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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770755

ABSTRACT

Under the condition of resource tolerance, engineering construction projects face the problem of labor force balance in the working face. Notably, a deviation occurs between the distribution and certain demand of the labor force in the limited working face, which affects the realization of an extremely short construction period. To address this problem, we first introduced the stochastic coefficient of labor force equilibrium to measure the degree of labor balance. Second, a labor force equilibrium model with the realization goal of an extremely short construction period was established. Then, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was improved from two perspectives to solve the proposed model. The update equation was rounded to solve practical project problems, and a dynamic variable inertia weight was adopted to ensure the PSO algorithm accuracy and convergence speed. Finally, through case analysis, we determined the extremely short construction period and best labor force distribution scheme. Moreover, the case results revealed that the established model is simple, operable and practical and that the proposed algorithm achieves a high search accuracy and efficiency in the model solution process. Overall, under the condition of resource tolerance, this study provides scientific and effective references for managers to realize an extremely short construction period.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Labor, Obstetric , Data Collection , Drug Tolerance , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Pregnancy
2.
Science ; 372(6547): 1169-1175, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583231

ABSTRACT

Emergent resistance to all clinical antibiotics calls for the next generation of therapeutics. Here we report an effective antimicrobial strategy targeting the bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-mediated defense system. We identified cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) as the primary generator of H2S in two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and discovered small molecules that inhibit bacterial CSE. These inhibitors potentiate bactericidal antibiotics against both pathogens in vitro and in mouse models of infection. CSE inhibitors also suppress bacterial tolerance, disrupting biofilm formation and substantially reducing the number of persister bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment. Our results establish bacterial H2S as a multifunctional defense factor and CSE as a drug target for versatile antibiotic enhancers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Biofilms , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/chemistry , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/genetics , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Synergism , Drug Tolerance , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/growth & development , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/enzymology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development
3.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(5)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399456

ABSTRACT

Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) represents a major clinical challenge. The broad definition of TRS requires nonresponse to at least 2 sequential antipsychotic trials of sufficient dose, duration, and adherence. Several demographic, clinical, and neurologic predictors are associated with TRS. Primary (or early) TRS is present from the beginning of therapy, while patients with secondary (or later-onset) TRS initially respond to antipsychotics but become resistant over time, often after relapses. Guidelines worldwide recognize clozapine as the most effective treatment option for TRS, but clozapine is underused due to various barriers. Importantly, studies indicate that response rates are higher when clozapine is initiated earlier in the treatment course. Side effects are common with clozapine, particularly in the first few weeks, but can mostly be managed without discontinuation; they do require proactive assessment, intervention, and reassurance for patients. Furthermore, plasma leucocyte and granulocyte levels must be monitored weekly during the first 18-26 weeks of treatment, and regularly thereafter, according to country regulations. Therapeutic drug monitoring of clozapine trough plasma levels is helpful to guide dosing, with greatest efficacy at plasma clozapine levels ≥350 µg/L, although this level is not universal. Notably, plasma clozapine levels are generally greater at lower doses in nonsmokers, patients with heavy caffeine consumption, in women, in obese people, in those with inflammation (including COVID-19 infection), and in older individuals. Earlier and broader use of clozapine in patients with TRS is an important measure to improve outcomes of patients with this most severe form of the illness.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Clozapine/administration & dosage , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/adverse effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Tolerance , Female , Humans , Male
4.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 608-613, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267905

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia, corticosteroids reduce progression to respiratory failure and death. Some patients, however, remain unresponsive to this treatment, or experience a rebound after termination. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included COVID-19 patients treated with systemic corticosteroids in a Japanese hospital between June 1, 2020, and January 17, 2021. Patients were categorized into three groups: success, rebound, and refractory, and clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: A total of 319 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our hospital and 113 patients met inclusion criteria. The success group had 83 patients (73.5%), the rebound group had nine patients (8.0%), and the refractory group had 21 patients (18.6%). Compared with the success group, the rebound group received corticosteroids earlier, for a shorter duration, and stopped them sooner. The median time from symptom onset to rebound was 12 days. There was no rebound after 20 days. Compared with the success group, the hazard ratio for the number of days from corticosteroid onset to an improvement of two points on a seven-point ordinal scale was 0.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.60, P < .001) for the rebound group versus 0.13 (95% CI, 0.07-0.25, P < .001) for the refractory group. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients treated with corticosteroids were classified into three response groups: success, rebound, and refractory, between which recovery time and prognosis differed. It was found that corticosteroid administration may prevent rebound phenomena if administered at least two weeks from symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids , Treatment Outcome
5.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 48(4): 165-168, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919318

ABSTRACT

Limited availability of personal protective equipment is endangering first-line health-care providers treating patients with presumed or confirmed COVID-19 infections. This editorial has multiple objectives in regard to this reality: First, to raise awareness of the need for safe and effective prophylaxis to protect health-care providers with insufficient personal protective equipment from repeated exposures to COVID-19. Second, to summarize the scientific evidence in support of solutions of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and its daughter compounds, chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide, as potential targets for said prophylactic use. Third, to propose a regimented protocol using commercially available solutions of ASC having sufficient concentrations of chlorine dioxide for virucidal activity to support safe and effective prophylactic use. And fourth, to raise awareness of and compare other potential prophylactic options currently under investigation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chlorides/administration & dosage , Chlorides/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/standards , COVID-19 , Chlorides/chemistry , Drug Tolerance , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Trials ; 21(1): 846, 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of several repurposed drugs to prevent hospitalisation or death in patients aged 65 or more with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and no criteria for hospitalisation. TRIAL DESIGN: Phase III, multi-arm (5) and multi-stage (MAMS), randomized, open-label controlled superiority trial. Participants will be randomly allocated 1:1:1:1:1 to the following strategies: Arm 1: Control arm Arms 2 to 5: Experimental treatment arms Planned interim analyses will be conducted at regular intervals. Their results will be reviewed by an Independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Experimental arms may be terminated for futility, efficacy or toxicity before the end of the trial. New experimental arms may be added if new evidence suggests that other treatments should be tested. A feasibility and acceptability substudy as well as an immunological substudy will be conducted alongside the trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria are: 65-year-old or more; Positive test for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasopharyngeal swab; Symptoms onset within 3 days before diagnosis; No hospitalisation criteria; Signed informed consent; Health insurance. Exclusion criteria are: Inability to make an informed decision to participate (e.g.: dementia, guardianship); Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale ≥7; Long QT syndrome; QTc interval > 500 ms; Heart rate <50/min; Kalaemia >5.5 mmol/L or <3.5 mmol/L; Ongoing treatment with piperaquine, halofantrine, dasatinib, nilotinib, hydroxyzine, domperidone, citalopram, escitalopram, potent inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme, repaglinide, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, theophylline, pyrazinamide, warfarin; Known hypersensitivity to any of the trial drugs or to chloroquine and other 4-aminoquinolines, amodiaquine, mefloquine, glafenine, floctafenine, antrafenine, ARB; Hepatic porphyria; Liver failure (Child-Pugh stage ≥B); Stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m²); Dialysis; Hypersentivity to lactose; Lactase deficiency; Abnormalities in galactose metabolism; Malabsorption syndrome; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; Symptomatic hyperuricemia; Ileus; Colitis; Enterocolitis; Chronic hepatitis B virus disease. The trial is being conducted in France in the Bordeaux, Corse, Dijon, Nancy, Paris and Toulouse areas as well as in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Participants are recruited either at home, nursing homes, general practices, primary care centres or hospital outpatient consultations. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The four experimental treatments planned in protocol version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020) are: (1) Hydroxychloroquine 200 mg, 2 tablets BID on day 0, 2 tablets QD from day 1 to 9; (2) Imatinib 400 mg, 1 tablet QD from day 0 to 9; (3) Favipiravir 200 mg, 12 tablets BID on day 0, 6 tablets BID from day 1 to 9; (4) Telmisartan 20 mg, 1 tablet QD from day 0 to 9. The comparator is a complex of vitamins and trace elements (AZINC Forme et Vitalité®), 1 capsule BID for 10 days, for which there is no reason to believe that they are active on the virus. In protocol version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020): People in the control arm will receive a combination of vitamins and trace elements; people in the experimental arms will receive hydroxychloroquine, or favipiravir, or imatinib, or telmisartan. MAIN OUTCOME: The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with an incidence of hospitalisation and/or death between inclusion and day 14 in each arm. RANDOMISATION: Participants are randomized in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio to each arm using a web-based randomisation tool. Participants not treated with an ARB or ACEI prior to enrolment are randomized to receive the comparator or one of the four experimental drugs. Participants already treated with an ARB or ACEI are randomized to receive the comparator or one of the experimental drugs except telmisartan (i.e.: hydroxychloroquine, imatinib, or favipiravir). Randomisation is stratified on ACEI or ARBs treatment at inclusion and on the type of residence (personal home vs. nursing home). BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial. Participants, caregivers, investigators and statisticians are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 1057 participants will be enrolled if all arms are maintained until the final analysis and no additional arm is added. Three successive futility interim analyses are planned, when the number of participants reaches 30, 60 and 102 in the control arm. Two efficacy analyses (interim n°3 and final) will be performed successively. TRIAL STATUS: This describes the Version 1.2 (April 8th, 2020) of the COVERAGE protocol that was approved by the French regulatory authority and ethics committee. The trial was opened for enrolment on April 15th, 2020 in the Nouvelle Aquitaine region (South-West France). Given the current decline of the COVID-19 pandemic in France and its unforeseeable dynamic in the coming months, new trial sites in 5 other French regions and in Luxembourg are currently being opened. A revised version of the protocol was submitted to the regulatory authority and ethics committee on June 15th, 2020. It contains the following amendments: (i) Inclusion criteria: age ≥65 replaced by age ≥60; time since first symptoms <3 days replaced by time since first symptoms <5 days; (ii) Withdrawal of the hydroxychloroquine arm (due to external data); (iii) increase in the number of trial sites. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov on April 22nd, 2020 (Identifier: NCT04356495): and on EudraCT on April 10th, 2020 (Identifier: 2020-001435-27). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Therapies, Investigational/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Tolerance , Feasibility Studies , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Luxembourg/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2 , Telmisartan/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26946-26954, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841854

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral nucleotide prodrug that has been clinically evaluated in Ebola virus patients and recently received emergency use authorization (EUA) for treatment of COVID-19. With approvals from the Federal Select Agent Program and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Institutional Biosecurity Board, we characterized the resistance profile of remdesivir by serially passaging Ebola virus under remdesivir selection; we generated lineages with low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir after 35 passages. We found that a single amino acid substitution, F548S, in the Ebola virus polymerase conferred low-level reduced susceptibility to remdesivir. The F548 residue is highly conserved in filoviruses but should be subject to specific surveillance among novel filoviruses, in newly emerging variants in ongoing outbreaks, and also in Ebola virus patients undergoing remdesivir therapy. Homology modeling suggests that the Ebola virus polymerase F548 residue lies in the F-motif of the polymerase active site, a region that was previously identified as susceptible to resistance mutations in coronaviruses. Our data suggest that molecular surveillance of this region of the polymerase in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients is also warranted.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Ebolavirus/enzymology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Cell Line , Drug Tolerance/genetics , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/genetics , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(8): 1346-1353, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis patients are at risk of developing severe forms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In March 2020, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZI) were proposed as potential treatments of COVID-19, but with warnings concerning their possible toxicity. No data are available regarding the toxicity of this treatment in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: We report the use of HCQ and AZI in a cohort of COVID-19 haemodialysis patients with focus on safety concerns. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received 200 mg HCQ thrice daily during 10 days, and AZI 500 mg on Day 1, and 250 mg on the four following days. HCQ plasma concentrations were within the recommended range (0.1-1.0 µg/mL) in all patients except one, in which maximum concentration was 1.1 µg/mL. HCQ concentration raised until the third day and remained stable thereafter. No cardiac event occurred in spite of progressive lengthening of corrected QT interval (QTc) during the treatment. One patient experienced a long QTc syndrome (QTc >500 ms) without any arrhythmia episode, although HCQ concentration was in the target range. Five (23.8%) patients experienced hypoglycaemia, a well-known HCQ side-effect. SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained detectable in nasopharyngeal swabs for a long time in haemodialysis patients (mean time 21 days). CONCLUSIONS: HCQ and AZI are safe in haemodialysis patients at these doses but can lead to long QTc syndrome and hypoglycaemia. HCQ concentrations were not correlated with side effects. We recommend monitoring of the QTc length throughout treatment, as well as glycaemia. SARS-CoV-2 could persist for longer in haemodialysis patients than in the general population.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Tolerance , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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