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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9604456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704361

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the potential pharmacological value of extracts from honeysuckle on patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Methods: The active components and targets of honeysuckle were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). SwissADME and pkCSM databases predict pharmacokinetics of ingredients. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database collected transcriptome data for mild COVID-19. Data quality control, differentially expressed gene (DEG) identification, enrichment analysis, and correlation analysis were implemented by R toolkit. CIBERSORT evaluated the infiltration of 22 immune cells. Results: The seven active ingredients of honeysuckle had good oral absorption and medicinal properties. Both the active ingredient targets of honeysuckle and differentially expressed genes of mild COVID-19 were significantly enriched in immune signaling pathways. There were five overlapping immunosignature genes, among which RELA and MAP3K7 expressions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Finally, immune cell infiltration and correlation analysis showed that RELA, MAP3K7, and natural killer (NK) cell are with highly positive correlation and highly negatively correlated with hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Our analysis suggested that honeysuckle extract had a safe and effective protective effect against mild COVID-19 by regulating a complex molecular network. The main mechanism was related to the proportion of infiltration between NK cells and hematopoietic stem cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lonicera , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology , Databases, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 211: 114632, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665218

ABSTRACT

The incidence of depression has increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. This disease is closely associated with serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and often treated by complex prescription containing Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Therefore, we hypothesized that this herb contains bioactive compounds specially binding to the receptor. However, the rapid discovery of new ligands of 5-HT1A receptor is still challenging due to the lack of efficient screening methods. To address this problem, we developed and characterized a novel approach for the rapid screening of ligands by using immobilized 5-HT1A receptor as the chromatographic stationary phase. Briefly, haloalkane dehalogenase was fused at the C-terminal of 5-HT1A receptor, and the modified 5-HT1A receptor was immobilized on amino-microspheres by the reaction between haloalkane dehalogenase and 6-chlorohexanoic acid linker. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photo-electron were used to characterize the morphology and element of the immobilized receptor. The binding of three specific ligands to 5-HT1A receptor was investigated by two different methods. Moreover, we examined the feasibility of 5-HT1A receptor colume in high throughput screening of new ligands from complex systems as exemplified by Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Gweicurculactone, 2-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxybenzene)-7-(4'-hydroxybezene)-heptane and curcuminol F were identified as the ligands of 5-HT1A receptor with the binding energies of -7.06 kcal/mol, -7.77 kcal/mol and -5.26 kcal/mol, respectively. Collectively, these results indicated that the immobilized 5-HT1A receptor was capable of screening bioactive compound from complex system, providing an effective methodology for high throughput screening.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Curcuma/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A
3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 26, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655545

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the pandemic disease COVID-19, which is so far without efficacious treatment. The discovery of therapy reagents for treating COVID-19 are urgently needed, and the structures of the potential drug-target proteins in the viral life cycle are particularly important. SARS-CoV-2, a member of the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily containing the largest RNA genome, encodes 29 proteins including nonstructural, structural and accessory proteins which are involved in viral adsorption, entry and uncoating, nucleic acid replication and transcription, assembly and release, etc. These proteins individually act as a partner of the replication machinery or involved in forming the complexes with host cellular factors to participate in the essential physiological activities. This review summarizes the representative structures and typically potential therapy agents that target SARS-CoV-2 or some critical proteins for viral pathogenesis, providing insights into the mechanisms underlying viral infection, prevention of infection, and treatment. Indeed, these studies open the door for COVID therapies, leading to ways to prevent and treat COVID-19, especially, treatment of the disease caused by the viral variants are imperative.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design/trends , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/chemistry , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nucleosides/chemistry , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Release/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e934102, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Heat-clearing and detoxifying herbs (HDHs) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus infection. However, their mechanism of action needs further study. This study aimed to explore the anti-coronavirus basis and mechanism of HDHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Database mining was performed on 7 HDHs. Core ingredients and targets were screened according to ADME rules combined with Neighborhood, Co-occurrence, Co-expression, and other algorithms. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses were performed using the R language. Finally, high-throughput molecular docking was used for verification. RESULTS HDHs mainly acts on NOS3, EGFR, IL-6, MAPK8, PTGS2, MAPK14, NFKB1, and CASP3 through quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, indirubin alkaloids, ß-sitosterol, and isolariciresinol. These targets are mainly involved in the regulation of biological processes such as inflammation, activation of MAPK activity, and positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. Pathway analysis further revealed that the pathways regulated by these targets mainly include: signaling pathways related to viral and bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, influenza A, Ras signaling pathways; inflammation-related pathways such as the TLR, TNF, MAPK, and HIF-1 signaling pathways; and immune-related pathways such as NOD receptor signaling pathways. These pathways play a synergistic role in inhibiting lung inflammation and regulating immunity and antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS HDHs play a role in the treatment of coronavirus infection by regulating the body's immunity, fighting inflammation, and antiviral activities, suggesting a molecular basis and new strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 and a foundation for the screening of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Caspase 3/drug effects , Caspase 3/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Lignin/chemistry , Lignin/pharmacology , Luteolin/chemistry , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/drug effects , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Naphthols/chemistry , Naphthols/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sitosterols/chemistry , Sitosterols/pharmacology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114543, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531566

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danggui Liuhuang Tang (DGLHT), first recorded in "Lan-Shi-Mi-Cang" (written in 1276 AD), is a famous classical formula. In 2018, it was listed in the Catalogue of Ancient Classic and Famous Prescriptions (First Batch) formulated by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the National Medical Products Administration. Perimenopausal syndrome (PMS) refers to a series of syndromes with autonomic nervous system dysfunction and neuropsychological symptoms. The treatment of PMS demands non-hormonal drugs. Natural products are considered to be effective substitutes for the treatment of PMS. It is reported that DGLHT has not only good therapeutic effects but also higher safety and fewer side effects in the treatment of PMS. However, the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS is not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the chemical basis and the mechanism of DGLHT in treating PMS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multivariate statistical analysis was used to analyze the difference of components in supernatant before and after compatibility of DGLHT based on LC-MS data. The qualitative analysis was performed on the precipitate formed in the decocting process using LC-MS while the quantitative analysis on the potential markers using LC-UV. Then, the potential markers were analyzed by network pharmacology. The regulatory effect of DGLHT on FSH, P and E2 were carried out in PMS rats. RESULTS: Five potential markers, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin, were screened from the analysis of compounds in the supernatant. Four complexes, composed of potential marker monomers, were identified in the sediment, including two that have not been reported. The key targets of potential markers include TNF, NOS3, EGFR, ESR1, PTGS2, AR, CDC42 and RPS6KB1. The top signaling pathways include the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway. DGLHT could call back the hormone levels of P and E2 in PMS rats. CONCLUSION: DGLHT active ingredients, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine and baicalin contribute a lot to the therapeutic effect. And DGLHT takes effect by regulating hormones secreted by the ovary.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Perimenopause/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Female , Mass Spectrometry , Multivariate Analysis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114760, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525847

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have made great contributions to the prevention and treatment of human diseases in China, and especially in cases of COVID-19. However, due to quality problems, the lack of standards, and the diversity of dosage forms, adverse reactions to TCMs often occur. Moreover, the composition of TCMs makes them extremely challenging to extract and isolate, complicating studies of toxicity mechanisms. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this paper is therefore to summarize the advanced applications of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology in the quality control, safety evaluations, and determination of toxicity mechanisms of TCMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies from the literature have been collected from scientific databases, such as "PubMed", "Scifinder", "Elsevier", "Google Scholar" using the keywords "MSI", "traditional Chinese medicines", "quality control", "metabolomics", and "mechanism". RESULTS: MSI is a new analytical imaging technology that can detect and image the metabolic changes of multiple components of TCMs in plants and animals in a high throughput manner. Compared to other chemical analysis methods, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), this method does not require the complex extraction and separation of TCMs, and is fast, has high sensitivity, is label-free, and can be performed in high-throughput. Combined with chemometrics methods, MSI can be quickly and easily used for quality screening of TCMs. In addition, this technology can be used to further focus on potential biomarkers and explore the therapeutic/toxic mechanisms of TCMs. CONCLUSIONS: As a new type of analysis method, MSI has unique advantages to metabolic analysis, quality control, and mechanisms of action explorations of TCMs, and contributes to the establishment of quality standards to explore the safety and toxicology of TCMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/instrumentation , Quality Control
7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 789-798, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498508

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected more than 210 million individuals globally and resulted in over 4 million deaths since the first report in December 2019. The early use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for light and ordinary patients, can rapidly improve symptoms, shorten hospitalization days and reduce severe cases transformed from light and normal. Many TCM formulas and products have a wide application in treating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (P. cuspidatum), is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine with actions of clearing away heat and eliminating dampness, draining the gallbladder to relieve jaundice, removing blood stasis to alleviate pain, resolving phlegm and arrest cough. In the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2, P. cuspidatum was recommended as as a therapeutic drug of COVID-19 pneumonia.In this study, we aimed to identifies P. cuspidatum is the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections. Methods: In the present study , we infected human malignant embryonal rhabdomyoma (RD) cells with the OC43 strain of the coronavirus, which represent an alternative model for SARS-CoV-2 and then employed the cell viability assay kit for the antiviral activity. We combined computer aided virtual screening to predicte the binding site and employed Surface plasmon resonance analysis (SPR) to comfirm the interaction between drugs and coronavirus. We employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology to identify drug's inhibition in the proteolytic activity of 3CLpro and Plpro. Results: Based on our results, polydatin and resveratrol derived from P. cuspidatum significantly suppressed HCoV-OC43 replication. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of polydatin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 18.66, 125, 14.6 and 25.42 µm, respectively. IC50 values of resveratrol inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and Plpro, MERS Mpro and Plpro were 29.81 ,60.86, 16.35 and19.04 µM, respectively. Finally, SPR assay confirmed that polydatin and resveratrol had high affinity to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV 3Clpro, MERS-CoV 3Clpro and PLpro protein. Conclusions: we identified the antiviral activity of flavonoids polydatin and resveratrol on RD cells. Polydatin and resveratrol were found to be specific and selective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro and PLpro, viral cysteine proteases. In summary, this study identifies P. cuspidatum as the potential broad-spectrum inhibitor for the treatment of coronaviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fallopia japonica/chemistry , Glucosides/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Glucosides/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Resveratrol/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stilbenes/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Viral Proteins/metabolism
8.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(8): 1279-1289, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Through the method of network pharmacology, the active components and targets of Shenqi Wan (SQW) were excavated, the relationship with novel Coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) was discussed, and the possible mechanism of SQW in the treatment of COVID-19 was revealed from the aspects of multicomponents, multitargets, and multipathways. METHODS: Firstly, the active components of SQW were screened from traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform and the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopeia, and the related targets of the components were obtained. Then the disease targets related to COVID-19 were screened from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Venny was used to map the relationship between component-target and disease-target, and String was used to analyze the interaction of common targets. The network was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape, the function of Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) genes was enriched by Metascape, and the molecular docking was verified by CB-Dock. RESULTS: Finally, 45 active components of SQW were obtained, and 72 potential targets were related to COVID-19, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and, C-reactive protein (CRP),may be the key targets. GO enrichment of 1715 projects, such as lipopolysaccharide stress response, active oxygen metabolism, positive regulation of cell migration, and other GO enrichment. About 136 KEGG pathways, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α signaling pathway were obtained. Molecular docking showed that kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, astragaloside, calyx isoflavone glucoside, matrine, and other COVID-19-related targets such as ACE2, chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) have good binding ability. CONCLUSION: According to the above results, it is suggested that SQW may play a role in the treatment of COVID-19 by directly or indirectly combining kaempferol, quercetin, and luteolin with ACE2, 3CLpro, PLpro, and PTGS2 to regulate multiple biological functions and signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Luteolin , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quercetin
9.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402354

ABSTRACT

After experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, it is widely acknowledged that a rapid drug repurposing method is highly needed. A series of useful drug repurposing tools have been developed based on data-driven modeling and network pharmacology. Based on the disease module, we identified several hub proteins that play important roles in the onset and development of the COVID-19, which are potential targets for repositioning approved drugs. Moreover, different network distance metrics were applied to quantify the relationship between drug targets and COVID-19 disease targets in the protein-protein-interaction (PPI) network and predict COVID-19 therapeutic effects of bioactive herbal ingredients and chemicals. Furthermore, the tentative mechanisms of candidates were illustrated through molecular docking and gene enrichment analysis. We obtained 15 chemical and 15 herbal ingredient candidates and found that different drugs may play different roles in the process of virus invasion and the onset and development of the COVID-19 disease. Given pandemic outbreaks, our method has an undeniable immense advantage in the feasibility analysis of drug repurposing or drug screening, especially in the analysis of herbal ingredients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114488, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397458

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in the prevention and treatment of pandemics. The TCM formula Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD), also known as Qing Fei Pai Du Decoction, has been demonstrated effective against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aimed to elucidate the active ingredients, targets and pathway mechanism of LCDD related to suppression of inflammatory, immunity regulation and relaxation of airway smooth muscle for the treatment of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mining chemical ingredients reported in LCDD, 144 compounds covering all herbs were selected and screened against inflammatory-, immunity- and respiratory-related GPCRs including GPR35, H1, CB2, B2, M3 and ß2-adrenoceptor receptor using a label-free integrative pharmacology method. Further, all active compounds were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and an herb-compound-target network based on potency and content of compounds was constructed to elucidate the multi-target and synergistic effect. RESULTS: Thirteen compounds were identified as GPR35 agonists, including licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin, etc. Licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin and alisol A exhibited bradykinin receptor B2 antagonism activities. Atractyline and shogaol showed as a cannabinoid receptor CB2 agonist and a histamine receptor H1 antagonist, respectively. Tectorigenin and aristofone acted as muscarinic receptor M3 antagonists, while synephrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were ß2-adrenoceptor agonists. Pathway deconvolution assays suggested activation of GPR35 triggered PI3K, MEK, JNK pathways and EGFR transactivation, and the activation of ß2-adrenoceptor mediated MEK and Ca2+. The herb-compound-target network analysis found that some compounds such as licochalcone B acted on multiple targets, and multiple components interacted with the same target such as GPR35, reflecting the synergistic mechanism of Chinese medicine. At the same time, some low-abundance compounds displayed high target activity, meaning its important role in LCDD for anti-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates the active ingredients, targets and pathways of LCDD. This is useful for elucidating multitarget synergistic action for its clinical therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cricetulus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Ephedrine/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Respiration/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Nausea/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/chemically induced
12.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105274, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363884

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese herbal compound prescription in Xuanfei Baidu Tang (XBT) has obvious effects in the treatment of COVID-19. However, its effective compounds and targets for the treatment of COVID-19 remain unclear. Computer-Aided Drug Design is used to virtually screen out the anti-inflammatory or anti-viral compounds in XBT, and predict the potential targets by Discovery Studio 2020. Then, we searched for COVID-19 targets using Genecards databases and Protein Data Bank (PDB) databases and compared them to identify targets that were common to both. Finally, the target we screened out is: TP53 (Tumor Protein P53). This article also shows that XBT in the treatment of COVID-19 works in a multi-link and overall synergistic manner. Our results will help to design the new drugs for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16307, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354117

ABSTRACT

Structure-based drug design targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been greatly facilitated by available virus-related protein structures. However, there is an urgent need for effective, safe small-molecule drugs to control the spread of the virus and variants. While many efforts are devoted to searching for compounds that selectively target individual proteins, we investigated the potential interactions between eight proteins related to SARS-CoV-2 and more than 600 compounds from a traditional Chinese medicine which has proven effective at treating the viral infection. Our original ensemble docking and cooperative docking approaches, followed by a total of over 16-micorsecond molecular simulations, have identified at least 9 compounds that may generally bind to key SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Further, we found evidence that some of these compounds can simultaneously bind to the same target, potentially leading to cooperative inhibition to SARS-CoV-2 proteins like the Spike protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results not only present a useful computational methodology to systematically assess the anti-viral potential of small molecules, but also point out a new avenue to seek cooperative compounds toward cocktail therapeutics to target more SARS-CoV-2-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cats , Computational Biology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114356, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274322

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbacetin is an active constituent of traditional Chinese medicines such as Ephedra sinica Stapf (MaHuang) and Sedum roseum (L.). Scop. (Hong JingTian). MaHuang was used to treat cough, asthma, fever, and edema for more than 5000 years, while Hong JingTian was used to treat depression, fatigue, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies indicate that herbacetin and its glycosides play a critical role in the pharmacological activities of these herbs. However, currently, no comprehensive review on herbacetin has been published yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aimed to summarize information on the chemistry, natural sources, and pharmacokinetic features of herbacetin, with an emphasis on its pharmacological activities and possible mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed on the Web of Science, PubMed, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases (CNKI) using the search term "herbacetin" ("all fields") from 1935 to 2020. Information was also obtained from classic books of Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese pharmacopeia, and the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). Studies have been analyzed and summarized in this review if they dealt with chemistry, taxonomy, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacological activity. RESULTS: Herbacetin is distributed in various plants and can be extracted or synthesized. It showed diverse pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, and anticholinesterase. It is thought to have great potential in cancer treatment, especially colon and skin cancers. However, the bioavailability of herbacetin is low and the toxicity of herbacetin has not been studied. Thus, more studies are required to solve these problems. CONCLUSIONS: Herbacetin shows promising pharmacological activities against multiple diseases. Future research should focus on improving bioavailability, further studying its pharmacological mechanism, evaluating its toxicity and optimal dose, and performing the clinical assessment. We hope that the present review will serve as a guideline for future research on herbacetin.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ethnopharmacology , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Glycosides/chemistry , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Glycosides/pharmacology , Humans
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1017-1044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263932

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective control and prevention. Chinese medicine (CM) has developed systematic theories and approaches for infectious disease prevention over 2000 years. Here, we review and analyze Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) used in infectious disease prevention from ancient pestilences to modern epidemics and pandemics to share cumulative preventive medical experience. A total of 829 formulas, including 329 herbs from 189 ancient books, 131 formulas with 152 herbs, and 13 Chinese patent medicines (CPM) from 30 official Chinese prevention programs used in ancient epidemics, SARS, influenza and COVID-19 prevention, were reviewed and analyzed. Preventive CHM mainly has four functions and can be taken orally or applied externally. CHM that kill pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Cyrtomium Fortunei J. Sm[Guanzhong]) were commonly used externally for disinfection in ancient prevention while CHM tonifying Qi (Astragali Radix [Huangq], Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma [Gancao]) are used for modern prevention. Taking CHM that expel pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Lonicerae Japonicae Flos[Jinyinhua]) and CHM eliminating dampness (Atractylodis Rhizoma [Cangzhu], Pogostemonis Herba[Guanghuoxiang]) have been commonly used from ancient times to COVID-19. Damp toxins are a common characteristic of infectious diseases such as SARS and COVID-19. Thus, taking CHM expelling damp toxins and tonifying Qi are the main methods for SARS and COVID-19 prevention. CHM with different approaches have been widely used in infectious disease prevention from ancient times to the present. Multiple CM prevention methods may provide new perspectives for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics
16.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(6): 473-480, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258508

ABSTRACT

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
17.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 2059-2089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: One of the most common types of male infertility is recognized as oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), characterized by low sperm count and quality in males. As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Cuscutae Semen-Mori Fructus coupled-herbs (CSMFCH) has been known to act a curative effect on OA for thousands of years. Nevertheless, the substantial basis and molecular mechanism of CSMFCH in treating OA remain elusive. METHODS: Herein, an integrated approach, including network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experiment validation, was utilized to reveal the new candidate active component and mechanism of CSMFCH in treating OA. RESULTS: The results show that kaempferol is the most significant bioactive component of CSMFCH on OA. The mechanism and targets of CSMFCH against OA are relevant to hormone regulation, oxidant stress, and reproductive promotion. In order to validate network pharmacology results, molecular docking and experiment validation were conducted. In detail, molecular docking was employed to verify the strong binding interactions between kaempferol and the core targets. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS was used to identify kaempferol in the CSMFCH extract. In vitro and in vivo experiments further proved CSMFCH and kaempferol could enhance the mouse Leydig (TM3) and mouse Sertoli (TM4) cell viability, improve the male reproductive organ weights, sperm quality, and decrease testis tissue damage in the OA mouse model induced by CP. CONCLUSION: Our results not only identify the new candidate active component of CSMFCH in treating OA but also provide new insights into the mechanisms of CSMFCH against OA.


Subject(s)
Asthenozoospermia/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/isolation & purification , Fruit/chemistry , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
18.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 305-320, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193536

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(2): 297-305, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193158

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019, specific antiviral drugs have been lacking. A Chinese patent medicine Toujiequwen granules has been promoted in the treatment of COVID-19. The present study was designed to reveal the molecular mechanism of Toujiequwen granules against COVID-19. A network pharmacological method was applied to screen the main active ingredients of Toujiequwen granules. Network analysis of 149 active ingredients and 330 drug targets showed the most active ingredient interacting with many drug targets is quercetin. Drug targets most affected by the active ingredients were PTGS2, PTGS1, and DPP4. Drug target disease enrichment analysis showed drug targets were significantly enriched in cardiovascular diseases and digestive tract diseases. An "active ingredient-target-disease" network showed that 57 active ingredients from Toujiequwen granules interacted with 15 key targets of COVID-19. There were 53 ingredients that could act on DPP4, suggesting that DPP4 may become a potential new key target for the treatment of COVID-19. GO analysis results showed that key targets were mainly enriched in the cellular response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokine activity and other functions. KEGG analysis showed they were mainly concentrated in viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptors and endocrine resistance pathway. The evidence suggests that Toujiequwen granules might play an effective role by improving the symptoms of underlying diseases in patients with COVID-19 and multi-target interventions against multiple signaling pathways related to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Quercetin/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects
20.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(9): 1137-1150, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Isatis indigotica Fort. (I. indigotica) is an herbaceous plant belonging to Cruciferae family. Its leaf (IIL) and root (IIR) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) with good clinical efficacies such as clearing away heat and detoxification, cooling blood and reducing swelling. This review aimed to provide a systematic summary on the phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical applications of I. indigotica. KEY FINDINGS: This plant contains alkaloids, organic acids, flavonoids, lignans, nucleosides, amino acids, and steroids. Previous pharmacological researches indicated that I. indigotica possesses promising antivirus, antibacterial, immunoregulatory, anti-inflammation, and cholagogic effects. Importantly, it can inhibit various viruses, such as influenza, hepatitis B, mumps, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, and coxsachievirus. Clinically, it is frequently used to treat various viral diseases like viral influenza, parotitis and viral hepatitis. Consequently, I. indigotica may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SUMMARY: This paper reviewed the chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of I. indigotica which may guide further research and application of this plant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
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