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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26143, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191018

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Currently, more than 100 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide, with over 2.4 million mortalities. The pandemic affects people of all ages but older individuals and those with severe chronic illnesses, including cancer patients, are at higher risk. PATIENT CONCERNS: The impact of cancer treatment on the progression of COVID-19 is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of chemotherapy on COVID-19 outcomes for 2 cancer patients. On January 24, 2020, a level I response to a major public health emergency was initiated in Hubei Province, China, which includes Enshi Autonomous Prefecture that has a population of 4.026 million people. As of April 30, 2020, 252 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Enshi. DIAGNOSIS: Among the confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers, 2 patients were identified who were previously diagnosed with malignant tumors, including one with hepatocellular carcinoma and the other with cardia carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: These 2 patients were receiving or just completed chemotherapy at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis. OUTCOMES: Both patients were followed and presented favorable outcomes. The positive outcomes for these 2 patients could be partially explained by their recent chemotherapy that impacted their immune status. Also, their relatively younger ages and lack of comorbidities were likely factors in their successful recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Anticancer treatment might enhance a patient's ability to respond favorably to COVID-19 infection. However, anticancer treatment is likely to impact immune function differently in different individuals, which can influence disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cyclobutanes/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/immunology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Organoplatinum Compounds/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sorafenib/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(6): 503-515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. RESULTS: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/administration & dosage , Glucagon-Like Peptides/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide/adverse effects , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptides/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Incretins/therapeutic use , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Nausea/chemically induced , Weight Loss/drug effects
6.
Cornea ; 40(11): 1502-1504, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several ophthalmic manifestations have been reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, including conjunctivitis, acute sixth nerve palsy, and multiple cranial neuropathies. We present a unique case of unilateral phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in a 5-year-old boy in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Fluorometholone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Keratoconjunctivitis/drug therapy , Keratoconjunctivitis/virology , Male , Ophthalmic Solutions , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology
8.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(9): 757-767, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017651

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Prediabetes is a major public health concern. Different plant extracts are used in homeopathy as mother tinctures (MTs) for the treatment of prediabetes as an adjunct to individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs); however, their effectiveness remains under-researched. Design: Open-label, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, pragmatic, exploratory trial. Setting: Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Howrah, West Bengal, India. Subjects: Eighty-nine patients with prediabetes. Interventions: Group 1 (n = 45; IHMs plus any one of the following MTs: Cephalandra indica, Gymnema sylvestre, and Syzygium jambolanum; experimental/verum) versus Group 2 (n = 44; IHMs only; control). Outcome measures: Blood parameters, including-the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, blood sugar level 2 h after ingestion of 75 g of glucose (oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] result), and glycosylated hemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%), and symptoms, including the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R) score; all of them were measured at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: Although recruitment of 140 patients was initially planned, the target sample size could not be achieved because of coronavirus disease pandemic-related restrictions. Only 89 patients could be enrolled, and the trial had to be terminated prematurely owing to the time constraints of the project. The data of 82 patients (Group 1, n = 40; Group 2, n = 42) were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat approach. Improvements in all outcomes were greater in Group 1 than in Group 2, but without a significant difference: FBS level (F1, 80 = 4.095, p = 0.046), OGTT result (F1, 80 = 2.399, p = 0.125), HbA1c% (F1, 80 = 1.612, p = 0.208), and DSC-R score (F1, 80 = 0.023, p = 0.880). Conclusions: A promising but nonsignificant trend favored the combination of MTs and IHMs compared with IHMs alone among the patients with prediabetes, especially in FBS. Therefore, further studies are required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2018/08/015319; secondary identifier (UTN): U1111-1218-6016.


Subject(s)
Homeopathy , Prediabetic State , Blood Glucose/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Prediabetic State/blood , Prediabetic State/drug therapy
9.
Gastroenterology ; 163(3): 608-619, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008341

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Novel, effective treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker, vs standard treatment on H pylori eradication in the United States and Europe. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial, treatment-naïve adults with H pylori infection were randomized 1:1:1 to open-label vonoprazan dual therapy (20 mg vonoprazan twice daily; 1 g amoxicillin 3 times daily), or double-blind triple therapy twice a day (vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg; amoxicillin 1 g; clarithromycin 500 mg) for 14 days. The primary outcome was noninferiority in eradication rates in patients without clarithromycin- and amoxicillin-resistant strains (noninferiority margin = 10%). Secondary outcomes assessed superiority in eradication rates in clarithromycin-resistant infections, and in all patients. RESULTS: A total of 1046 patients were randomized. Primary outcome eradication rates (nonresistant strains): vonoprazan triple therapy 84.7%, dual therapy 78.5%, vs lansoprazole triple therapy 78.8% (both noninferior; difference 5.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to 12.6; P < .001; difference -0.3%; 95% CI, -7.4 to 6.8; P = .007, respectively). Eradication rates in clarithromycin-resistant infections: vonoprazan triple therapy 65.8%, dual therapy 69.6%, vs lansoprazole triple therapy 31.9% (both superior; difference 33.9%; 95% CI, 17.7-48.1; P < .001; difference 37.7%; 95% CI, 20.5-52.6; P < .001, respectively). In all patients, vonoprazan triple and dual therapy were superior to lansoprazole triple therapy (80.8% and 77.2%, respectively, vs 68.5%, difference 12.3%; 95% CI, 5.7-18.8; P < .001; difference 8.7%; 95% CI, 1.9-15.4; P = .013). Overall frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between vonoprazan and lansoprazole regimens (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Both vonoprazan-based regimens were superior to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy in clarithromycin-resistant strains and in the overall study population. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; NCT04167670.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Adult , Amoxicillin/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Clarithromycin/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lansoprazole/adverse effects , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrroles , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 2: e25912, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941095

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historical approaches to clinical development of novel therapeutics for treatment and prevention of HIV have led to unacceptable delays in the generation of data to support optimal antiretroviral drug use in pregnancy. Over the last 5 years, multiple stakeholders have voiced their concerns around the exclusion of pregnant women from drug trials, and some progress has been made to consolidate principles and forge consensus. Building on ongoing efforts, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Maternal Paediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (IMPAACT) convened a technical consultation designed to move the discussion from theory to practice. DISCUSSION: Accelerating the inclusion of pregnant women in pre-licensure clinical trials, with a goal to have pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary safety data for all new HIV agents in pregnancy available at the time of drug approval, requires: (1) performing non-clinical developmental and reproductive toxicology studies early in drug development for all new HIV agents; (2) recognizing and acting on the central role of women of childbearing potential affected by HIV through the research being conducted and the dissemination of associated results; (3) enrolling pregnant women in studies to specifically determine pregnancy PK and preliminary safety, as soon as late non-clinical studies are completed with no negative signals, for all new HIV agents that have demonstrated preliminary evidence of safety and efficacy from phase 2 trials; (4) investigating adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes through dedicated pregnancy safety studies for all new priority HIV agents; and (5) expanding active surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy for rare events, such as birth defects. Strategic actions to pursue include developing tools and resources to support designing and implementing studies among pregnant and breastfeeding women, identifying and promoting modifications of the regulatory framework that are supportive of systematic ethical investigation of new drugs in pregnancy, coordinating surveillance efforts, mobilizing key stakeholders and promoting transparency and accountability for all involved. CONCLUSIONS: With more than 19 million women living with HIV worldwide, ensuring greater inclusion of pregnant women in research on novel therapeutics is a priority to support drug optimization and effective introduction of innovations for treatment and prevention of HIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
11.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(8): 997-1002, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937599

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the clinical efficacy sofosbuvir/daclatasvir (SOF-DCV) in patients with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for relevant articles written before January 6, 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical efficacy of SOF-DCV (study group) with alternative treatments (control group) in patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs were included. The all-cause mortality rate in the study group was 10.7% (96/898), which was lower than that in the control group (12.3%, 108/871). However, this difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.62-1.12; I2 = 49%). The overall clinical recovery rate was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.47-3.72; I2 = 20%). Furthermore, the average length of hospital stay was shorter in the study group than in the control group (mean deviation = -1.84; 95% CI, -3.42 to -0.26, I2 = 68%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SOF-DCV did not confer a survival benefit in patients with COVID-19, it may increase a patient's odds of clinical recovery, and shorten the length of their hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267884, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving pandemic that urged the need to investigate various antiviral therapies. This study was conducted to compare efficacy and safety outcomes of darunavir-cobicistat versus lopinavir-ritonavir in treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on adult patients hospitalized in one of the COVID-19 facilities in Qatar. Patients were included if they received darunavir-cobicistat or lopinavir-ritonavir for at least three days as part of their COVID-19 treatments. Data were collected from patients' electronic medical records. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of time to clinical improvement and/or virological clearance. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used at alpha level of 0.05. A total of 400 patients was analyzed, of whom 100 received darunavir-cobicistat and 300 received lopinavir-ritonavir. Majority of patients were male (92.5%), with a mean (SD) time from symptoms onset to start of therapy of 7.57 days (4.89). Patients received lopinavir-ritonavir had significantly faster time to clinical improvement and/or virological clearance than patients received darunavir-cobicistat (4 days [IQR 3-7] vs. 6.5 days [IQR 4-12]; HR 1.345 [95%CI: 1.070-1.691], P = 0.011). Patients received lopinavir-ritonavir had significantly faster time to clinical improvement (5 days [IQR 3-8] vs. 8 days [IQR 4-13]; HR 1.520 (95%CI: 1.2-1.925), P = 0.000), and slower time to virological clearance than darunavir-cobicistat (25 days [IQR 15-33] vs. 21 days [IQR 12.8-30]; HR 0.772 (95%CI: 0.607-0.982), P = 0.035). No significant difference in the incidence or severity of adverse events between groups. The study was limited to its retrospective nature and the possibility of covariates, which was accounted for by multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, early treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was associated with faster time to clinical improvement and/or virological clearance than darunavir-cobicistat. Future trials are warranted to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04425382.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cobicistat , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir , Treatment Outcome
13.
In Vivo ; 36(4): 1986-1993, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from chronic HCV-infected patients could improve liver function and prevent hepatocarcinogenesis in the long term. Eradication of HCV by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) also leads to dynamic immunological changes. We report a case of recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed immediately after combination treatment with DAAs for HCV infection and decompensated cirrhosis. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old male was started on a 12-week treatment with combination of HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. HCV RNA became undetectable after six weeks of treatment and was undetectable at the end of the treatment (EOT). Twelve days after the EOT, we diagnosed the patient with COVID-19 pneumonia, admitted him to our hospital and he was discharged two weeks later. One week after his discharge, he visited our hospital again, was diagnosed with recurrent COVID-19 pneumonia readmitted for a second time. Four days after second admission, cardiac arrest occurred, however, he recovered from severe COVID-19 and achieved sustained virological response and his liver function improved. CONCLUSION: In the COVID-19 era, while attention should be paid to the occurrence or exacerbation of infection, including COVID-19, interferon-free DAA combination therapy should be performed for HCV-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
N Engl J Med ; 386(19): 1793-1803, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection have limited treatment options. Lenacapavir is a first-in-class capsid inhibitor that showed substantial antiviral activity in a phase 1b study. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we enrolled patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection in two cohorts, according to the change in the plasma HIV-1 RNA level between the screening and cohort-selection visits. In cohort 1, patients were first randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive oral lenacapavir or placebo in addition to their failing therapy for 14 days; during the maintenance period, starting on day 15, patients in the lenacapavir group received subcutaneous lenacapavir once every 6 months, and those in the placebo group received oral lenacapavir, followed by subcutaneous lenacapavir; both groups also received optimized background therapy. In cohort 2, all the patients received open-label oral lenacapavir with optimized background therapy on days 1 through 14; subcutaneous lenacapavir was then administered once every 6 months starting on day 15. The primary end point was the percentage of patients in cohort 1 who had a decrease of at least 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter in the viral load by day 15; a key secondary end point was a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 26. RESULTS: A total of 72 patients were enrolled, with 36 in each cohort. In cohort 1, a decrease of at least 0.5 log10 copies per milliliter in the viral load by day 15 was observed in 21 of 24 patients (88%) in the lenacapavir group and in 2 of 12 patients (17%) in the placebo group (absolute difference, 71 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 35 to 90). At week 26, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was reported in 81% of the patients in cohort 1 and in 83% in cohort 2, with a least-squares mean increase in the CD4+ count of 75 and 104 cells per cubic millimeter, respectively. No serious adverse events related to lenacapavir were identified. In both cohorts, lenacapavir-related capsid substitutions that were associated with decreased susceptibility developed in 8 patients during the maintenance period (6 with M66I substitutions). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection, those who received lenacapavir had a greater reduction from baseline in viral load than those who received placebo. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; CAPELLA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04150068.).


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Capsid , Drug Therapy, Combination , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral , Viral Load
16.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(19): 1626-1633, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate current evidence on the utility of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid, and thiamine (HAT) therapy for the management of septic shock. SUMMARY: The following keyword search terms were utilized in PubMed to identify relevant articles: ascorbic acid, thiamine, hydrocortisone, shock, and critical care. Articles relevant to HAT therapy in patients with septic shock were selected. Retrospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials were included in this review; case reports/series were excluded. Data from included studies illustrating the use of HAT therapy for the management of sepsis and septic shock, including data on time to HAT therapy initiation, severity of illness at baseline, duration of vasopressor therapy, progression of organ failure, and mortality, were evaluated. CONCLUSION: The utilization of HAT therapy for the management of sepsis and septic shock remains controversial. Hemodynamic benefits have been shown to be most pronounced when HAT therapy is initiated earlier. Future studies directed at earlier initiation may be necessary to confirm this theory.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Thiamine/adverse effects , Thiamine/therapeutic use
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(7): 925-936, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low-dose glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is widely used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but the balance of benefit and harm is still unclear. METHODS: The GLORIA (Glucocorticoid LOw-dose in RheumatoId Arthritis) pragmatic double-blind randomised trial compared 2 years of prednisolone, 5 mg/day, to placebo in patients aged 65+ with active RA. We allowed all cotreatments except long-term open label GC and minimised exclusion criteria, tailored to seniors. Benefit outcomes included disease activity (disease activity score; DAS28, coprimary) and joint damage (Sharp/van der Heijde, secondary). The other coprimary outcome was harm, expressed as the proportion of patients with ≥1 adverse event (AE) of special interest. Such events comprised serious events, GC-specific events and those causing study discontinuation. Longitudinal models analysed the data, with one-sided testing and 95% confidence limits (95% CL). RESULTS: We randomised 451 patients with established RA and mean 2.1 comorbidities, age 72, disease duration 11 years and DAS28 4.5. 79% were on disease-modifying treatment, including 14% on biologics. 63% prednisolone versus 61% placebo patients completed the trial. Discontinuations were for AE (both, 14%), active disease (3 vs 4%) and for other (including covid pandemic-related disease) reasons (19 vs 21%); mean time in study was 19 months. Disease activity was 0.37 points lower on prednisolone (95% CL 0.23, p<0.0001); joint damage progression was 1.7 points lower (95% CL 0.7, p=0.003). 60% versus 49% of patients experienced the harm outcome, adjusted relative risk 1.24 (95% CL 1.04, p=0.02), with the largest contrast in (mostly non-severe) infections. Other GC-specific events were rare. CONCLUSION: Add-on low-dose prednisolone has beneficial long-term effects in senior patients with established RA, with a trade-off of 24% increase in patients with mostly non-severe AE; this suggests a favourable balance of benefit and harm. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02585258.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Prednisolone , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 44-51, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterize the profile of patients diagnosed with leprosy relapse and understand the influence of different multidrug therapy (MDT) treatments and initial disease presentation. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with leprosy relapse at a referral center in Brazil from 2013 to 2018. We analyzed their clinico-epidemiologic characteristics, laboratory data, and bacilloscopic tests. Survival analysis was used to determine the time elapsed until relapse according to the previous treatment and clinical forms of the disease. RESULTS: A total of 126 cases of relapse were analyzed, which comprised 11.89% (126/1059) of the cases. The median time elapsed until a relapse was 10 years, and most patients had previously undergone 12 doses of MDT (40.48%; 51/126). Undergoing 24 doses of MDT was associated with a better prognosis regarding relapse over time compared with 6 or 12 doses of MDT therapy. Most cases of relapse were classified as multibacillary (96.03%; 121/126). CONCLUSION: The incidence of relapse was greater than observed in other studies. The high percentage of multibacillary patients who had negative bacillary indices demonstrated that the bacillary index cannot be considered to be an essential criterion for relapse, especially concerning making an early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Leprostatic Agents , Leprosy , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Leprostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Leprosy/drug therapy , Recurrence , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
20.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 23(3): 165-171, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Currently, there is no therapy approved for COVID-19. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety patients with non-severe COVID-19 infection. Patients were randomized into three groups. All groups received standard care treatment (SCT). In addition, group 1 received sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, and group 2 received nitazoxanide. Follow-up by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was done at intervals of 5, 8, 11, and 14 days. The primary endpoint was viral clearance. RESULTS: Viral clearance was significantly higher in the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide groups compared to the SCT group in all follow-up intervals (p < 0.001). In the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir arm, 36.9% showed early viral clearance by day 5. By day 14, 83.1% of the sofosbuvir/ledipasvir group, 39.7% of the nitazoxanide group, and 19.4% of the SCT group tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and nitazoxanide treatment were the only significant factors in Cox regression of negative RT-PCR with the highest OR (17.88, 95% CI: 6.66-47.98 and 2.59, 95% CI: 1.11-6.07, respectively). No mortality or serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSION: The addition of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir or nitazoxanide to the SCT results in an early and high viral clearance rate in mild and moderate patients with COVID-19. These drugs represent a safe and affordable treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fluorenes , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Humans , Nitro Compounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Thiazoles , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
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