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1.
Chin J Nat Med ; 21(5): 383-400, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in excess deaths worldwide. Conventional antiviral medicines have been used to relieve the symptoms, with limited therapeutic effect. In contrast, Lianhua Qingwen Capsule is reported to exert remarkable anti-COVID-19 effect. The current review aims to: 1) uncover the main pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for managing COVID-19; 2) verify the bioactive ingredients and pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule by network analysis; 3) investigate the compatibility effect of major botanical drug pairs in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule; and 4) clarify the clinical evidence and safety of the combined therapy of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule and conventional drugs. Numerous bioactive ingredients in Lianhu Qingwen, such as quercetin, naringenin, ß-sitosterol, luteolin, and stigmasterol, were identified to target host cytokines, and to regulate the immune defence in response to COVID-19. Genes including androgen receptor (AR), myeloperoxidase (MPO), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin (INS), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) were found to be significantly involved in the pharmacological actions of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule against COVID-19. Four botanical drug pairs in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule were shown to have synergistic effect for the treatment of COVID-19. Clinical studies demonstrated the medicinal effect of the combined use of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule and conventional drugs against COVID-19. In conclusion, the four main pharmacological mechanisms of Lianhua Qingwen Capsule for managing COVID-19 are revealed. Therapeutic effect has been noted against COVID-19 in Lianhua Qingwen Capsule.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pandemics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(10): 2606-2612, 2023 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244902

ABSTRACT

Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic herbal formula. All of them are derived from Treatise on Cold Damage(Shang Han Lun) by ZHANG Zhong-jing. This combination has the effects of harmonizing lesser yang, relieving exterior syndrome, clearing lung heat, and relieving panting. It is mainly used for treating the disease involving the triple-Yang combination of diseases and accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic combination for the treatment of exogenous diseases involving the triple-Yang combination. They are commonly used in exogenous diseases, especially in the north of China. This combination is also the main treatment strategy for coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) accompanied by fever and cough. Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classical herbal formula for treating the syndrome of phlegm-heat obstructing the lung. "Dyspnea after sweating" suggests the accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Patients with mild symptoms may develop cough and asthma along with forehead sweating, and those in critical severe may develop whole-body sweating, especially the front chest. Modern medicine believes that the above situation is related to lung infection. "Mild fever" refers to syndromes rather than pathogenesis. It does not mean that the heat syndrome is not heavy, instead, it suggests that severe heat and inflammation have occurred. The indications of Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction are as follows.(1) In terms of diseases, it is suitable for the treatment of viral pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, COVID-19 infection, measles with pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation, pertussis, and other influenza and pneumonia.(2) In terms of syndromes, it can be used for the syndromes of bitter mouth, dry pharynx, vertigo, loss of appetite, vexation, vomiting, and fullness and discomfort in the chest and hypochondrium. It can also be used to treat alternate attacks of chill and fever and different degrees of fever, as well as chest tightness, cough, asthma, expectoration, dry mouth, wanting cold drinks, feeling agitated, sweating, yellow urine, dry stool, red tongue, yellow or white fur, and floating, smooth, and powerful pulse, especially the right wrist pulse.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Animals , Humans , Cough , Syndrome , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Critical Care , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(3): 582-587, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antipyretic effect of early treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 369 patients from January 26th, 2020 to April 15th, 2020, who had been diagnosed with COVID-19. Among 92 eligible cases, 45 cases were identified as treatment group Ⅰ ( 45) and 47 cases were identified as treatment group Ⅱ. Patients in the treatment group Ⅰ were treated with TCM herbal decoction within 5 d after admission. Patients in the treatment group Ⅱ were treated with TCM herbal decoction after the 6th admission day. The onset time of antipyretic effect, the antipyretic time, the time of negative oropharyngeal swab nucleic acid conversion, and the changes of cell count in blood routine test were compared. RESULTS: The treatment group I showed shorter average antipyretic duration (4 7 d; <0.05), and shorter average time for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) nucleic acid test results to turn negative (7 11 d; <0.05) than the treatment group II. For patients ( 54) with body temperature>38 ℃, patients in the treatment group I had shorter median onset time of antipyretic effect than those in the treatment group II (3 4 d; <0.05). The absolute lymphocyte (LYMPH) count and absolute eosinophil (EOS) count on the 3rd day after admission and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the 6th day after admission of patients in the treatment group I were notably different from those in the treatment group II at the same time point (0.05). Based on Spearman's rank correlation analysis, the change of body temperature on the 3rd day after admission was positively correlated with the increase of EOS count and the increase of EOS count and LYMPH counts on the 6th day after admission (0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Early TCM intervention within 5 d after hospital admission shortened the onset time of antipyretic effect and fever duration of COVID-19 patients, reduced the time required for PCR test results to turn negative. Moreover, early TCM intervention also improved the results of inflammatory markers for COVID-19 patients. LYMPH and EOS counts can be used as indicators of TCM antipyretic effect.


Subject(s)
Antipyretics , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Retrospective Studies , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
4.
Technol Health Care ; 31(S1): 169-184, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) since early 2020 is one of the most significant global health issues in history. Although there is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19, researchers have provided a whole array of potential treatments, both from the Western medicine approach, which is molecular target and pathogenesis based, and from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) approach, which is based on the exposure to toxins/pathogens and the balance of the body to combat them for recovery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to find combinations of Western medicine and TCM that may offer better therapeutic efficacy synergystically with a better adverse events profile. The findings of the research may provide a new insight in the development of the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: From the Western medicine perspective, drugs target the mechanisms of viral infection, including the stages of viral entry (Arbidol, Camostat Mesylate, Convalescent Plasma therapy) and viral replication (Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Redemsivir, Ribavirin). Additional therapies target host defenses, preventing cytokine storms (Tocilizumab) and stimulating the immune system (Interferons). On the other hand, TCM also proposed a number of treatment methods for COVID-19 with new scientific approaches identifying their antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. The novel combination of Western medicine and TCM can be proposed by analyzing their respective molecular targets. RESULTS: Although TCM is not generally accepted in the Western community because of the general lack of knowledge on their detailed mechanisms, studies and clinical trials suggest that TCM could be beneficial in combating COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Based on the principle of combining TCM and Western medicine, two combinations are tested effective in clinical trials, and three possible combinations that might be effective are proposed in the paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Serotherapy
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(15): e33545, 2023 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, using meta-analysis, the efficacy and safety profile of Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia. METHODS: We screened multiple publication databases (PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP), using parameters designed to identify articles detailing randomized controlled trials relating to the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia with JHQG. The inclusion period for each search was the point of database inception to November 2022. Each piece of literature identified in our initial screening was independently reviewed by 2 researchers, who extracted the relevant data and evaluated the bias risk associated with the study. The data was split in 2: the control group (containing patients who had received routine treatment or placebo) and the experimental group (containing patients treated with JHQG). The meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.4 software. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Four articles were selected for this study and combined included a total of 582 patients, which were subdivided into experimental (n = 347) and control (n = 235) groups. The results showed that treatment with JHQG could significantly: enhance the improvement rate of primary symptoms [relative ratio (RR) = 1.26,95% confidence interval (CI) (1.07, 1.49), P = .007] and fever [RR = 1.48, 95% CI (1.07, 2.04), P = .02]; decrease the viral nucleic acid in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [RR = 2.04, 95% CI (1.15, 3.62), P = .02] and reduce the progression of pneumonia [RR = 0.34, 95% CI (0.17, 0.67), P = .002]. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regards to: the improvement rate of cough, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, computed tomography, or frequency of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence indicates that JHQG is effective in treating COVID-19, increasing the rate of improvement for fever, increasing the negative rate of viral nucleic acid in patients with COVID-19 and reducing the aggravation rate of pneumonia. These conclusions need to be verified by further rigorous studies, as the existing results were limited by the number and quality of the included studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pneumonia , Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia/drug therapy
6.
Am J Chin Med ; 50(4): 883-925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264676

ABSTRACT

To compare the efficacy of different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide a higher level of evidence in the form of network meta-analysis (NMA) and systematic review. We searched the studies from the following databases: CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from the establishment of the respective database until December 2021. Relevant studies were screened according to the pre-established inclusion criteria. The quality of the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were assessed using the risk of bias (ROB) tool and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS), respectively. R software 4.1.1 and Stata 13.1 were used for data analysis and mapping. A total of 34 studies were included in this network meta-analysis that tested 24 TCM interventions and included 3443 patients. Using cluster analysis of time to negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the length of hospital stay and composite events, we found that Jinyinhua oral liquid (JYH, 120 mL) + conventional Western medicine (CWM) has the highest SUCRA value at 88.64%, 85.61% and 84.24%. The traditional meta-analysis results revealed that Qingfei Paidu decoction + CWM were significantly different compared with CWM alone for the score of clinical symptoms (MD =-0.75, 95% CI [-1.04, -0.47]). Nine studies reported 57 adverse reactions (ADRs) and 3 adverse events (ADEs) in TCM + CWM groups, and eight studies reported 33 ADRs and 8 ADEs in CWM groups. In conclusion, the combination of TCM and CWM approaches may enhance the efficacy of CWM in COVID-19 patients. Based on the NMA result, JYH (120 mL) + CWM may be a more effective treatment and deserves further investigation. However, the differences in many comparisons between TCM interventions did not reach statistical significance; therefore, further high-quality studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Network Meta-Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3884, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286227

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. However, the treatment of vitiligo combined with COVID-19 has not been reported. Astragalus membranaceus (AM) has a therapeutic effect on patients with vitiligo and COVID-19. This study aims to discover its possible therapeutic mechanisms and provide potential drug targets. Using the Chinese Medicine System Pharmacological Database (TCMSP), GEO database and Genecards websites and other databases, AM target, vitiligo disease target, and COVID-19 related gene set were established. Then find the crossover genes by taking the intersection. Then use GO, KEGG enrichment analysis, and PPI network to discover its underlying mechanism. Finally, by importing drugs, active ingredients, crossover genes, and enriched signal pathways into Cytoscape software, a "drug-active ingredient-target signal pathway-" network is constructed. TCMSP screened and obtained 33 active ingredients including baicalein (MOL002714), NEOBAICALEIN (MOL002934), Skullcapflavone II (MOL002927), and wogonin (MOL000173), which acted on 448 potential targets. 1166 differentially expressed genes for vitiligo were screened by GEO. CIVID-19 related genes were screened by Genecards. Then by taking the intersection, a total of 10 crossover genes (PTGS2, CDK1, STAT1, BCL2L1, SCARB1, HIF1A, NAE1, PLA2G4A, HSP90AA1, and HSP90B1) were obtained. KEGG analysis found that it was mainly enriched in signaling pathways such as IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Five core targets (PTGS2, STAT1, BCL2L1, HIF1A, and HSP90AA1) were obtained by analyzing the PPI network. The network of "active ingredients-crossover genes" was constructed by Cytoscape, and the 5 main active ingredients acting on the 5 core crossover genes acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone. The core crossover genes obtained by PPI and the core crossover genes obtained by the "active ingredient-crossover gene" network are intersected to obtain the three most important core genes (PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1). AM may act on PTGS2, STAT1, HSP90AA1, etc. through active components such as acacetin, wogonin, baicalein, bis2S)-2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate and 5,2'-Dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxyflavone to activate IL-17 signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, Necroptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection, and VEGF signaling pathway and other signaling pathways to achieve the effect of treating vitiligo and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypopigmentation , Vitiligo , Humans , Vitiligo/drug therapy , Vitiligo/genetics , Astragalus propinquus , Interleukin-17 , Network Pharmacology , Benzene , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Computational Biology , NLR Proteins , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
8.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(12): 1233-1237, 2022 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258697

ABSTRACT

In order to more actively respond to the new situation of prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to guide home health management for adults who are asymptomatic carriers or exhibit mild symptoms, the World Federation of Chinese Medical Societies Emergency Committee, World Federation of Chinese Medical Societies Respiratory Diseases, World Federation of Chinese Medical Societies Heat Disease Committee, Chinese Association of Chinese Medicine Pulmonary Disease Chapter, the First Aid Group of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of the Emergency Branch of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association, the First Aid Group of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of the Emergency Branch of the Emergency Physician Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, the Emergency Branch of the Shanghai Chinese Medical Association, the Institute of Emergency and Critical Care of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Health Commission's Key Laboratory of Critical Care Medicine and other academic institutions have organized the medical experts at treating COVID-19 front line in China to investigate and discuss the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) health management at home for adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants, and concluded the "Expert consensus on traditional Chinese medicine health management at home for adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants", in combination with "Guideline on SARS-CoV-2 variant infection recover at home" issued by the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council. The expert consensus included home environment, asymptomatic infection, infection with mild symptoms, recovery period, and TCM non-drug therapy intervention, which will provide a guidance to TCM intervention at home to adults infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Consensus , East Asian People , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , China , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 43(2): 343-351, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of Xiaoyao capsule in improving the clinical symptoms of sleep and mood disorders during recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The study cohort comprised 200 patients with sleep and mood disorders during recovery from COVID-19. Patients were randomized into the control group and the experimental group in a 1:1 ratio by blocked randomization. The patients received either Xiaoyao capsule (experimental group) or a placebo Xiaoyao capsule (control group) for 2 weeks. The improvements in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome scales, total effective rates, and disappearance rates of irritability, anxiety, and poor sleep were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The TCM syndrome pattern scales, total effective rates, and disappearance rates of irritability, anxiety, and poor sleep did not significantly differ between the experimental group versus the control group in the full analysis set and the per protocol set after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment ( > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Xiaoyao capsule do not significantly improve the clinical symptoms of sleep and mood disorders in patients in recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Mood Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Sci China Life Sci ; 66(6): 1280-1289, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234626

ABSTRACT

In China, more than 80% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a treatment and their clinical efficacy have been reported. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies have identified herbal small RNAs (sRNAs) as novel functional components. In this study, a cohort of 22 patients with COVID-19 treated with Toujie Quwen (TQ) granules was analyzed. We observed thousands of herbal small RNAs that entered the blood cells of patients after the consumption of TQ granules. In response to this treatment, the reduced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly correlated with the predicted target genes of the most prevalent herbal sRNAs detected in the blood. Moreover, the predicted target genes of the top 30 sRNAs from each of the 245 TCMs in the Bencao sRNA Atlas overlapped with 337 upregulated DEGs in patients with mild COVID-19, and 33 TCMs, with more than 50% overlapping genes were identified as effective TCMs. These predicted target genes of top 30 sRNAs from Juhong, Gualoupi and Foshou were confirmed experimentally. Our results not only elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of TCM potential clinical efficacy for COVID-19 patients, but also provided 33 effective COVID-19 TCMs for prescription optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , RNA
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(3): e32693, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231467

ABSTRACT

After the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a global pandemic, global health workers have been facing an unprecedented and severe challenge. Currently, a mixturetion to inhibit the exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation caused by COVID-19, Fuzheng Yugan Mixture (FZYGM), has been approved for medical institution mixturetion notification. However, the mechanism of FZYGM remains poorly defined. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular and related physiological pathways of FZYGM as a potential therapeutic agent for COVID-19. Active molecules of FZYGM were obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), while potential target genes of COVID-19 were identified by DrugBank and GeneCards. Compound-target networks and protein-protein interactions (PPI) were established by Cytoscape_v3.8.2 and String databases, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Finally, a more in-depth study was performed using molecular docking. Our study identified 7 active compounds and 3 corresponding core targets. The main potentially acting signaling pathways include the interleukin (IL)-17 signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, and coronavirus disease-COVID-19. This study shows that FZYGM can exhibit anti-COVID-19 effects through multiple targets and pathways. Therefore, FZYGM can be considered a drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19, and it provides good theoretical support for subsequent experiments and clinical applications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
12.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(2)2023 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222576

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of high-throughput technologies, computational screening based on gene expression profiles has become one of the most effective methods for drug discovery. More importantly, profile-based approaches remarkably enhance novel drug-disease pair discovery without relying on drug- or disease-specific prior knowledge, which has been widely used in modern medicine. However, profile-based systematic screening of active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been scarcely performed due to inadequate pharmacotranscriptomic data. Here, we develop the largest-to-date online TCM active ingredients-based pharmacotranscriptomic platform integrated traditional Chinese medicine (ITCM) for the effective screening of active ingredients. First, we performed unified high-throughput experiments and constructed the largest data repository of 496 representative active ingredients, which was five times larger than the previous one built by our team. The transcriptome-based multi-scale analysis was also performed to elucidate their mechanism. Then, we developed six state-of-art signature search methods to screen active ingredients and determine the optimal signature size for all methods. Moreover, we integrated them into a screening strategy, TCM-Query, to identify the potential active ingredients for the special disease. In addition, we also comprehensively collected the TCM-related resource by literature mining. Finally, we applied ITCM to an active ingredient bavachinin, and two diseases, including prostate cancer and COVID-19, to demonstrate the power of drug discovery. ITCM was aimed to comprehensively explore the active ingredients of TCM and boost studies of pharmacological action and drug discovery. ITCM is available at http://itcm.biotcm.net.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Profiling , Transcriptome
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 16(6): 258-272, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217405

ABSTRACT

As an indispensable part of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese patent medicines have played an important role in preventing and treating diseases in China. Since they are easy to use, easy to store, and cost-effective, Chinese patent medicines have been generally accepted and widely used in Chinese clinical practice as a vital medical resource. In recent years, as TCM has developed and it has been accepted around the world, many Chinese patent medicine companies have gained international market access and successfully registered several Chinese patent medicines as over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drugs in regions and countries that primarily use Western medicine such as the EU, Russia, Canada, Singapore, and Vietnam. Moreover, several Chinese patent medicines have been obtained the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval conducting phase II or III clinical trials in the US. The current work has focused on several Chinese patent medicines that have been successfully registered or that have been submitted for registration abroad. Summarized here are recent advances in the efficacy and molecular mechanisms of these Chinese patent medicines to treat respiratory infectious diseases (Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Jinhua Qinggan granules, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsules), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, Huatuo Zaizao pills, and Tongxinluo Capsules), cancers (a Kanglaite injection and a Shenqi Fuzheng Injection), and gynecological diseases (Guizhi Fuling Capsules). The hope is that this review will contribute to a better understanding of Chinese patent medicines by people around the world.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nonprescription Drugs , Humans , Capsules , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(49): e32136, 2022 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) is a sudden public event affecting all human beings, with the rapid transmission, extensive groups affected, many complications, and high mortality. Traditional Chinese Medicine has a long history of preventing and treating infectious diseases, and numerous studies have shown that Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially herbal medicine, has a positive effect on the prevention, treatment, and post-healing recovery of this COVID-19, and herbal medicines to supplement qi and blood often occupy a certain proportion of it. However, there is no relevant meta-analysis to date. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qi and blood tonic herbal medicines in the treatment of COVID-19 through Systematic Review and meta-analysis to provide a reference basis for widespread clinical application. METHODS: We will search from the following databases for the period from the time of database construction to March 1st, 2023. The English databases include: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library, WOS, Google Scholar, and CENTRAL; The Chinese databases include: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biomedical Literature Database, Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang. Randomized controlled trials in English or Chinese that include Chinese herbal medicines for tonifying Qi and Blood in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 will be included. Data were independently screened and collected by 2 investigators. The risk of bias for each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0. RevMan 5.3 software was used for the meta-analysis of the data. Primary outcome indicators included cure, mortality, and exacerbation rates (change in disease severity category, patient admission to ICU, etc.). Secondary outcome indicators included recovery rate or duration of major symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, fatigue, and weakness, etc.), rate or duration of nucleic acid conversion for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, improvement or recovery of chest CT performance, length of hospital stay, and other adverse events. RESULTS: This protocol adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-P guidelines to ensure clarity and completeness of reporting in all phases of the systematic review. CONCLUSION: This study will provide evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of Qi and Blood Tonic Chinese Medicines for the treatment of COVID-19. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022361822 (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022361822).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Qi , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27372, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in many countries is still very serious. At present, there is no specific and effective drug for this disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a great role in fighting against COVID-19. However, their effectiveness and safety are still obscure and deserve further investigation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM assisted in conventional treatment in the treatment of mild and common COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMbase, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials of TCM assisted in conventional treatment. The RCT research quality was evaluated by Cochrane 5.1.0 bias risk scale and the non-randomized controlled trial research quality was evaluated by Newcastle Ottawa scale, and the statistical analysis was conducted by Revman 5.3 and R software. The bias and sensitivity of the statistical results were analyzed by STATA 14.0. Registration number: CRD42020210619. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included with 7 RCT studies and 8 retrospective cohort studies, involving a total of 1623 patients. Compared with the control group, TCM can improve the main index clinical effective rate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% Confidence interval (CI) [1.94,3.59], P < .00001). The results of Begg test (Pr > z = 0.266) and sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable. Toujie Quwen (OR = 4.9, 95%CI [1.9,14.0]), Shufeng Jiedu (OR = 2.9, 95%CI [1.5,5.7]), and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = 2.4, 95%CI [1.6,3.6]) were with the best. It can also improve the main clinical symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, and the regression time of the 3 symptoms), severe conversion rate, and computed tomography improvement rate. Its safety was not significantly compared with conventional treatment. However, in terms of safety of a single TCM, Shufeng Jiedu (OR = -0.86, 95%CI [-1.89,0.09]) and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = -0.49, 95%CI[-0.94,-0.05]) were lower than those of conventional treatment. CONCLUSION: TCM as an adjuvant therapy combined with conventional treatment has good curative effect on mild and common type of COVID-19 patients. Its advantages lie in clinical efficacy and improvement of symptom group, and can prevent patients from transforming to severe disease. In terms of clinical efficacy and safety, Shufeng Jiedu and Lianhua Qingwen have obvious advantages, which are worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163437

ABSTRACT

Symptom treatments for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and Long COVID are one of the most critical issues of the pandemic era. In light of the lack of standardized medications for treating COVID-19 symptoms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has emerged as a potentially viable strategy based on numerous studies and clinical manifestations. Taiwan Chingguan Yihau (NRICM101), a TCM designed based on a medicinal formula with a long history of almost 500 years, has demonstrated its antiviral properties through clinical studies, yet the pharmacogenomic knowledge for this formula remains unclear. The molecular mechanism of NRICM101 was systematically analyzed by using exploratory bioinformatics and pharmacodynamics (PD) approaches. Results showed that there were 434 common interactions found between NRICM101 and COVID-19 related genes/proteins. For the network pharmacology of the NRICM101, the 434 common interacting genes/proteins had the highest associations with the interleukin (IL)-17 signaling pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Moreover, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was found to have the highest association with the 30 most frequently curated NRICM101 chemicals. Disease analyses also revealed that the most relevant diseases with COVID-19 infections were pathology, followed by cancer, digestive system disease, and cardiovascular disease. The 30 most frequently curated human genes and 2 microRNAs identified in this study could also be used as molecular biomarkers or therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatments. In addition, dose-response profiles of NRICM101 doses and IL-6 or TNF-α expressions in cell cultures of murine alveolar macrophages were constructed to provide pharmacodynamic (PD) information of NRICM101. The prevalent use of NRICM101 for standardized treatments to attenuate common residual syndromes or chronic sequelae of COVID-19 were also revealed for post-pandemic future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Animals , Mice , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Network Pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e20236, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it has since spread worldwide. The Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) established the COVID-19 telemedicine center of Korean medicine (KM telemedicine center) in Daegu and Seoul. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the results of the KM telemedicine center and the clinical possibility of using herbal medicines for COVID-19. METHODS: All procedures were conducted by voice call following standardized guidelines. The students in the reception group obtained informed consent from participants and they collected basic information. Subsequently, Korean Medicine doctors assessed COVID-19-related symptoms and prescribed the appropriate herbal medicine according to the KM telemedicine guidelines. The data of patients who completed the program by June 30, 2020, were analyzed. RESULTS: From March 9 to June 30, 2020, 2324 patients participated in and completed the KM telemedicine program. Kyung-Ok-Ko (n=2285) was the most prescribed herbal medicine, and Qingfei Paidu decoction (I and II, n=2053) was the second most prescribed. All COVID-19-related symptoms (headache, chills, sputum, dry cough, sore throat, fatigue, muscle pain, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, dyspnea, chest tightness, diarrhea, and loss of appetite) improved after treatment (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The KM telemedicine center has provided medical service to 10.8% of all patients with COVID-19 in South Korea (as of June 30, 2020), and it is still in operation. We hope that this study will help to establish a better health care system to overcome COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0262776, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe pneumonia (SP) has a high mortality and is responsible for significant healthcare cost. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) have been widely used in China as a novel and promising treatment option for SP. Therefore, this study will assess and rank the effectiveness of CHIs to provide more sights for the selection of SP treatment. METHOD: Seven databases will be searched, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP) from their inception up to October, 2021. The literatures screening, data extraction and the quality assessment of included studies will be conducted independently by two reviewers. Then Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) will be performed by WinBUGS 14.0 and STATA 14.0 software. Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) probability values will be applied to rank the examined treatments. The risk of bias of each included study will be evaluated using the Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (ROB 2). Publication bias will be reflected by a funnel plot. RESULTS: The results of this NMA will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal publication. CONCLUSION: Our study findings maybe reveal which CHI or CHIs will be better in the treatment of SP and provide more therapy strategies for clinical practitioners and patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021244587. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) can integrate direct evidence with indirect evidence of severe pneumonia treated by Chinese herbal injections to generate a clinically useful ranking of these regimens. This NMA will address Chinese herbal injections for SP and its findings may help to provide more sights for selection of SP treatment. Evidence drawn from an NMA is limited and should be interpreted with caution. We only included studies in Chinese and English languages, which may increase the publication bias.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pneumonia , Bayes Theorem , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections , Language , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 4133610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108379

ABSTRACT

The efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) paired with western medicine in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to identify the effects of TCM. Seven electronic databases were reviewed from the inception of these databases to 30 June 2022. A quality assessment of the included studies was performed with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool to provide a score of high, unclear, or low risk of bias. The standard software program (Stata, version 12.0, statistical software) was used for endpoint analyses. A total of 13 RCTs involving 1398 patients conducted in China were included. The cross-sectional data from various studies were plotted, and the results illustrated that the statistically higher rates of total effectiveness (RR, 1.357; 95% CI, 1.259 to 1.464; P < 0.001), improvement of chest CT (RR, 1.249; 95% CI, 1.143 to 1.356; P < 0.001), and cough improvement (RR, 1.228; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.570; P = 0.012) and a lower incidence of conversion to severe cases (RR, 0.408; 95% CI, 0.275 to 0.605; P < 0.001) were demonstrated in the TCM group than that of the control group. Of note, the subgroup on specific TCM of Lianhua Qingwen (LQ) revealed that the experiment group was associated with a higher rate of total effectiveness (RR, 1.248; 95% CI, 1.136 to 1.371; P < 0.001) and improvement of chest CT (RR, 1.226; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.356; P < 0.001) and a lower rate of conversion to severe cases (RR, 0.469; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.707; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in fever improvement (RD, 0.110; 95% CI, -0.063 to 0.283; P = 0.213). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that TCM combined with western medicine is more effective in treating COVID-19 via relieving symptoms, promoting patients' recovery, and cutting the rate of patients developing into severe conditions. However, given the relevant possible biases in our study, adequately powered and better-designed studies with long-term follow-up are required to reach a firmer conclusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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