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1.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2274-2287, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769071

ABSTRACT

Xuebijing Injection have been found to improve the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and alleviate disease severity, but the mechanisms are currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential molecular targets and mechanisms of the Xuebijing injection in treating COVID-19 via network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis. The main active ingredients and therapeutic targets of the Xuebijing injection, and the pathogenic targets of COVID-19 were screened using the TCMSP, UniProt, and GeneCard databases. According to the 'Drug-Ingredients-Targets-Disease' network built by STRING and Cytoscape, AKT1 was identified as the core target, and baicalein, luteolin, and quercetin were identified as the active ingredients of the Xuebijing injection in connection with AKT1. R language was used for enrichment analysis that predict the mechanisms by which the Xuebijing injection may inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response, modulate NOS activity, and regulate the TNF signal pathway by affecting the role of AKT1. Based on the results of network pharmacology, a molecular docking was performed with AKT1 and the three active ingredients, the results indicated that all three active ingredients could stably bind with AKT1. These findings identify potential molecular mechanisms by which Xuebijing Injection inhibit COVID-19 by acting on AKT1.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomedical Engineering , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/administration & dosage , Humans , Injections , Luteolin/administration & dosage , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Maps , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/chemistry , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Signal Transduction/drug effects
2.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 9604456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential pharmacological value of extracts from honeysuckle on patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: The active components and targets of honeysuckle were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). SwissADME and pkCSM databases predict pharmacokinetics of ingredients. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database collected transcriptome data for mild COVID-19. Data quality control, differentially expressed gene (DEG) identification, enrichment analysis, and correlation analysis were implemented by R toolkit. CIBERSORT evaluated the infiltration of 22 immune cells. RESULTS: The seven active ingredients of honeysuckle had good oral absorption and medicinal properties. Both the active ingredient targets of honeysuckle and differentially expressed genes of mild COVID-19 were significantly enriched in immune signaling pathways. There were five overlapping immunosignature genes, among which RELA and MAP3K7 expressions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Finally, immune cell infiltration and correlation analysis showed that RELA, MAP3K7, and natural killer (NK) cell are with highly positive correlation and highly negatively correlated with hematopoietic stem cells. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggested that honeysuckle extract had a safe and effective protective effect against mild COVID-19 by regulating a complex molecular network. The main mechanism was related to the proportion of infiltration between NK cells and hematopoietic stem cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lonicera , Phytotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology , Databases, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Ontology , Gene Regulatory Networks/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lonicera/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Curr Drug Metab ; 23(2): 150-163, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Xuanfei Baidu granules (XFBD granules) are based on the prescription of Xuanfei Baidu, which showed promise as a first-line treatment against Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, Hubei. On March 2, 2021, XFBD granules were marketed as a novel drug for epidemic diseases. However, there is little information about the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the main constituents in XFBD granules. METHODS: A sensitive analytical method was developed for detecting the marker components of XFBD granules by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOFMS/ MS), and for studying its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution by UPLC-QDa. RESULTS: Following an oral administration of a single granule in experimental rats at a dose of 14 g/kg for pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies, 42 compounds and nine analytes were identified in XFBD granules. Nine compounds were detected in the lungs and the liver of the rats. Six compounds were detected in the kidneys. Five compounds were detected in the spleen and three were detected in the heart. As it went undetected in the brain, XFBD granules are considered unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. CONCLUSION: A sensitive UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method was established and validated for the quantification of nine components in rat plasma and tissue samples. This method was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of XFBD granules after their oral administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Administration, Oral , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Tissue Distribution
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26881, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358518

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Radix Isatidis (Banlangen) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different diseases and prevention of many body disorders. Besides, it also plays a pivotal role in novel coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few researchers know its active ingredients and mechanism of action for COVID-19. To find whether Banlangen has a pharmacological effect on COVID-19. In this research, we systematically analyze Banlangen and COVID-19 through network pharmacology technology. A total of 33 active ingredients in Banlangen, 92 targets of the active ingredients, and 259 appropriate targets of COVID-19 were obtained, with 11 common targets. The analysis of the biological process of gene ontology and the enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway suggests that Banlangen participated in the biological processes of protein phosphatase binding, tetrapyrrole binding, the apoptotic process involving cysteine-type endopeptidase activity, etc. The COVID-19 may be treated by regulating advanced glycation end products/a receptor for advanced glycation end products signaling pathway, interleukin-17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, sphingolipid signaling pathway, and p53 signaling pathway. Banlangen has a potential pharmacological effect on COVID-19, which has the value of further exploration in the following experiment and clinical application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods
5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 42(12): 2155-2172, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209738

ABSTRACT

LianhuaQingwen capsule, prepared from an herbal combination, is officially recommended as treatment for COVID-19 in China. Of the serial pharmacokinetic investigations we designed to facilitate identifying LianhuaQingwen compounds that are likely to be therapeutically important, the current investigation focused on the component Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots (Gancao). Besides its function in COVID-19 treatment, Gancao is able to induce pseudoaldosteronism by inhibiting renal 11ß-HSD2. Systemic and colon-luminal exposure to Gancao compounds were characterized in volunteers receiving LianhuaQingwen and by in vitro metabolism studies. Access of Gancao compounds to 11ß-HSD2 was characterized using human/rat, in vitro transport, and plasma protein binding studies, while 11ß-HSD2 inhibition was assessed using human kidney microsomes. LianhuaQingwen contained a total of 41 Gancao constituents (0.01-8.56 µmol/day). Although glycyrrhizin (1), licorice saponin G2 (2), and liquiritin/liquiritin apioside (21/22) were the major Gancao constituents in LianhuaQingwen, their poor intestinal absorption and access to colonic microbiota resulted in significant levels of their respective deglycosylated metabolites glycyrrhetic acid (8), 24-hydroxyglycyrrhetic acid (M2D; a new Gancao metabolite), and liquiritigenin (27) in human plasma and feces after dosing. These circulating metabolites were glucuronized/sulfated in the liver and then excreted into bile. Hepatic oxidation of 8 also yielded M2D. Circulating 8 and M2D, having good membrane permeability, could access (via passive tubular reabsorption) and inhibit renal 11ß-HSD2. Collectively, 1 and 2 were metabolically activated to the pseudoaldosterogenic compounds 8 and M2D. This investigation, together with such investigations of other components, has implications for precisely defining therapeutic benefit of LianhuaQingwen and conditions for its safe use.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Phytochemicals/pharmacokinetics , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/antagonists & inhibitors , 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2/metabolism , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biological Availability , Biotransformation , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Female , Glycyrrhiza/adverse effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Liddle Syndrome/chemically induced , Liddle Syndrome/enzymology , Male , Patient Safety , Phytochemicals/administration & dosage , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Risk Assessment
6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 305-320, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193536

ABSTRACT

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , Animals , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
7.
J Sep Sci ; 44(10): 2097-2112, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130643

ABSTRACT

The metabolic profiles of Tanreqing injection, which is a traditional Chinese medicine recommended for complementary administration to treat a novel coronavirus, have remained unclear, which inhibit the understanding of the effective chemical compounds of Tanreqing injection. In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was used to identify the compounds and metabolites in various biosamples, including plasma, bile, liver, lung, kidney, urine, and feces, following the intravenous administration of Tanreqing injection in rats. A total of 89 compounds were characterized in the biosamples of Tanreqing injection-treated rats including 25 precursor constituents and 64 metabolites. Nine flavonoid compounds, twelve phenolic acids, and four iridoid glycosides were identified in the rats. Their metabolites were mainly produced by glucuronidation, deglucuronidation, glycosylation, deglycosylation, methylation, demethylation, N-heterocyclisation, sulphation, dehydroxylation, decarboxylation, dehydration, hydroxylation, and corresponding recombination reactions. This study was the first to comprehensively investigate the metabolic profile of Tanreqing injection and provides a scientific basis to further elucidate the pharmacodynamic material basis and therapeutic mechanism of Tanreqing injection.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Injections, Intravenous , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tissue Distribution
8.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(12): 941-951, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065694

ABSTRACT

As a representative drug for the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, Xuebijing (XBJ) injection is also one of the recommended drugs for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its treatment mechanism for COVID-19 is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential mechanism of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19 employing network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. The corresponding target genes of 45 main active ingredients in XBJ injection and COVID-19 were obtained by using multiple database retrieval and literature mining. 102 overlapping targets of them were screened as the core targets for analysis. Then built the PPI network, TCM-compound-target-disease, and disease-target-pathway networks with the help of Cytoscape 3.6.1 software. After that, utilized DAVID to perform gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to predict the action mechanism of overlapping targets. Finally, by applying molecular docking technology, all compounds were docked with COVID-19 3 CL protease(3CLpro), spike protein (S protein), and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). The results indicated that quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and other compounds in XBJ injection could affect TNF, MAPK1, IL6 and other overlapping targets. Meanwhile, anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and rutin could combine with COVID-19 crucial proteins, and then played the role of anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune response to treat COVID-19. This study revealed the multiple active components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19, which provided a new perspective for the study of the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Protein Interaction Mapping/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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