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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216842, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198342

ABSTRACT

Importance: Critical illness, a marked inflammatory response, and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 may prolong corrected QT interval (QTc). Objective: To evaluate baseline QTc interval on 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ensuing changes among patients with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 3050 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had ECGs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from March 1 through May 1, 2020. Patients were analyzed by treatment group over 5 days, as follows: hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, and neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin. ECGs were manually analyzed by electrophysiologists masked to COVID-19 status. Multivariable modeling evaluated clinical associations with QTc prolongation from baseline. Exposures: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean QTc prolongation, percentage of patients with QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater. Results: A total of 965 patients had more than 2 ECGs and were included in the study, with 561 (58.1%) men, 198 (26.2%) Black patients, and 191 (19.8%) aged 80 years and older. There were 733 patients (76.0%) with COVID-19 and 232 patients (24.0%) without COVID-19. COVID-19 infection was associated with significant mean QTc prolongation from baseline by both 5-day and 2-day multivariable models (5-day, patients with COVID-19: 20.81 [95% CI, 15.29 to 26.33] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: -2.01 [95% CI, -17.31 to 21.32] milliseconds; P = .93; 2-day, patients with COVID-19: 17.40 [95% CI, 12.65 to 22.16] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: 0.11 [95% CI, -12.60 to 12.81] milliseconds; P = .99). COVID-19 infection was independently associated with a modeled mean 27.32 (95% CI, 4.63-43.21) millisecond increase in QTc at 5 days compared with COVID-19-negative status (mean QTc, with COVID-19: 450.45 [95% CI, 441.6 to 459.3] milliseconds; without COVID-19: 423.13 [95% CI, 403.25 to 443.01] milliseconds; P = .01). More patients with COVID-19 not receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19 (34 of 136 [25.0%] vs 17 of 158 [10.8%], P = .002). Multivariable analysis revealed that age 80 years and older compared with those younger than 50 years (mean difference in QTc, 11.91 [SE, 4.69; 95% CI, 2.73 to 21.09]; P = .01), severe chronic kidney disease compared with no chronic kidney disease (mean difference in QTc, 12.20 [SE, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.89 to 22.51; P = .02]), elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.05 [SE, 1.19; 95% CI, 2.72 to 7.38]; P < .001), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.31 [SE, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.06 to 10.57]; P = .04) were associated with QTc prolongation. Torsades de pointes occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with significant mean QTc prolongation at days 5 and 2 of hospitalization compared with day 0. More patients with COVID-19 had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
2.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(7): 568-577, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066254

ABSTRACT

KEY POINTS: In a multicenter point-prevalence study, we found that the rate of supportive care was high; among those receiving COVID-19 drug therapies, adverse reactions occurred in 12% of patients. PURPOSE: There are currently no FDA-approved medications for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the onset of the pandemic, off-label medication use was supported by limited or no clinical data. We sought to characterize experimental COVID-19 therapies and identify safety signals during this period. METHODS: We conducted a noninterventional, multicenter, point prevalence study of patients hospitalized with suspected/confirmed COVID-19. Clinical and treatment characteristics within a 24-hour window were evaluated in a random sample of up to 30 patients per site. The primary objective was to describe COVID-19-targeted therapies. The secondary objective was to describe adverse drug reactions (ADRs). RESULTS: A total of 352 patients treated for COVID-19 at 15 US hospitals From April 18 to May 8, 2020, were included in the study. Most patients were treated at academic medical centers (53.4%) or community hospitals (42.6%). Sixty-seven patients (19%) were receiving drug therapy in addition to supportive care. Drug therapies used included hydroxychloroquine (69%), remdesivir (10%), and interleukin-6 antagonists (9%). Five patients (7.5%) were receiving combination therapy. The rate of use of COVID-19-directed drug therapy was higher in patients with vs patients without a history of asthma (14.9% vs 7%, P = 0.037) and in patients enrolled in clinical trials (26.9% vs 3.2%, P < 0.001). Among those receiving drug therapy, 8 patients (12%) experienced an ADR, and ADRs were recognized at a higher rate in patients enrolled in clinical trials (62.5% vs 22%; odds ratio, 5.9; P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: While we observed high rates of supportive care for patients with COVID-19, we also found that ADRs were common among patients receiving drug therapy, including those enrolled in clinical trials. Comprehensive systems are needed to identify and mitigate ADRs associated with experimental COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Cancer Discov ; 10(10): 1514-1527, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981743

ABSTRACT

Among 2,186 U.S. adults with invasive cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined the association of COVID-19 treatments with 30-day all-cause mortality and factors associated with treatment. Logistic regression with multiple adjustments (e.g., comorbidities, cancer status, baseline COVID-19 severity) was performed. Hydroxychloroquine with any other drug was associated with increased mortality versus treatment with any COVID-19 treatment other than hydroxychloroquine or untreated controls; this association was not present with hydroxychloroquine alone. Remdesivir had numerically reduced mortality versus untreated controls that did not reach statistical significance. Baseline COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with receipt of any treatment. Black patients were approximately half as likely to receive remdesivir as white patients. Although observational studies can be limited by potential unmeasured confounding, our findings add to the emerging understanding of patterns of care for patients with cancer and COVID-19 and support evaluation of emerging treatments through inclusive prospective controlled trials. SIGNIFICANCE: Evaluating the potential role of COVID-19 treatments in patients with cancer in a large observational study, there was no statistically significant 30-day all-cause mortality benefit with hydroxychloroquine or high-dose corticosteroids alone or in combination; remdesivir showed potential benefit. Treatment receipt reflects clinical decision-making and suggests disparities in medication access.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1426.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
4.
Gut ; 70(4): 725-732, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate COVID-19 clinical course in patients with IBD treated with different medication classes and combinations. DESIGN: Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SECURE-IBD) is a large, international registry created to monitor outcomes of IBD patients with confirmed COVID-19. We used multivariable regression with a generalised estimating equation accounting for country as a random effect to analyse the association of different medication classes with severe COVID-19, defined as intensive care unit admission, ventilator use and/or death. RESULTS: 1439 cases from 47 countries were included (mean age 44.1 years, 51.4% men) of whom 112 patients (7.8%) had severe COVID-19. Compared with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist monotherapy, thiopurine monotherapy (adjusted OR (aOR) 4.08, 95% CI 1.73 to 9.61) and combination therapy with TNF antagonist and thiopurine (aOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.65 to 9.78) were associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. Any mesalamine/sulfasalazine compared with no mesalamine/sulfasalazine use was associated with an increased risk (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.29). This risk estimate increased when using TNF antagonist monotherapy as a reference group (aOR 3.52, 95% CI 1.93 to 6.45). Interleukin-12/23 and integrin antagonists were not associated with significantly different risk than TNF antagonist monotherapy (aOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.12 to 8.06 and aOR 2.42, 95% CI 0.59 to 9.96, respectively). CONCLUSION: Combination therapy and thiopurines may be associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19. No significant differences were observed when comparing classes of biologicals. These findings warrant confirmation in large population-based cohorts.MKH should be changed to MDK for co-last author line.


Subject(s)
Azathioprine , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mercaptopurine , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Azathioprine/administration & dosage , Azathioprine/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , International Cooperation , Male , Mercaptopurine/administration & dosage , Mercaptopurine/adverse effects , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects
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