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1.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 289-299, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639209

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a huge threat to human health and social stability. Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC), a patented herbal drug composed of eight medicinal plants, is used to treat different viral respiratory tract infectious diseases. Based on its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities in acute lung injury, SFJDC can be effectively used as a treatment for COVID-19 patients according to the diagnosis and treatment plan issued in China and existing clinical data. SFJDC has been recommended in 15 therapeutic regimens for COVID-19 in China. This review summarizes current data on the ingredients, chemical composition, pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, and potential therapeutic effect of SFJDC on COVID-19, to provide a theoretical basis for its anti-viral mechanism and the clinical treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(6): 982-984, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible role of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) of Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Jinyinhua (Flos Lonicerae), and Lianqiao (Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae) in absorption of lung lesions in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A cohort of COVID-19 cases was recruited. During hospitalization, chest computed tomographic (CT) scan and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test were performed every three days. Comparison was held (Western Medicine, WM vs WM plus TCM) on absorption of lung lesions, time interval from admission to negative test result of RT-PCR (ATN), and medical expense. Multivariate cox regression models were built to identify the possible prognostic factor of delayed absorption of lung lesion. RESULTS: The medical expenditure (1163 ± 379 vs 1137 ± 498, P = 0.863) and ATN (13 ± 4 vs 10 ± 4, P = 0.055) were comparable between cases treated with WM plus TCM and cases only received WM. Multivariate cox regression model showed that cases receiving extra TCM had lower risk of delayed absorption of lung lesions [Hazard ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence Interval (0.06, 0.96), P = 0.043]. CONCLUSION: Compared to WM, the treatment of WM plus TCM facilitates the recovery of pulmonary infiltration on COVID-19 cases without significantly increasing medical expense.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Lung/pathology , Adult , Astragalus propinquus , Female , Forsythia , Glycyrrhiza , Hospitalization , Humans , Lonicera , Lung/virology , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Plant Extracts
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599109

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28282, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a kind of pulmonary inflammation induced by New Coronavirus. It seriously threatens people's health and safety. Clinical studies have found that some patients have different degrees of inflammation after discharge from hospital, especially in patients with severe inflammatory lung fibrosis. Early combination of Chinese medicine and modern medicine has important clinical significance. There are still many deficiencies in the current research. We studied the effectiveness of the combination of traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID-19, and proposed a network meta-analysis (NMA) scheme. METHODS: According to the search strategy, we will search Chinese and English databases to collect all randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine combined with modern drugs or only using traditional Chinese medicine for new coronavirus-19-induced pulmonary fibrosis between December 1, 2019 and November 15, 2021. First, the literature was screened according to the eligibility criteria, endnotex9 was used to manage the literature, and the Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to assess the quality of the included literature. Revman 5.3, Stata 14.2, and gemtc14.3 meta-analysis software was then used for data processing and analysis, and the grading of recommendations assessment will be used to develop and evaluate a hierarchy for classifying the quality of evidence for NMA. RESULTS: Through the analysis, the ranking of efficacy and safety of various treatments for pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID-19 will be drawn, thus providing stronger evidence support for the choice of clinical treatment methods. CONCLUSION: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with modern drugs has played a positive role in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID-19, and this study may provide more references for the clinical medication of pulmonary fibrosis caused by COVID-19. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2021110061.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Network Meta-Analysis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(50): e28184, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qingshu Yiqi decoction combined with general western medicine are important and prevalent recently treatment method of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with Delta variant, but the efficacy and safety were not clear. This meta-analysis aims to clarify their clinical efficacy and safety thus to provide evidence for clinical application. METHODS: We searched Chinese databases CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and English databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase for the current study. The retrieval time was from the establishment to November, 2021. Literature quality was evaluated according to the bias risk assessment criteria of Cochrane Collaboration network. RevMan 5.3 and Stata 12.0 were used to perform this research. RESULTS: The efficacy and safety of Qingshu Yiqi decoction combined with western medicine for COVID-19 with Delta variant were evaluated in terms of total effective rate, TCM syndrome score, negative conversation rate of viral nucleic acid, disappearance rate of clinical symptoms (such as fever, cough, and fatigue), CT improvement, white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte (LYM) and adverse reaction rate. CONCLUSION: This study provides reliable evidence-based support for the clinical efficacy and safety of Qingshu Yiqi decoction as a complementary and alternative therapy for COVID-19 with Delta variant. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021271606.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114760, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525847

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have made great contributions to the prevention and treatment of human diseases in China, and especially in cases of COVID-19. However, due to quality problems, the lack of standards, and the diversity of dosage forms, adverse reactions to TCMs often occur. Moreover, the composition of TCMs makes them extremely challenging to extract and isolate, complicating studies of toxicity mechanisms. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this paper is therefore to summarize the advanced applications of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technology in the quality control, safety evaluations, and determination of toxicity mechanisms of TCMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies from the literature have been collected from scientific databases, such as "PubMed", "Scifinder", "Elsevier", "Google Scholar" using the keywords "MSI", "traditional Chinese medicines", "quality control", "metabolomics", and "mechanism". RESULTS: MSI is a new analytical imaging technology that can detect and image the metabolic changes of multiple components of TCMs in plants and animals in a high throughput manner. Compared to other chemical analysis methods, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), this method does not require the complex extraction and separation of TCMs, and is fast, has high sensitivity, is label-free, and can be performed in high-throughput. Combined with chemometrics methods, MSI can be quickly and easily used for quality screening of TCMs. In addition, this technology can be used to further focus on potential biomarkers and explore the therapeutic/toxic mechanisms of TCMs. CONCLUSIONS: As a new type of analysis method, MSI has unique advantages to metabolic analysis, quality control, and mechanisms of action explorations of TCMs, and contributes to the establishment of quality standards to explore the safety and toxicology of TCMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers, Pharmacological , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/standards , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/instrumentation , Quality Control
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114830, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of September 17, 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 226 million people in a worldwide pandemic, with conservative estimates suggesting that there are more than 204 million convalescent patients with COVID-19. Previous studies have indicated that patients in the recovery phase exhibit decreased function of multiple organs. In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment is recommended in the rehabilitation period of COVID-19; however, the safety and efficacy of such treatment remain to be confirmed. AIM OF STUDY: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) in restoring the functional status and exercise tolerance of patients recovering from COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 131 patients in the rehabilitation period of COVID-19 infection were randomly divided into a Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) group (n = 66) and a placebo group (n = 65). BFHX or placebo was given orally three times a day (1.4 g/dose) for 90 days. The primary outcomes was to evaluate improvements in exercise tolerance and imaging manifestations on chest computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: After the exclusion of two patients who withdrew prior to receiving any medications, 129 patients were recruited, including 64 patients in the BFHX group and 65 patients in the placebo group. After 3 months of treatment, the BFHX group exhibited greater attenuation of pneumonia lesions on chest CT than the placebo group (P<0.05). Improvements in 6-min walk distance (6MWD) relative to baseline were also significantly better in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (P<0.01). Scores on the Fatigue Assessment Inventory (FAI) were lower in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (P<0.05). Although the rate of adverse events was higher in the BFHX group than in the placebo group (9.38% vs. 4.62%), the difference was not significant (P=0.3241). CONCLUSIONS: BFHX may exert strong rehabilitative effects on physiological activity in patients recovering from COVID-19, which may in turn attenuate symptoms of fatigue and improve exercise tolerance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Convalescence , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504040

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) emerged suddenly at the end of 2019 and the disease came to be known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). To date, there is no specific therapy established to treat COVID­19. Identifying effective treatments is urgently required to treat patients and stop the transmission of SARS­CoV­2 in humans. For the present review, >100 publications on therapeutic agents for COVID­19, including in vitro and in vivo animal studies, case reports, retrospective analyses and meta­analyses were retrieved from PubMed and analyzed, and promising therapeutic agents that may be used to combat SARS­CoV­2 infection were highlighted. Since the outbreak of COVID­19, different drugs have been repurposed for its treatment. Existing drugs, including chloroquine (CQ), its derivative hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), remdesivir and nucleoside analogues, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, Chinese herbal medicine and natural compounds for treating COVID­19 evaluated in experimental and clinical studies were discussed. Although early clinical studies suggested that CQ/HCQ produces antiviral action, later research indicated certain controversy regarding their use for treating COVID­19. The molecular mechanisms of these therapeutic agents against SARS­CoV2 have been investigated, including inhibition of viral interactions with angiotensin­converting enzyme 2 receptors in human cells, viral RNA­dependent RNA polymerase, RNA replication and the packaging of viral particles. Potent therapeutic options were reviewed and future challenges to accelerate the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat and prevent COVID­19 were acknowledged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26677, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 viral infection was described in Wuhan. Similar to SARS in 2003, COVID-19 also had a lasting impact. Approximately 76% of patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 had neurological manifestations which could persist for 6 months, and some long-term consequences such as the gradual loss of lung function due to pulmonary interstitial fibrosis could have comprehensive effects on daily quality of life for people who were initially believed to have recovered from COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our comprehensive search strategy developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search these following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, ProQuest, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, WHO covid-19 website, and Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention COVID-19 websites of the United States and China. The bias of publication will be confirmed via the P value of Egger test. The quality of studies will be evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no ethical considerations associated with this study protocol for this systematic review which mainly focuses on the examination of secondary data. On completion of this analysis, we will prepare a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021258711.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26641, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This review aims to evaluate the supportive effects of frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Five databases were searched through July 7, 2020. Randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of TCM for use in the treatment of COVID-19 were included. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and modified Jadad score were used for the evaluation of the methodological quality of the included studies. Weighted mean difference, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated for pooling out results. Data were extracted for conducting a meta-analysis using STATA version 12.0. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 750 patients were included in this meta-analysis. All included trial groups involved treatment with TCM and Western medicine, while the control groups were treated only with Western medicine. The intervention therapy significantly improved the overall effective rate (n = 346, OR = 2.5, 95% CIs = 1.46-4.29), fever symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 3.6; 95% CIs = 2.13-6.08), fatigue symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 3.04; 95% CIs = 1.76-5.26), cough symptom disappearance rate (n = 436; OR = 2.91; 95% CIs = 1.36-6.19), and sputum production reduction (n = 436; OR = 5.51; 95% CIs = 1.94-15.64). Based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessment, 6 studies received a score of 4, and 1 study achieved a score of 5. One study was assessed using the modified Jadad score, achieving a score of 6. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of TCM with Western medicine has significantly improved the treatment for COVID-19 patients compared to Western medicine treatment alone. Combined therapy using TCM and Western medicine revealed the potential adjunctive role of TCM in treating COVID-19. However, high-quality clinical studies are still required to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470889

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection; the pathophysiology of sepsis is complex. The incidence of sepsis is steadily increasing, with worldwide mortality ranging between 30% and 50%. Current treatment approaches mainly rely on the timely and appropriate administration of antimicrobials and supportive therapies, but the search for pharmacotherapies modulating the host response has been unsuccessful. Chinese herbal medicines, i.e., Chinese patent medicines, Chinese herbal prescriptions, and single Chinese herbs, play an important role in the treatment of sepsis through multicomponent, multipathway, and multitargeting abilities and have been officially recommended for the management of COVID-19. Chinese herbal medicines have therapeutic actions promising for the treatment of sepsis; basic scientific research on these medicines is increasing. However, the material bases of most Chinese herbal medicines and their underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the current studies of Chinese herbal medicines used for the treatment of sepsis in terms of clinical efficacy and safety, pharmacological activity, phytochemistry, bioactive constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmacokinetics, to provide an important foundation for clarifying the pathogenesis of sepsis and developing novel antisepsis drugs based on Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27372, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in many countries is still very serious. At present, there is no specific and effective drug for this disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a great role in fighting against COVID-19. However, their effectiveness and safety are still obscure and deserve further investigation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM assisted in conventional treatment in the treatment of mild and common COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMbase, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, WANFANG DATA, and VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials of TCM assisted in conventional treatment. The RCT research quality was evaluated by Cochrane 5.1.0 bias risk scale and the non-randomized controlled trial research quality was evaluated by Newcastle Ottawa scale, and the statistical analysis was conducted by Revman 5.3 and R software. The bias and sensitivity of the statistical results were analyzed by STATA 14.0. Registration number: CRD42020210619. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included with 7 RCT studies and 8 retrospective cohort studies, involving a total of 1623 patients. Compared with the control group, TCM can improve the main index clinical effective rate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% Confidence interval (CI) [1.94,3.59], P < .00001). The results of Begg test (Pr > z = 0.266) and sensitivity analysis showed that the results were relatively stable. Toujie Quwen (OR = 4.9, 95%CI [1.9,14.0]), Shufeng Jiedu (OR = 2.9, 95%CI [1.5,5.7]), and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = 2.4, 95%CI [1.6,3.6]) were with the best. It can also improve the main clinical symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, and the regression time of the 3 symptoms), severe conversion rate, and computed tomography improvement rate. Its safety was not significantly compared with conventional treatment. However, in terms of safety of a single TCM, Shufeng Jiedu (OR = -0.86, 95%CI [-1.89,0.09]) and Lianhua Qingwen (OR = -0.49, 95%CI[-0.94,-0.05]) were lower than those of conventional treatment. CONCLUSION: TCM as an adjuvant therapy combined with conventional treatment has good curative effect on mild and common type of COVID-19 patients. Its advantages lie in clinical efficacy and improvement of symptom group, and can prevent patients from transforming to severe disease. In terms of clinical efficacy and safety, Shufeng Jiedu and Lianhua Qingwen have obvious advantages, which are worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2566-2578, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus) has spread all over the world with a high infection rate. Currently, there are no targeted therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 as well as for stress induced by COVID-19. The unpredictable events of COVID-19 can trigger feelings of fear, worry, or unease in people, leading to stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety. It has been reported that individuals, including COVID-19 patients, medical staff, and ordinary people, are under both physical and psychological pressure, and many of them have developed depression or anxiety during this pandemic. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating depression with relatively better safety and efficacy and may have an important role in treating stress-related disorders induced by COVID-19. In this review, we collected the common TCM treatment methods including Qigong, Acupuncture, Five Elements Musical Therapy, Five Elements Emotional Therapy, and Chinese herbal medicine from the databases of PubMed and the China National Knowledge Internet to illustrate the effect of TCM on depression. The better knowledge of TCM and implementation of TCM in COVID-19 clinics may help to effectively improve depression induced by COVID-19, may assist people to maintain a healthy physical and mental quality, and may alleviate the current shortage of medical resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Qigong/methods , Treatment Outcome
14.
Neuropeptides ; 90: 102201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446996

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global emergency with high mortality. There are few effective treatments, and many severe patients are treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Japanese Kampo medicine ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is effective in treating ICU patients with COVID-19. Nine patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the ICU were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent respiratory management with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and enteral nutrition. Four patients received NYT (7.5 g daily) from an elemental diet tube. We retrospectively examined the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), length of IMV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, rate of tracheostomy, and mortality rate. The median age of the enrolled participants was 60.0 years (4 men and 5 women). The median body mass index was 27.6. The most common comorbidity was diabetes (4 patients, 44%), followed by hypertension (3 patients, 33%) and chronic kidney disease (2 patients, 22%). The median length of IMV, ICU stay, and hospital stay were all shorter in the NYT group than in the non-NYT group (IMV; 4.0 days vs 14.3 days, ICU; 5.3 days vs 14.5 days, hospital stay; 19.9 days vs 28.2 days). In the NYT and non-NYT groups, the median PNI at admission was 29.0 and 31.2, respectively. One week after admission, the PNI was 30.7 in the NYT group and 24.4 in non-NYT group. PNI was significantly (p = 0.032) increased in the NYT group (+13.6%) than in the non-NYT group (-22.0%). The Japanese Kampo medicine NYT might be useful for treating patients with severe COVID-19 in ICU. This study was conducted in a small number of cases, and further large clinical trials are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Medicine, Kampo , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Enteral Nutrition , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114701, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446835

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD), one of the "three medicines and three prescriptions" for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, plays an important role in the treatment of mild and/or common patients with dampness-toxin obstructing lung syndrome. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work aims to elucidate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of XFBD against the acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We use TGF-ß1 induced fibroblast activation model and LPS/IL-4 induced macrophage inflammation model as in vitro cell models. The mice model of lung fibrosis was induced by BLM via endotracheal drip, and then XFBD (4.6 g/kg, 9.2 g/kg) were administered orally respectively. The efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of XFBD were investigated. RESULTS: The results proved that XFBD can effectively inhibit fibroblast collagen deposition, down-regulate the level of α-SMA and inhibit the migration of fibroblasts. IL-4 induced macrophage polarization was also inhibited and the secretions of the inflammatory factors including IL6, iNOS were down-regulated. In vivo experiments, the results proved that XFBD improved the weight loss and survival rate of the mice. The XFBD high-dose administration group had a significant effect in inhibiting collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA in the lungs of mice. XFBD can reduce bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and related macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Xuanfei Baidu Decoction protects against macrophages induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NIH 3T3 Cells , Phytotherapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , RAW 264.7 Cells , STAT3 Transcription Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
16.
Biosci Trends ; 15(4): 201-204, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436244

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a valuable form of medicine with a long history in China. It has played a significant role in the control and prevention of infectious diseases including SARS and H7N9 flu. After the outbreak of COVID-19, China's National Health Commission included TCM in the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19. During the COVID-19 pandemic, three traditional Chinese medicines (Jinhua Qinggan granules, Lianhua Qingwen medicine, and a Xuebijing Injection) and three TCM preparations (a Qingfei Paidu decoction, a Huashi Baidu decoction, and a Xuanfei Baidu decoction) have been screened for their efficacy against COVID-19. More than 150 trials involving TCMs are registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), and those trials cover prevention, treatment, recovery, and illnesses diagnosed in accordance with TCM principles. TCM can effectively alleviate the symptoms of patients with COVID-19, delay the disease's progression from mild to severe or critical, and reduce severe and critical all-cause mortality. The underlying mechanisms of TCM mainly involve action against SARS-CoV-2, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action, and organ protection. The current work provides a brief description of the current status of and issues with TCM to treat this novel infectious disease. The hope is that TCM can help considerably to control this global epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
19.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(7): 774-778, 2021 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Xuebijing injection on the improvement of pneumonia severity index (PSI) and prognosis in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was designed. Adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of 28 designated COVID-19 hospitals in 15 provinces and cities of China from January to March 2020 were enrolled. All patients were treated according to the standard treatment plan of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. They were divided into Xuebijing group and standard treatment group according to whether they received Xuebijing injection or not. In the standard treatment group, routine medical care measures such as antiviral, respiratory support, circulatory support and symptomatic treatment were taken. In the Xuebijing group, on the basis of standard treatment, Xuebijing was used within 12 hours of admission to the ICU, 100 mL each time, twice daily. The minimum duration of Xuebijing administration was 1 day. The improvement rate of PSI risk rating on the 8th day and clinical outcome on the 28th day were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 276 COVID-19 patients were screened continuously, and the data of 144 severe patients who met PSI risk rating III-V were analyzed. Seventy-two cases were involved each in standard treatment group and Xuebijing group. The average age of the standard treatment group and Xuebijing group were (65.7±7.9) years old and (63.5±10.9) years old, and male accounted for 75.0% (54/72) and 70.8% (51/72), respectively. There were no significant differences in general conditions, comorbidities, PSI risk rating and score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), respiratory support mode and other baseline indicators between the two groups. Compared with the standard treatment group, the improvement rate of PSI risk rating in Xuebijing group on the 8th day after admission was significantly improved [56.9% (41/72) vs. 20.8% (15/72), between-group difference and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 36.1% (21.3% to 50.9%), P < 0.01], PSI score, SOFA score and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly improved [PSI score: 83.7±34.8 vs. 108.2±25.6, between-group difference (95%CI) was -24.5 (-34.9 to -14.1); SOFA score: 2.0 (1.0, 4.0) vs. 7.0 (4.0, 10.0), between-group difference (95%CI) was -3.5 (-5.0 to -2.0); PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 289.4±111.6 vs. 188.5±98.1, between-group difference (95%CI) was 100.9 (65.3 to 136.5); all P < 0.01]. The 28-day discharge rate of Xuebijing group was 44.5% higher than that of standard treatment group [66.7% (48/72) vs. 22.2% (16/72), P < 0.01], and the 28-day survival rate was 9.8% [91.7% (66/72) vs. 81.9% (59/72), P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference in the combination of antiviral drugs, antibiotics, anticoagulants and vasopressor drugs between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the Xuebijing group and standard treatment group [41.7% (30/72) vs. 43.1% (31/72), P > 0.05], and no serious adverse events and adverse reactions of Xuebijing were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Standard treatment combined with Xuebijing injection can significantly improve the PSI risk score and clinical prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19 without increasing drug safety risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Adult , Aged , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367707

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic since its outbreak in Wuhan, China. It is an urgent task to prevent and treat COVID-19 effectively early. In China's experience combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has played an indispensable role. A large number of epidemiological investigations have shown that mild to moderate COVID-19 accounts for the largest proportion of cases. It is of great importance to treat such COVID-19 cases, which can help control epidemic progression. Many trials have shown that CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 was superior to conventional therapy alone. This review was designed to evaluate the add-on effect of CHM in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Eight electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Clinical Trials.gov website, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Database and China Biology Medicine (CBM) were searched from December 2019 to March 2021 without language restrictions. Two reviewers searched and selected studies, and extracted data according to inclusion and exclusion criteria independently. Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included RCTs. Review Manager 5.3.0 software was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Twelve eligible RCTs including 1393 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analyses found that lung CT parameters [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.15, 1.38), P<0.00001] and the clinical cure rate [RR = 1.26, 95%CI (1.16, 1.38), P<0.00001] of CHM combined with conventional therapy in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 were better than those of conventional therapy. The rate of conversion to severe cases [RR = 0.48, 95%CI (0.32, 0.73), P = 0.0005], TCM symptom score of fever [MD = -0.62, 95%CI (-0.79, -0.45), P<0.00001], cough cases [RR = 1.43, 95%CI (1.16, 1.75), P = 0.0006], TCM symptom score of cough[MD = -1.07, 95%CI (-1.29, -0.85), P<0.00001], TCM symptom score of fatigue[MD = -0.66, 95%CI (-1.05, -0.28), P = 0.0007], and CRP[MD = -5.46, 95%CI (-8.19, -2.72), P<0.0001] of combination therapy was significantly lower than that of conventional therapy. The WBC count was significantly higher than that of conventional therapy[MD = 0.38, 95%CI (0.31, 0.44), P<0.00001]. Our meta-analysis results were robust through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSION: Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional therapy may be effective and safe in the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19. More high-quality RCTs are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Nausea/chemically induced , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vomiting/chemically induced
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