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1.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(3): 472-478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the advantages of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in "prevention" and "control" of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In this paper, we wish to estimate the effect on the virus transmission of scenarios assuming TCM were used to build the first defense line at the very early stage of the spread in Wuhan. We therefore first developed a classic susceptible infected removed (susceptible infected removed, SIR) transmission model based on the national data in China and then updated it to a TCM-SIR model to assess the potential impact of such assumptions, i.e. the underlying risk of lives lost and social economy loss. RESULTS: (a) With the nationwide community lockdown, the risk value was from 90 000 to 250 000 without TCM intervention and the risk value was from 70 000 to 220 000 with TCM intervention; (b) Based the risk assessment method, we forecasted that the infections peak would be 58016 without TCM intervention, which happened on February 17 2020. However, the infections peak would be 45713 with TCM intervention, which happened on 16 February 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of nationwide community lockdown is conducive to timely control the epidemic and protect people's lives and safety. At the same time, we can get lower infections if TCM intervention can be considered. We can also get the benefits from TCM prevention of COVID-19 pandemic by the basic number of infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , China , Communicable Disease Control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853315

ABSTRACT

Introduction. As a novel global epidemic, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 brought great suffering and disaster to mankind. Recently, although significant progress has been made in vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, there are still no drugs for treating COVID-19. It is well known that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has achieved excellent efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. As a treasure-house of natural drugs, Chinese herbs offer a promising prospect for discovering anti-COVID-19 drugs.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We proposed that Rhei Radix et Rhizome-Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (RS) may have potential value in the treatment of COVID-19 patients by regulating immune response, protecting the cardiovascular system, inhibiting the production of inflammatory factors, and blocking virus invasion and replication processes.Aim. We aimed to explore the feasibility and molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19, to provide a reference for basic research and clinical applications.Methodology. Through literature mining, it is found that a Chinese herbal pair, RS, has potential anti-COVID-19 activity. In this study, we analysed the feasibility of RS against COVID-19 by high-throughput molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS against COVID-19 based on network pharmacology.Results. We proved the feasibility of RS anti-COVID-19 by literature mining, virtual docking and molecular dynamics simulations, and found that angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and 3C-like protease (3 CL pro) were also two critical targets for RS against COVID-19. In addition, we predicted the molecular mechanisms of RS in the treatment of COVID-19, and identified 29 main ingredients, 21 potential targets and 16 signalling pathways. Rhein, eupatin, (-)-catechin, aloe-emodin may be important active ingredients in RS. ALB, ESR1, EGFR, HMOX1, CTSL, and RHOA may be important targets against COVID-19. Platelet activation, renin secretion, ras signalling pathway, chemokine signalling pathway, and human cytomegalovirus infection may be important signalling pathways against COVID-19.Conclusion. RS plays a key role in the treatment of COVID-19, which may be closely related to immune regulation, cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammation, virus invasion and replication processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feasibility Studies , Flavonoids , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rhizome , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Phytomedicine ; 102: 154166, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) showed to be beneficial for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically assemble the evidence on the efficacy and safety of QFPDD combined with Western medicine treatments (WMT) for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CSTJ, CBM, Wanfang Data for clinical trials with a control arm until January 13, 2022. Studies matched the selection criteria were included. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included studies were independently conducted by two reviewers. Review Manager 5.4 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9 trials including 1108 COVID-19 patients met the selection criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that QFPDD combined with WMT reduced aggravation rate (AR) by 71% [risk ratio (RR) = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (0.17, 0.51)], increased effective rate (ER) by 13% [RR = 1.13, 95%CI (1.04, 1.22)], shortened 4.78 days of viral shedding [95%CI (-5.79, -3.77)] and 4.45 days of hospital stay [95%CI (-6.05, -2.86)], also decreased the incidence of adverse events (AE) by 56% [RR = 0.44, 95%CI (0.22, 0.89)]. CONCLUSION: QFPDD combined with WMT might reduce the proportion of severe cases and the incidence of AE, shorten the duration of viral shedding and length of hospital stay. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are required to confirm our findings in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Length of Stay
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 2651-2661, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to predict the target and molecular mechanism of Xuebijing injection in the treatment of novel coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), based on network pharmacology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chinese and English studies were searched to obtain the main active components of Xuebijing injection. ETCM, TCMSP and Targetnet online databases were adopted used to predict Xuebijing therapeutic targets. GeneCards, CTD and OMIM databases were researched used to research for the novel coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) and ARDS-related targets. Integrate analysis was carried out to obtain the targets of Xuebijing injection in the treatment of ARDS caused by novel coronavirus. STRING was adopted to analyze the interaction of common target proteins. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were carried out using Bioconductor bioinformatics software package based on R software. Network visualization was performed with Cytoscape software. RESULTS: A total of 30 main active components in Xuebijing injection were collected in this study, which can act on 615 targets. The core components of Xuebijing injection in treating the coronavirus-induced ARDS are Ferulic acid, Ethyl ferulate, Albiflorin, Caffeic acid, Rosmarinic acid, Naringenin, Quercetin. Xuebijing injection has 56 target points for the treatment of ARDS caused by the novel coronavirus, among which AKT1, TNF, CASP3 and STAT3 are the core ones. The main molecular mechanisms of Xuebijing injection in treating the coronavirus-induced ARDs include PI3K-Akt, TNF, STAT3, NF-κB and apoptosis-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Xuebijing mainly treats ARDS caused by the novel coronavirus through anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of immunity since it has the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 56, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is closely associated with cytokines storms. The Chinese medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has been traditionally used to control many inflammatory diseases, such as malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. We performed network analysis and employed molecular docking and network analysis to elucidate active components or targets and the underlying mechanisms of A. annua for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Active components of A. annua were identified through the TCMSP database according to their oral bioavailability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL). Moreover, target genes associated with COVID-19 were mined from GeneCards, OMIM, and TTD. A compound-target (C-T) network was constructed to predict the relationship of active components with the targets. A Compound-disease-target (C-D-T) network has been built to reveal the direct therapeutic target for COVID-19. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation studies (MD), and MM-GBSA binding free energy calculations were used to the closest molecules and targets between A. annua and COVID-19. RESULTS: In our network, GO, and KEGG analysis indicated that A. annua acted in response to COVID-19 by regulating inflammatory response, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The molecular docking results manifested excellent results to verify the binding capacity between the hub components and hub targets in COVID-19. MD and MM-GBSA data showed quercetin to be the more effective candidate against the virus by target MAPK1, and kaempferol to be the other more effective candidate against the virus by target TP53. We identified A. annua's potentially active compounds and targets associated with them that act against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that A. annua may prevent and inhibit the inflammatory processes related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 9248674, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822117

ABSTRACT

The first reported case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Thereafter, it spread through China and worldwide in only a few months, reaching a pandemic level. It can cause severe respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and lung failure. Since the onset of the disease, the rapid response and intervention of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have played a significant role in the effective control of the epidemic. Yinqiaosan (YQS) was used to treat COVID-19 pneumonia, with good curative effects. However, a systematic overview of its active compounds and the therapeutic mechanisms underlying its action has yet to be performed. The purpose of the current study is to explore the compounds and mechanism of YQS in treating COVID-19 pneumonia using system pharmacology. A system pharmacology method involving drug-likeness assessment, oral bioavailability forecasting, virtual docking, and network analysis was applied to estimate the active compounds, hub targets, and key pathways of YQS in the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. With this method, 117 active compounds were successfully identified in YQS, and 77 potential targets were obtained from the targets of 95 compounds and COVID-19 pneumonia. The results show that YQS may act in treating COVID-19 pneumonia and its complications (atherosclerosis and nephropathy) through Kaposi sarcoma-related herpesvirus infection and the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications and pathways in cancer. We distinguished the hub molecular targets within pathways such as TNF, GAPDH, MAPK3, MAPK1, EGFR, CASP3, MAPK8, mTOR, IL-2, and MAPK14. Five of the more highly active compounds (acacetin, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, and quercetin) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. In summary, by introducing a systematic network pharmacology method, our research perfectly forecasts the active compounds, potential targets, and key pathways of YQS applied to COVID-19 and helps to comprehensively clarify its mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(6): 5772-5792, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The newly identified betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative pathogen of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which has killed more than 4.5 million people. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory distress syndrome by targeting the lungs and also induces myocardial damage. Shenshao Ningxin Yin (SNY) has been used for more than 700 years to treat influenza. Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that SNY can improve the clinical symptoms of viral myocarditis, reverse arrhythmia, and reduce the level of myocardial damage markers. METHODS: This work uses a rational computational strategy to identify existing drug molecules that target host pathways for the treatment of COVID-19 with myocarditis. Disease and drug targets were input into the STRING database to construct proteinɃprotein interaction networks. The Metascape database was used for GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. RESULTS: SNY signaling modulated the pathways of coronavirus disease, including COVID-19, Ras signaling, viral myocarditis, and TNF signaling pathways. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were the pivotal targets of SNY. The components of SNY bound well with the pivotal targets, indicating there were potential biological activities. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal the pharmacological role and molecular mechanism of SNY for the treatment of COVID-19 with myocarditis. We also, for the first time, demonstrate that SNY displays multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics with a complex mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Myocarditis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pharmazie ; 77(3): 125-130, 2022 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808671

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders such as stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia caused by COVID-19 have attracted worldwide attention. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been proven to be a safe and effective option for treating mental health disorders. Recently, after assessing its efficacy and safety fully, the Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board approved XiaoYao Tablets as a traditional herbal medicinal product (THMP), indicated for an alternative self-care for patients in Europe to relieve the symptoms of mental stress and exhaustion. Despite the fact that TCMs have gradually become one of the therapeutic choices worldwide, to-date, only a few TCMs have been successfully registered in the European Union (EU) as THMPs, and XiaoYao Tablets is the first successfully registered combination TCM from China. In this article, traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets in the treatment of mental health disorders were summarized and analyzed from the perspective of traditional use registration (TUR). Additionally a safety evolution pathway of combination TCMs was established. This article will not only seek to enhance our understanding about traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets, but also summarize the experience of XiaoYao Tablets as the first successfully registered combination TCM from China, which could serve as role model for the others to overcome registration difficulties in the EU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets
9.
Phytomedicine ; 101: 154100, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that gastrointestinal manifestations co-exist with respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD) was recommended by the National Health Commission to treat mild and moderate COVID-19 patients and proved to effectively alleviate intestinal symptoms. However, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. PURPOSE: This study aimed at exploring potential mechanisms of XFBD by utilizing a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis, mimicking the disease conditions of intestinal microecological disorders. METHODS: The network pharmacology approach was employed to identify the potential targets and pathways of XFBD on the intestinal disorders. Mice with DSS-induced intestinal disorders were utilized to evaluate the protective effect of XFBD in vivo, including body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length, spleen weight, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Colon tissues were used to perform hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, western blot analysis, and transcriptome sequencing. Macrophages, neutrophils and the proportions of T helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Intestinal contents were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that XFBD inhibited the progression of COVID-19-related intestinal diseases by repressing inflammation. In mice with DSS-induced intestinal inflammation, XFBD treatment significantly reduced weight loss, the spleen index, the disease activity index, TNF-α levels, and colonic tissue damage, and prevented colon shortening. Transcriptomics and flow cytometry results suggested that XFBD remodeled intestinal immunity by downregulating the Th1/Th2 ratio. Western blot analysis showed that XFBD exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Indicator analysis of microbiota showed that 75 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affected after XFBD administration. Among them, Akkermansia, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterorhabdus were simultaneously negatively correlated with intestinal disorders' parameters, and Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Eubacterium nodatum,Turicibacter, and Clostridium sensu stricto 1, showed positive correlations with intestinal disorders' parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that XFBD treatment attenuated intestinal disorders associated with inhibiting inflammation, remodeling of intestinal immunity, and improving intestinal flora. These findings provide a scientific basis for the clinical use of XFBD and offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with intestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colitis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Colon/pathology , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
10.
J Med Food ; 25(4): 355-366, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795397

ABSTRACT

We investigated the molecular mechanism by which Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) may intervene in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19-induced cytokine storms using network pharmacology and molecular docking approaches. Using the Traditional Chinese medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), a "component-target-pathway" topology map of HCT for COVID-19 treatment was constructed using Cytoscape. Core target genes were analyzed using the STRING database, and the signal pathway map and biological mechanism of COVID-19 therapy were obtained using cluster profilers. Active components of HCT were docked with severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using AutoDockTools. Data visualization and statistical analysis were conducted using the R program. A molecular dynamic simulation was carried out with the Groningen Machine for Chemical Simulation program. HCT had six active anti-COVID-19 ingredients and 45 molecular targets. Their crucial target proteins for COVID-19 treatment were the RELA (nuclear factor kappa B [NF-κB] p65 subunit), interleukin 6, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1. In functional enrichment analysis, the potential molecular targets of active components of HCT for COVID-19 treatment belonged to 18 signaling pathways (adjusted P = 2.12E-11). Gene ontology obtained by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome enrichment screening showed that the primary mechanism of COVID-19 treatment was upregulation of protein kinase C followed by downregulations of T cell differentiation and proliferation and NF-κB signaling. Molecular docking showed that the active components of HCT (quercetin and kaempferol) had similar binding affinities for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, primary COVID-19 target proteins as did clinically used drugs. These results were confirmed with molecular dynamics simulation. In conclusion, multiple components of HCT, especially quercetin and kaempferol, have the potential to treat COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-induced cytokine storm by targeting multiple proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Houttuynia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B , Quercetin , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(6): 717-722, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) such as hyposmia, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and cough are similar to those of chronic allergic rhinitis (AR). Such symptoms can easily lead AR patients to unnecessary anxiety, misdiagnosis, and invasive diagnostic tests in the COVID-19 pandemic. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important mediator for chronic AR and plays a crucial role in the inflammation of COVID-19. Houttuynia cordata (HC) has been shown to reduce nasal congestion and swelling by suppressing the activation of IL-6 and is used to fight COVID-19. A novel HC-based Chinese herbal formula, Zheng-Yi-Fang (ZYF), was developed to test effects on nasal symptoms of patients with AR in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants aged between 20 and 60 years with at least a 2-year history of moderate to severe perennial AR were enrolled. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (taking ZYF) or the control group (using regular western medicine) for 4 weeks. The Chinese version of the Rhinosinusitis Outcome Measures was used to evaluate impacts on quality of life and nasal symptoms of participants with AR. In addition, the effect of ZYF on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 was investigated. RESULTS: Participants with AR taking ZYF improved their symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal secretion, hyposmia, and postnasal drip in comparison with those of the control group. Meanwhile, ZYF exhibited inhibition of IL-6 secretion in the LPS-induced inflammatory model. CONCLUSION: ZYF has potential effects to relieve nasal symptoms for AR during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Houttuynia , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19 , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Houttuynia/chemistry , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Young Adult
12.
Phytomedicine ; 100: 154083, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of thrombotic events is one of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), due to a hyperinflammatory response caused by the virus. Gegen Qinlian Pills (GQP) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that is included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and played an important role in the clinical fight against COVID-19. Although GQP has shown the potential to treat thrombosis, there is no relevant research on its treatment of thrombosis so far. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that GQP may be capable inhibit inflammation-induced thrombosis. STUDY DESIGN: We tested our hypothesis in a carrageenan-induced thrombosis mouse model in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. METHODS: We used a carrageenan-induced mouse thrombus model to confirm the inhibitory effect of GQP on inflammation-induced thrombus. In vitro, studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in silico network pharmacology analyses were performed to reveal the underlying mechanisms of GQP and determine the main components, targets, and pathways of GQP, respectively. RESULTS: Oral administration of 227.5 mg/kg, 445 mg/kg and 910 mg/kg of GQP significantly inhibited thrombi in the lung, liver, and tail and augmented tail blood flow of carrageenan-induced mice with reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and diminished expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in lung tissues. GQP ethanol extract (1, 2, or 5 µg/ml) also reduced the adhesion of platelets to LPS stimulated HUVECs. The TNF-α and the expression of HMGB1, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in LPS stimulated HUVECs were also attenuated. Moreover, we analyzed the components of GQP and inferred the main targets, biological processes, and pathways of GQP in the treatment of inflammation-induced thrombosis through network pharmacology. CONCLUSION: Overall, we demonstrated that GQP could reduce inflammation-induced thrombosis by inhibiting HMGB1/NFκB/NLRP3 signaling and provided an accurate explanation for the multi-target, multi-function mechanism of GQP in the treatment of thromboinflammation, and provides a reference for the clinical usage of GQP.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , HMGB1 Protein , Thrombosis , Animals , Carrageenan , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
13.
Neuropeptides ; 93: 102240, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778388
14.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2021: 9952620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775004

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Herbal medicine is one of crucial symbols of Chinese national medicine. Investigation on molecular responses of different herbal strategies against viral myocarditis is immeasurably conducive to targeting drug development in the current international absence of miracle treatment. Methods: Literature retrieval platforms were applied in the collection of existing empirical evidences for viral myocarditis-related single-herbal strategies. SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape, and Discovery Studio coordinating with multidatabases investigated underlying target genes, interactive proteins, and docking molecules in turn. Results: Six single-herbal medicines consisting of Huangqi (Hedysarum Multijugum Maxim), Yuganzi (Phyllanthi Fructus), Kushen (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix), Jianghuang (Curcumaelongae Rhizoma), Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), and Jixueteng (Spatholobus Suberectus Dunn) meet the requirement. There were 11 overlapped and 73 unique natural components detected in these herbs. SLC6A2, SLC6A4, NOS2, PPARA, PPARG, ACHE, CYP2C19, CYP51A1, and CHRM2 were equally targeted by six herbs and identified as viral myocarditis-associated symbols. MCODE algorithm exposed the hub role of SRC and EGFR in strategies without Jianghuang. Subsequently, we learned intermolecular interactions of herbal components and their targeting heart-tissue-specific CHRM2, FABP3, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, and SCN5A and cardiac-myocytes-specific IL6, MMP1, and PLAT coupled with viral myocarditis. Ten interactive characteristics such as π-alkyl and van der Waals were modeled in which ARG111, LYS253, ILE114, and VAL11 on cardiac troponin (TNNC1-TNNI3-TNNT2) and ARG208, ASN106, and ALA258 on MMP1 fulfilled potential communicating anchor with ellagic acid, 5α, 9α-dihydroxymatrine, and leachianone g via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, respectively. Conclusions: The comprehensive outcomes uncover differences and linkages between six herbs against viral myocarditis through component and target analysis, fostering development of drugs.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Myocarditis , Plants, Medicinal , Virus Diseases , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
15.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2274-2287, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769071

ABSTRACT

Xuebijing Injection have been found to improve the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and alleviate disease severity, but the mechanisms are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets and mechanisms of the Xuebijing injection in treating COVID-19 via network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis. The main active ingredients and therapeutic targets of the Xuebijing injection, and the pathogenic targets of COVID-19 were screened using the TCMSP, UniProt, and GeneCard databases. According to the 'Drug-Ingredients-Targets-Disease' network built by STRING and Cytoscape, AKT1 was identified as the core target, and baicalein, luteolin, and quercetin were identified as the active ingredients of the Xuebijing injection in connection with AKT1. R language was used for enrichment analysis that predict the mechanisms by which the Xuebijing injection may inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response, modulate NOS activity, and regulate the TNF signal pathway by affecting the role of AKT1. Based on the results of network pharmacology, a molecular docking was performed with AKT1 and the three active ingredients, the results indicated that all three active ingredients could stably bind with AKT1. These findings identify potential molecular mechanisms by which Xuebijing Injection inhibit COVID-19 by acting on AKT1.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomedical Engineering , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/administration & dosage , Humans , Injections , Luteolin/administration & dosage , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Maps , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/chemistry , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects
16.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105457, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) keeps spreading globally. Chinese medicine (CM) exerts a critical role for the prevention or therapy of COVID-19 in an integrative and holistic way. However, mining and development of early, efficient, multisite binding CMs that inhibit the cytokine storm are imminent. METHODS: The formulae were extracted retrospectively from clinical records in Hunan Province. Clinical data mining analysis and association rule analysis were employed for mining the high-frequency herbal pairs and groups from formulae. Network pharmacology methods were applied to initially explore the most critical pair's hub targets, active ingredients, and potential mechanisms. The binding power of active ingredients to the hub targets was verified by molecular docking. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-two prescriptions were obtained from 320 moderate COVID-19 through the Hunan Provincial Health Commission. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Gancao) and Pinelliae Rhizoma (Banxia) were used with the highest frequency and support. There were 49 potential genes associated with Gancao-Banxia pair against moderate COVID-19 patients. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) indicated that Gancao-Banxia might act via inflammatory response, viral defense, and immune responses signaling pathways. IL-6 and STAT3 were the two most hub targets in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The binding of five active ingredients originated from Gancao-Banxia to IL-6-STAT3 was verified by molecular docking, namely quercetin, coniferin, licochalcone a, Licoagrocarpin and (3S,6S)-3-(benzyl)-6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)piperazine-2,5-quinone, maximizing therapeutic efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: This work provided some potential candidate Chinese medicine formulas for moderate COVID-19. Among them, Gancao-Banxia was considered the most potential herbal pair. Bioinformatic data demonstrated that Gancao-Banxia pair may achieve dual inhibition of IL-6-STAT3 via directly interacting with IL-6 and STAT3, suppressing the IL-6 amplifier. SARS-CoV-2 models will be needed to validate this possibility in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
17.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725883

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, has imposed enormous challenges on the health system, economy, and food supply and has substantially modified people's lifestyles. This study aimed to (1) explore the dietary diversity during the lockdown time in China and (2) examine factors associated with dietary diversity including socio-economic characteristics, sources for food and food purchases, and specific dietary behaviors responding to COVID-19 and isolation. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted online in March 2020. Multi-stage sampling was used to recruit participants living in Hubei Province and other parts of China. Dietary diversity was assessed using the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) and clustering analysis was used to categorize people with different propensities of methods for purchasing or obtaining foods. Logistic regression was used to model the associations among HDDS, participants' characteristics, approaches to purchase or obtain food, and behaviors adopted to cope with COVID-19. Results: A total of 1938 participants were included in the analysis. The overall mean HDDS was 9.7 ± 2.1, and the median (25th, 75th) was 10 (8, 12). There were relatively low consumptions of fish, legumes, and miscellaneous foods (e.g., processed food like snacks and beverages). After adjusting for age, family income, and geographic regions, people living in places where laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases were above 500 (ORadjusted = 0.79, 95%CI 0.65, 0.96), or living in Hubei Province (ORadjusted = 0.60, 95%CI 0.39, 0.93) had a lower HDDS. During isolation time, the most common sources for food and food purchases were in-house storage and in person grocery shopping. More than half of the participants (55.9%) purchased food at least once via online ordering and delivery services. There was no significant difference in HDDS among people with distinct dependences on different ways to obtain or purchase food (i.e., dependence on in-person grocery shopping, dependence on both in-house storage and in-person grocery shopping, or dependence on online food purchasing). We also identified a total of 37.7% participants who consumed certain foods or nutritional supplements to cope with COVID-19, which included vitamin C, probiotics, other dietary supplements, alcohol, and vinegar. People who reported these specific dietary behaviors had a significantly higher HDDS (ORadjusted = 1.23, 95%CI 1.02, 1.45) than those who did not do so. This study revealed an overall good dietary diversity among the studied Chinese residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we observed a lower dietary diversity among people living in areas with a high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Online ordering and delivery services were popular and could serve as a feasible method to obtain and purchase food, contributing to ensure diversified diets during the time of lockdown. Certain dietary behaviors associated with COVID-19 were also identified and had significant impacts on HDDS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diet/classification , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/standards , Diet/trends , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Female , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population , Young Adult
18.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(2): 83-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725177

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has been widely used for treating infectious diseases of the respiratory tract such as encephalitis, pneumonia, and asthma. During the past few decades, considerable research has focused on pharmacological action, pharmacokinetic interaction with antibiotics, and clinical applications of SHL. A huge and more recent body of pharmacokinetic studies support the combination of SHL and antibiotics have different effects such as antagonism and synergism. SHL has been one of the best-selling TCM products. However, there is no systematic review of SHL preparations, ranging from protection against respiratory tract infections to interaction with antibiotics. Since their important significance in clinical therapy, the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and interactions with antibiotics of SHL were reviewed and discussed. In addition, this review attempts to explore the possible potential mechanism of SHL preparations in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. We are concerned about the effects of SHL against viruses and bacteria, as well as its interactions with antibiotics in an attempt to provide a new strategy for expanding the clinical research and medication of SHL preparations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9604456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential pharmacological value of extracts from honeysuckle on patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: The active components and targets of honeysuckle were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). SwissADME and pkCSM databases predict pharmacokinetics of ingredients. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database collected transcriptome data for mild COVID-19. Data quality control, differentially expressed gene (DEG) identification, enrichment analysis, and correlation analysis were implemented by R toolkit. CIBERSORT evaluated the infiltration of 22 immune cells. RESULTS: The seven active ingredients of honeysuckle had good oral absorption and medicinal properties. Both the active ingredient targets of honeysuckle and differentially expressed genes of mild COVID-19 were significantly enriched in immune signaling pathways. There were five overlapping immunosignature genes, among which RELA and MAP3K7 expressions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Finally, immune cell infiltration and correlation analysis showed that RELA, MAP3K7, and natural killer (NK) cell are with highly positive correlation and highly negatively correlated with hematopoietic stem cells. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggested that honeysuckle extract had a safe and effective protective effect against mild COVID-19 by regulating a complex molecular network. The main mechanism was related to the proportion of infiltration between NK cells and hematopoietic stem cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lonicera , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology , Databases, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 5480-5508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697594

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) virus has become the greatest global public health crisis in recent years,and the COVID-19 epidemic is still continuing. However, due to the lack of effectivetherapeutic drugs, the treatment of corona viruses is facing huge challenges. In thiscontext, countries with a tradition of using herbal medicine such as China have beenwidely using herbal medicine for prevention and nonspecific treatment of corona virusesand achieved good responses. In this review, we will introduce the application of herbalmedicine in the treatment of corona virus patients in China and other countries, andreview the progress of related molecular mechanisms and antiviral activity ingredients ofherbal medicine, in order to provide a reference for herbal medicine in the treatment ofcorona viruses. We found that herbal medicines are used in the prevention and fightagainst COVID-19 in countries on all continents. In China, herbal medicine has beenreported to relieve some of the clinical symptoms of mild patients and shorten the length of hospital stay. However, as most herbal medicines for the clinical treatment of COVID-19still lack rigorous clinical trials, the clinical and economic value of herbal medicines in theprevention and treatment of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated. Future work basedon large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical trials to evaluate herbal medicines andtheir active ingredients in the treatment of new COVID-19 will be very meaningful.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Herbal Medicine/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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