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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875531

ABSTRACT

The growing demand for and supply of meat and meat products has led to a proportional increase in cases of meat adulteration. Adulterated meat poses serious economic and health consequences globally. Current laboratory methods for meat species identification require specialized equipment with limited field applications. This study developed an inexpensive, point-of-care Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)-CRISPR/Cas12a colorimetric assay to detect meat species using a Texas Red-labelled single-strand (ssDNA) reporter. As low as 1.0 pg/µL of the porcine NADH4, the chicken NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and the duck D-loop genes was detectable under white, blue and ultraviolet light. The test turnaround time from DNA extraction to visualization was approximately 40 min. The assay accurately detected pure and mixed-meat products in the laboratory (n = 15) and during a pilot point-of-care test (n = 8) in a food processing factory. The results are 100% reproducible using lateral flow detection strips and the real-time PCR detection instrument. This technology is fully deployable and usable in any standard room. Thus, our study demonstrates that this method is a straightforward, specific, sensitive, point-of-care test (POCT) adaptable to various outlets such as customs, quarantine units and meat import/export departments.


Subject(s)
Meat Products , Animals , Chickens/genetics , Ducks , Meat/analysis , Point-of-Care Testing , Swine
2.
Br J Gen Pract ; 72(717): 172, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789471

Subject(s)
Ducks , Posture , Animals , Child , Humans
3.
Ecol Appl ; 32(3): e2529, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620116

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted field research programs, making conservation and management decision-making more challenging. However, it may be possible to conduct population assessments using integrated models that combine community science data with existing data from structured surveys. We developed a space-time integrated model to characterize spatial and temporal variability in population distribution. We fit our integrated model to 10 years of eBird (2010-2020) and 9 years of aerial survey (2010-2019) Mottled Duck count data to forecast 2020 population size along the western Gulf Coast of Texas and Louisiana. Estimates of Mottled Duck abundance were similar in magnitude to estimates calculated using previous methods but were more precise and showed evidence of a declining population. The spatial distribution for Mottled Ducks each year was characterized by several concentrations of relatively high abundance, although the location of these abundance "hotspots" varied over time. Expected abundance was higher for areas with a higher proportion of area covered by marsh habitat. By leveraging large-scale community science data, we were able to conduct a population assessment despite the disruption in structured surveys caused by the pandemic. As participation in community science platforms continues to increase, we anticipate modeling frameworks, like the integrated model we developed here, will become increasingly useful for informing conservation and management decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Ducks , Ecosystem , Humans , Wetlands
4.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101564, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598044

ABSTRACT

Duck adenoviruses (DAdVs) include serotype 1 (DAdV-1) in the genus Atadenovirus and serotypes 2-4 (DAdV-2, 3, and 4) in the genus Aviadenovirus. DAdV-3 was initially isolated from Chinese Muscovy ducks in 2014, whereby the infected ducks exhibited yellowing and hemorrhaging in the liver, along with slight pericardial effusion, swelling, and hemorrhaging in the kidneys. In recent years, duck adenovirus infections have appeared in Muscovy duck farms in Fujian, Zhejiang, Anhui, Guangdong, and other places in China. They have an incidence rate of 40 to 55% and a mortality rate of 35 to 43%, resulting in great losses to the duck breeding industry. In this study, 7 DAdV-3 strains, designated as TZ193, FJPT20161124, GX20170519, FJZZ, GDMM, AHAQ, and GDHS were isolated from Muscovy ducks in different provinces of China during 2016-2019, and their complete genomics were sequenced. Their genomes all exhibited significant deletions in ORF67, which also had G to A transitions at the 41st and 977th nt positions, resulting in a stop codon. The pathogenicity of TZ193, a novel isolate of DAdV-3, was investigated in Muscovy ducks. TZ193 caused characteristic lesions of swelling as well as hemorrhagic liver and kidney in the infected ducklings. Moreover, the mortality rate of TZ193 in 5-day-old domestic ducks was 100%. Our data provide concrete evidence for the identification of the DAdV-3 novel variant mutant in China, which effects increased mortality in ducks. This highlights the necessity for monitoring the specific molecular epidemiology of novel DAdV-3 mutants and the development of new vaccines in the future.


Subject(s)
Aviadenovirus , Ducks , Animals , Aviadenovirus/genetics , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Liver
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23223, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553757

ABSTRACT

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been widespread in poultry and wild birds throughout the world for many decades. LPAIV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause subclinical symptoms. However, the genetic reassortment of LPAIVs may generate novel viruses with increased virulence and cross-species transmission, posing potential risks to public health. To evaluate the epidemic potential and infection landscape of LPAIVs in Guangxi Province, China, we collected and analyzed throat and cloacal swab samples from chickens, ducks and geese from the live poultry markets on a regular basis from 2016 to 2019. Among the 7,567 samples, 974 (12.87%) were LPAIVs-positive, with 890 single and 84 mixed infections. Higher yearly isolation rates were observed in 2017 and 2018. Additionally, geese had the highest isolation rate, followed by ducks and chickens. Seasonally, spring had the highest isolation rate. Subtype H3, H4, H6 and H9 viruses were detected over prolonged periods, while H1 and H11 viruses were detected transiently. The predominant subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese were H9, H3, and H6, respectively. The 84 mixed infection samples contained 22 combinations. Most mixed infections involved two subtypes, with H3 + H4 as the most common combination. Our study provides important epidemiological data regarding the isolation rates, distributions of prevalent subtypes and mixed infections of LPAIVs. These results will improve our knowledge and ability to control epidemics, guide disease management strategies and provide early awareness of newly emerged AIV reassortants with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry/virology , Animals , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Influenza A virus/genetics
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3180-3186, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532922

ABSTRACT

The first human case of zoonotic A(H7N4) avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in early 2018 in China. Two months after this case, novel A(H7N4) viruses phylogenetically related to the Jiangsu isolate emerged in ducks from live bird markets in Cambodia. During active surveillance in Cambodia, a novel A(H7N6) reassortant of the zoonotic low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) A(H7N4) was detected in domestic ducks at a slaughterhouse. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel A(H7N6) AIV is a reassortant, in which four gene segments originated from Cambodia A(H7N4) viruses and four gene segments originated from LPAIVs in Eurasia. Animal infection experiments revealed that chickens transmitted the A(H7N6) virus via low-level direct contacts, but ducks did not. Although avian-origin A(H7Nx) LPAIVs do not contain the critical mammalian-adaptive substitution (E627K) in PB2, the lethality and morbidity of the A(H7N6) virus in BALB/c mice were similar to those of A(H7N9) viruses, suggesting potential for interspecies transmission. Our study reports the emergence of a new reassortant of zoonotic A(H7N4) AIVs with novel viral characteristics and emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance of avian-origin A(H7Nx) viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , China , Ducks , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Reassortant Viruses/genetics
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 127-131, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497592

ABSTRACT

This article aims to understand the changes in the detection rates of H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the live poultry markets (LPMs) in Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19. From 2019 to 2020, we monitored the LPM and collected specimens, using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology to detect the nucleic acid of type A AIV in the samples. The H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of influenza viruses were further classified for positive results. We analyzed 1,959 samples before and after the outbreak and found that the positive rates of avian influenza A virus (39.69%) and H9 subtype (30.66%) after the outbreak were significantly higher than before the outbreak (26.84% and 20.90%, respectively; P < 0.001). In various LPMs, the positive rate of H9 subtypes has increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Positive rates of the H9 subtype in duck, fecal, daub, and sewage samples, but not chicken samples, have increased to varying degrees. This study shows that additional measures are needed to strengthen the control of AIVs now that LPMs have reopened after the relaxing of COVID-19-related restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Feces/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/classification , Poultry , Sewage/virology
8.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475120

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Columbidae/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335230

ABSTRACT

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Biodiversity , Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Gammacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , Animals, Wild/classification , Anseriformes/virology , Charadriiformes/virology , Columbiformes/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ducks/virology , Galliformes/virology , Gammacoronavirus/classification , Gammacoronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Poland
10.
Virus Res ; 297: 198383, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122464

ABSTRACT

Slightly acidic hypochlorous acid waters (SAHWs) with pH of 5.2-5.8 containing different concentrations of free available chlorine - 62, 119, 220, 300, and 540 ppm (SAHW-62, -119, -220, -300, and -540, respectively) - were evaluated for their virucidal activity toward a low pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) and an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in suspension, abiotic carrier, and direct spray tests, with the presence of organic materials. In the carrier test, the dropping and wiping techniques were performed toward viruses on carriers. In the suspension test, SAHW-62 could decrease the viral titer of both AIV and IBV by more than 1000 times within 30 s. With the dropping technique, IBV on carriers showed high resistance to SAHW, while AIV on plastic carrier was inactivated to an effective level (≧3 log virus reduction) within 1 min. With the wiping technique, SAHW-62 could inactivate both AIV and IBV on wiped plastic carriers to an effective level within 30 s. However, SAHW-220 could not inactivate IBV in the wiping rayon sheet to an effective level. In the direct spray test, sprayed SAHW-300 within 10 min, and SAHW-540 within 20 min, inactivated AIV and IBV on the rayon sheets to undetectable level, respectively. Our study indicates that the usage of wipes with SAHW could remove viruses from plastic carriers, while viruses remained in the wipes. Besides, a small volume of sprayed SAHW was effective against the viruses on the rayon sheets for daily cleaning in the application area. The findings we obtained concerning IBV might basically be applicable in relation to SARS-CoV-2, given the resemblance between the two viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype/drug effects , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dogs , Ducks , Hepatocytes , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(12): 3074-3076, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940168

ABSTRACT

We challenged chickens, turkeys, ducks, quail, and geese with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We observed no disease and detected no virus replication and no serum antibodies. We concluded that poultry are unlikely to serve a role in maintenance of either virus.


Subject(s)
Anseriformes , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Galliformes , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Ducks , Geese , Virus Replication
14.
Science ; 368(6494): 1016-1020, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45712

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the infectious disease COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Despite extensive efforts to control the disease, COVID-19 has now spread to more than 100 countries and caused a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in bats; however, the intermediate animal sources of the virus are unknown. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and animals in close contact with humans to SARS-CoV-2. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens, and ducks, but ferrets and cats are permissive to infection. Additionally, cats are susceptible to airborne transmission. Our study provides insights into the animal models for SARS-CoV-2 and animal management for COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Ferrets , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cats , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dogs , Ducks , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Species Specificity , Sus scrofa , Virus Attachment , Virus Replication
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