius using an isothermal device. This method is suitable for the clinical application of targeted testing, thereby providing technical support for precision medicine in individual drug applications for patients with severe infection or immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Neuraminidase/genetics , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Recombinases , Reverse Transcription
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0025721, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410327

ABSTRACT

Human-to-human transmission of viruses, such as influenza viruses and coronaviruses, can promote virus evolution and the emergence of new strains with increased potential for creating pandemics. Clinical studies analyzing how a particular type of virus progressively evolves new traits, such as resistance to antiviral therapies, as a result of passing between different human hosts are difficult to carry out because of the complexity, scale, and cost of the challenge. Here, we demonstrate that spontaneous evolution of influenza A virus through both mutation and gene reassortment can be reconstituted in vitro by sequentially passaging infected mucus droplets between multiple human lung airway-on-a-chip microfluidic culture devices (airway chips). Modeling human-to-human transmission of influenza virus infection on chips in the continued presence of the antiviral drugs amantadine or oseltamivir led to the spontaneous emergence of clinically prevalent resistance mutations, and strains that were resistant to both drugs were identified when they were administered in combination. In contrast, we found that nafamostat, an inhibitor targeting host serine proteases, did not induce viral resistance. This human preclinical model may be useful for studying viral evolution in vitro and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics. IMPORTANCE The rapid evolution of viruses, such as influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is challenging the use and development of antivirals and vaccines. Studies of within-host viral evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape viral global evolution as well as development of better antivirals and vaccines. However, little is known about how viral evolution of resistance to antivirals occurs clinically due to the lack of preclinical models that can faithfully model influenza infection in humans. Our study shows that influenza viral evolution through mutation or gene reassortment can be recapitulated in a human lung airway-on-a-chip (airway chip) microfluidic culture device that can faithfully recapitulate the influenza infection in vitro. This approach is useful for studying within-host viral evolution, evaluating viral drug resistance, and identifying potential influenza virus variants before they appear in human populations, thereby enabling the preemptive design of new and more effective vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/genetics , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Amantadine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/transmission , Lung/virology , Microfluidics , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367917

ABSTRACT

An Emergency Use Authorization was issued in the United States and in Europe for a monoclonal antibody monotherapy to prevent severe COVID-19 in high-risk patients. This study aimed to assess the risk of emergence of mutations following treatment with a single monoclonal antibody. Bamlanivimab was administered at a single dose of 700 mg in a one-hour IV injection in a referral center for the management of COVID-19 in France. Patients were closely monitored clinically and virologically with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR and viral whole genome sequencing. Six patients were treated for a nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection, all males, with a median age of 65 years and multiple comorbidities. All patients were infected with a B.1.1.7 variant, which was the most frequent variant in France at the time, and no patients had E484 mutations at baseline. Bamlanivimab was infused in the six patients within 4 days of the COVID-19 diagnosis. Four patients had a favorable outcome, one died of complications unrelated to COVID-19 or bamlanivimab, and one kidney transplant patient treated with belatacept died from severe COVID-19 more than 40 days after bamlanivimab administration. Virologically, four patients cleared nasopharyngeal viral shedding within one month after infusion, while two presented prolonged viral excretion for more than 40 days. The emergence of E484K mutants was observed in five out of six patients, and the last patient presented a Q496R mutation potentially associated with resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a high risk of emergence of resistance mutants in COVID-19 patients treated with monoclonal antibody monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index
12.
FEBS Lett ; 595(18): 2366-2382, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363633

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) currently being used to manage COVID-19. Accumulation of mutations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RdRp may facilitate antigenic drift, generating favipiravir resistance. Focussing on the chain-termination mechanism utilized by favipiravir, we used high-throughput interface-based protein design to generate > 100 000 designs of the favipiravir-binding site of RdRp and identify mutational hotspots. We identified several single-point mutants and designs having a sequence identity of 97%-98% with wild-type RdRp, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can develop favipiravir resistance with few mutations. Out of 134 mutations documented in the CoV-GLUE database, 63 specific mutations were already predicted as resistant in our calculations, thus attaining ˜ 47% correlation with the sequencing data. These findings improve our understanding of the potential signatures of adaptation in SARS-CoV-2 against favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Point Mutation/genetics
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338862, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329626

ABSTRACT

Rapid emergence of new strains of drug-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses calls for effective drugs for the controls prior to their outbreaks. In the present work, electrochemical H1N1 RNA beacons have been newly designed for exploring the potentiality of an anticancer agent of Bleomycin (BLM) with Fe (ΙΙ) ions (BLM-Fe(ΙΙ)) alternatively the treatment of drug-resistant H1N1 strains with H274Y gene mutation. Herein, biotinylated (-) ssRNA of H1N1 virus and its complementary (+) ssRNA were labeled with electrochemical signal probes of ferrocene and anthraquinone, respectively. The resultants were hybridized and conjugated with avidin-modified magnetic beads to create electrochemical RNA beacons. The electrochemical signal variation of the H1N1 RNA beacon treated with the RNA degradation agent of BLM-Fe(ΙΙ) were monitored. Results indicate that the BLM-Fe(ΙΙ) agent could effectively cleave both H1N1 dsRNAs and ssRNAs at selective cutting sites, as evidenced by the mass spectrometry analysis. This indicates that the BLM-Fe(II) agent could be utilized to block the viral-host infection process by curbing the host-cell viral RNA-mRNA transcription or inactivate the viruses through the cleavage of viral genomes. The efficiency of the BLM-Fe(ΙΙ) agent was verified with clinical seasonal H1N1 samples using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The therapeutic gene drug of BLM-Fe(ΙΙ) holds great potential for controlling new strains of H1N1 virus resistant to clinical antiviral drugs. More importantly, the so designed RNA beacons may provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective platform of drug screening by monitoring the drug-DNA/RNA interactions.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Bleomycin , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Ferrous Compounds , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Neuraminidase , Oseltamivir , RNA, Viral/genetics
14.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(3): 101596, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309170

ABSTRACT

Brazil is a huge continental country with striking geographic differences which are well illustrated in the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Contrasting with the significant decline in the national AIDS detection rate in the last decade, a linear growth has been reported in the Northern region. Despite its public health and epidemiologic importance, there is scarce HIV-1 molecular data from Northern Brazil. This scoping review summarizes recent epidemiologic data with special emphasis on HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in patients from the seven Northern states of Brazil. Studies from the Northern Brazil on different HIV-1 genomic regions, mostly pol (protease/reverse transcriptase) sequences of naïve/antiretroviral treated adults/children were retrieved from PubMed/MEDLINE electronic database. These studies indicate a consistent molecular profile largely dominated by HIV-1 subtype B with minor contribution of subtypes F1 and C and infrequent detection of other subtypes (A1, D, K), recombinants (BF1, BC), circulating recombinant forms (CRF) as the new CRF90_BF1 and CRF02_AG-like, CRF28-29_BF-like, CRF31_BC-like, and a potential new CRF_BF1. This pattern indicates a founder effect of subtype B and the introduction of non-B-subtypes and recombinants probably generated in the Southern/Southeastern regions. In naïve populations transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can impact the outcome of first-line antiretroviral treatment and prophylactic/preventive regimens. In the Northern region TDR rates are moderate while patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed high prevalence of acquired drug resistance mutations. The limited HIV-1 molecular data from Northern Brazil reflects the great challenges to generate comprehensive scientific data in isolated, underprivileged areas. It also highlights the need to invest in local capacity building which supported by adequate infrastructure and funding can promote robust research activities to help reduce the scientific asymmetries in the Northern region. Currently the impacts of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic on the expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic in Northern Brazil deserves to be closely monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(6): 382-393, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193590

ABSTRACT

Several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed and are now under evaluation in clinical trials. With the US Food and Drug Administration recently granting emergency use authorizations for neutralizing mAbs in non-hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, there is an urgent need to discuss the broader potential of these novel therapies and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice, given limited initial availability. Here, we review the precedent for passive immunization and lessons learned from using antibody therapies for viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus and SARS-CoV infections. We then focus on the deployment of convalescent plasma and neutralizing mAbs for treatment of SARS-CoV-2. We review specific clinical questions, including the rationale for stratification of patients, potential biomarkers, known risk factors and temporal considerations for optimal clinical use. To answer these questions, there is a need to understand factors such as the kinetics of viral load and its correlation with clinical outcomes, endogenous antibody responses, pharmacokinetic properties of neutralizing mAbs and the potential benefit of combining antibodies to defend against emerging viral variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 555: 147-153, 2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157143

ABSTRACT

Several existing drugs are currently being tested worldwide to treat COVID-19 patients. Recent data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly evolving into more transmissible variants. It is therefore highly possible that SARS-CoV-2 can accumulate adaptive mutations modulating drug susceptibility and hampering viral antigenicity. Thus, it is vital to predict potential non-synonymous mutation sites and predict the evolution of protein structural modifications leading to drug tolerance. As two FDA-approved anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, boceprevir, and telaprevir, have been shown to effectively inhibit SARS-CoV-2 by targeting the main protease (Mpro), here we used a high-throughput interface-based protein design strategy to identify mutational hotspots and potential signatures of adaptation in these drug binding sites of Mpro. Several mutants exhibited reduced binding affinity to these drugs, out of which hotspot residues having a strong tendency to undergo positive selection were identified. The data further indicated that these anti-HCV drugs have larger footprints in the mutational landscape of Mpro and hence encompass the highest potential for positive selection and adaptation. These findings are crucial in understanding the potential structural modifications in the drug binding sites of Mpro and thus its signatures of adaptation. Furthermore, the data could provide systemic strategies for robust antiviral design and discovery against COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Drug Design , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites/drug effects , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Genetic Fitness/genetics , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/enzymology , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Proline/chemistry , Proline/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
J Virol Methods ; 290: 114084, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065422

ABSTRACT

The use of monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (mNAbs) is being actively pursued as a viable intervention for the treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While highly potent mNAbs have great therapeutic potential, the ability of the virus to mutate and escape recognition and neutralization of mNAbs represents a potential problem in their use for the therapeutic management of SARS-CoV-2. Studies investigating natural or mNAb-induced antigenic variability in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein, and their effects on viral fitness are still rudimentary. In this manuscript we described experimental approaches for the selection, identification, and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody resistant mutants (MARMs) in cultured cells. The ability to study SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift under selective immune pressure by mNAbs is important for the optimal implementation of mNAbs for the therapeutic management of COVID-19. This will help to identify essential amino acid residues in the viral S glycoprotein required for mNAb-mediated inhibition of viral infection, to predict potential natural drift variants that could emerge upon implementation of therapeutic mNAbs, as well as vaccine prophylactic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, it will also enable the assessment of MARM viral fitness and its potential to induce severe infection and associated COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigenic Variation/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
18.
Chin J Integr Med ; 27(1): 3-6, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059813

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands deaths and millions of infections and continued spreading violently. Although researchers are racing to find or develop effective drugs or vaccines, no drugs from modern medical system have been proven effective and the high mutant rates of the virus may lead it resistant to whatever drugs or vaccines developed following modern drug development procedure. Current evidence has demonstrated impressive healing effects of several Chinese medicines (CMs) for Covid-19, which urges us to reflect on the role of CM in the era of modern medicine. Undoubtedly, CM could be promising resources for developing drug candidates for the treatment of Covid-19 in a way similar to the development of artemisinin. But the theory that builds CM, like the emphasis of driving away exogenous pathogen (virus, etc.) by restoring self-healing capacity rather than killing the pathogen directly from the inside and the 'black-box' mode of diagnosing and treating patients, is as important, yet often ignored, an treasure as CM herbs and should be incorporated into modern medicine for future advancement and innovation of medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/standards , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Phytotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
ACS Sens ; 5(12): 4017-4026, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997797

ABSTRACT

Viruses have been a continuous threat to human beings. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a pandemic that is still ongoing worldwide. Previous pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) might be re-emerging through a drug-resistant mutation. We report a colorimetric viral detection method based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 endonuclease dead (dCas9) system. In this method, RNA in the viral lysate was directly recognized by the CRISPR/dCas9 system with biotin-protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)-presenting oligonucleotide (PAMmer). Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase then bound to biotin-PAMmer, inducing a color change through the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. Using the developed method, we successfully identified SARS-CoV-2, pH1N1, and pH1N1/H275Y viruses by the naked eye. Moreover, the detection of viruses in human nasopharyngeal aspirates and sputum was demonstrated. Finally, clinical samples from COVID-19 patients led to a successful diagnosis. We anticipate that the current method can be employed for simple and accurate diagnosis of viruses.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Associated Protein 9/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Colorimetry , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
Nature ; 582(7811): 277-282, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980299

ABSTRACT

The great majority of globally circulating pathogens go undetected, undermining patient care and hindering outbreak preparedness and response. To enable routine surveillance and comprehensive diagnostic applications, there is a need for detection technologies that can scale to test many samples1-3 while simultaneously testing for many pathogens4-6. Here, we develop Combinatorial Arrayed Reactions for Multiplexed Evaluation of Nucleic acids (CARMEN), a platform for scalable, multiplexed pathogen detection. In the CARMEN platform, nanolitre droplets containing CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection reagents7 self-organize in a microwell array8 to pair with droplets of amplified samples, testing each sample against each CRISPR RNA (crRNA) in replicate. The combination of CARMEN and Cas13 detection (CARMEN-Cas13) enables robust testing of more than 4,500 crRNA-target pairs on a single array. Using CARMEN-Cas13, we developed a multiplexed assay that simultaneously differentiates all 169 human-associated viruses with at least 10 published genome sequences and rapidly incorporated an additional crRNA to detect the causative agent of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. CARMEN-Cas13 further enables comprehensive subtyping of influenza A strains and multiplexed identification of dozens of HIV drug-resistance mutations. The intrinsic multiplexing and throughput capabilities of CARMEN make it practical to scale, as miniaturization decreases reagent cost per test by more than 300-fold. Scalable, highly multiplexed CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection shifts diagnostic and surveillance efforts from targeted testing of high-priority samples to comprehensive testing of large sample sets, greatly benefiting patients and public health9-11.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , HIV/classification , HIV/genetics , HIV/isolation & purification , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/instrumentation , RNA, Guide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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