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1.
Intern Med ; 61(11): 1757-1760, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760074

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has occasionally occurred in people who have received coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Dysgeusia is rare symptom of GBS. We herein report a rare case of sensory ataxic GBS with dysgeusia just after the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Although autoantibodies against glycolipids were not detected, immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone pulse therapy effectively ameliorated the symptoms. Our report suggests that the COVID-19 vaccine may induce various clinical subtypes of GBS, including a rare variant with sensory ataxia and dysgeusia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Ataxia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Dysgeusia/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
J Neurol ; 269(7): 3400-3412, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore cognitive, EEG, and MRI features in COVID-19 survivors up to 10 months after hospital discharge. METHODS: Adult patients with a recent diagnosis of COVID-19 and reporting subsequent cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological assessment and 19-channel-EEG within 2 months (baseline, N = 49) and 10 months (follow-up, N = 33) after hospital discharge. A brain MRI was obtained for 36 patients at baseline. Matched healthy controls were included. Using eLORETA, EEG regional current densities and linear lagged connectivity values were estimated. Total brain and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) volumes were measured. Clinical and instrumental data were evaluated between patients and controls at baseline, and within patient whole group and with/without dysgeusia/hyposmia subgroups over time. Correlations among findings at each timepoint were computed. RESULTS: At baseline, 53% and 28% of patients showed cognitive and psychopathological disturbances, respectively, with executive dysfunctions correlating with acute-phase respiratory distress. Compared to healthy controls, patients also showed higher regional current density and connectivity at delta band, correlating with executive performances, and greater WMH load, correlating with verbal memory deficits. A reduction of cognitive impairment and delta band EEG connectivity were observed over time, while psychopathological symptoms persisted. Patients with acute dysgeusia/hyposmia showed lower improvement at memory tests than those without. Lower EEG delta band at baseline predicted worse cognitive functioning at follow-up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 patients showed interrelated cognitive, EEG, and MRI abnormalities 2 months after hospital discharge. Cognitive and EEG findings improved at 10 months. Dysgeusia and hyposmia during acute COVID-19 were related with increased vulnerability in memory functions over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Dysgeusia , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuropsychological Tests , Survivors
4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
5.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 35(3): 297-307, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in municipal employees of Northern Portugal during the first pandemic wave (May-June 2020) and its association with potentially related risk factors for infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors assessed municipal employees of 2 cities in Northern Portugal, in whom serological tests to SARS-CoV-2 and an epidemiological survey were applied. The authors assessed the proportion of individuals presenting IgM and/or IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, and evaluated the association between having positive serological test results, epidemiologic variables and clinical presentations. Reported symptoms were evaluated on their sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. RESULTS: The authors assessed 1696 employees, of whom 22.0% were firefighters, 10.4% were police officers, 10.3% were maintenance workers, and 8.1% were administrative assistants. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1-3.7%). Administrative assistants comprised the professional group with highest seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 1.9 in the comparison with other occupational groups, 95% CI: 0.8-4.3, p = 0.126). The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among those who were in direct contact with COVID-19 patients in their professional activity was 3.9%, compared to 2.7% among those who were not in direct contact with such patients (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-2.8, p = 0.222). The highest risk of infection was associated with the presence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the household (OR = 17.4, 95% CI: 8.3-36.8, p < 0.001). Living with a healthcare professional was not associated with a higher risk of infection (OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.4-2.5, p = 0.934). Anosmia/ dysgeusia was the symptom with the highest positive predictive value (52.2%, 95% CI: 31.8-72.6, p < 0.001) and specificity (99.3%, 95% CI: 98.9-99.7, p < 0.001), while cough was the most prevalent symptom among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive participants (36%). CONCLUSIONS: The authors observed a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 2.9% among assessed municipal employees. Anosmia/dysgeusia was the COVID-19 symptom which displayed the highest positive predictive value and specificity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022;35(3):297-307.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dysgeusia , Epidemiologic Factors , Health Personnel , Humans , Portugal/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 26(1): 105-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and anosmia have been liked to COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of dysgeusia and anosmia in COVID-19 patients treated at the University of Florida Health Center and establish the odds of having an olfactory and gustatory disorder with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing the University of Florida Health Center patients' registry i2b2 platform to search for ICD 10 diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and taste and smell disturbances. We assessed the odds ratio for patients with dysgeusia and anosmia having a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection using a logistic regression model adjusting for gender, race, age, and comorbidity conditions. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Out of 889 individuals that tested positive for COVID-19, 12.88% were diagnosed with taste and smell disturbances. The odds ratio for COVID-19 for people with dysgeusia and anosmia was 39.107. After adjusting for sex, age, and race, it was 41.9, 37, and 34.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taste and smell disturbances in COVID-19 are not anecdotal. It is paramount that oral and maxillofacial surgeons include taste and smell disturbances in the history and physical examination as these symptoms are suspicious of active COVID-19 infection. Patients presenting with an olfactory and gustatory disorder should undergo further evaluations for COVID-19 infection and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should enhance the personal protective equipment used when treating these patients to prevent further spread of the infection and protect other healthcare members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 20-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636011
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28327, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) disease, which has been shown to trigger multiple affectations. One of the first tissue areas to come into contact with the virus is the oral cavity, which develops various alterations. Hence, the objective of this systematic review was to identify the main signs and symptoms of this disease in the oral cavity, and the following research question was established: What are the main oral signs and symptoms in COVID-19-positive persons? METHODS: The electronic databases of PUBMED, SCOPUS, and SCIENCE DIRECT were analyzed, the keywords "ORAL DISEASES," "ORAL MANIFESTACTIONS," and "COVID-19" were used taking into account the following inclusion criteria: studies whose main objective was oral manifestations secondary to the confirmation of COVID-19, plus clinical cases, case series, and retrospective or prospective studies. For the assessment of the risk of bias the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Case Series tool was used. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies were included, the most common initial signs/symptoms after contagion of SARS-CoV-2 were dysgeusia, dry mouth, and burning mouth, and the main signs/symptoms were the presence of ulcerative lesions, dysgeusia, and Candida albicans infections. CONCLUSIONS: It is very important to detect any alteration in the mucosa in patients with COVID-19 and to provide assertive treatment to avoid complications, and try to maintain adequate oral hygiene throughout the course of the disease to avoid the colonization of opportunistic microorganisms and to avoid complications both orally and systemically.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mouth Diseases/virology , Mouth/virology , Candidiasis, Oral , Dysgeusia , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14996, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Anosmia and dysgeusia (AD) are common amongst COVID-19 patients. These symptoms are not frequently associated with rhinorrhea or nasal congestion and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Previous reports suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signalling plays a role in the modulation of olfaction and ageusia. We aimed to assess the correlation between GLP-1 and COVID-19-associated AD. METHODS: Blood samples obtained from COVID-19 patients with and without AD were tested for serum GLP-1 levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A second control group comprised of COVID-19-negative volunteers. RESULTS: Forty-nine subjects were included in the study. Nineteen were positive for COVID-19. Of the 19 patients, 10 had AD and 9 declined such complaints. Age and basic metabolic rate were similar amongst all study groups. Serum GLP-1 levels were significantly lower amongst patients with AD compared with patients without AD and COVID-19-negative individuals (1820 pg/mL vs 3536 pg/mL vs 3014 pg/mL, respectively, P < .02). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients who reported AD had lower serum levels of GLP-1 compared with those lacking AD symptoms and COVID-19-negative individuals. These results suggest that GLP-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. However, further larger scale studies should corroborate our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Dysgeusia , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 153(3): 251-264, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Taste disorders in general, and dysgeusia in particular, are relatively common disorders that may be a sign of a more complex acute or chronic medical condition. During the COVID-19 pandemic, taste disorders have found their way into the realm of general as well as specialty dentistry, with significance in screening for patients who potentially may have the virus. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors searched electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar) for studies focused on dysgeusia, ageusia, and other taste disorders and their relationship to local and systemic causes. RESULTS: The authors found pertinent literature explaining the normal physiology of taste sensation, proposals for suggested new tastes, presence of gustatory receptors in remote tissues of the body, and etiology and pathophysiology of taste disorders, in addition to the valuable knowledge gained about gustatory disorders in the context of COVID-19. Along with olfactory disorders, taste disorders are one of the earliest suggestive symptoms of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Gustatory disorders are the result of local or systemic etiology or both. Newer taste sensations, such as calcium and fat tastes, have been discovered, as well as taste receptors that are remote from the oropharyngeal area. Literature published during the COVID-19 pandemic to date reinforces the significance of early detection of potential patients with COVID-19 by means of screening for recent-onset taste disorders. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Timely screening and identification of potential gustatory disorders are paramount for the dental care practitioner to aid in the early diagnosis of COVID-19 and other serious systemic disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysgeusia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
12.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 435-445, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451066

ABSTRACT

Ever since the first reported case series on SARS-CoV-2-induced neurological manifestation in Wuhan, China in April 2020, various studies reporting similar as well as diverse symptoms of COVID-19 infection relating to the nervous system were published. Since then, scientists started to uncover the mechanism as well as pathophysiological impacts it has on the current understanding of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor which is present in certain parts of the body which are responsible for regulating blood pressure and inflammation in a healthy system. Presence of the receptor in the nasal and oral cavity, brain, and blood allows entry of the virus into the body and cause neurological complications. The peripheral and central nervous system could also be invaded directly in the neurogenic or hematogenous pathways, or indirectly through overstimulation of the immune system by cytokines which may lead to autoimmune diseases. Other neurological implications such as hypoxia, anosmia, dysgeusia, meningitis, encephalitis, and seizures are important symptoms presented clinically in COVID-19 patients with or without the common symptoms of the disease. Further, patients with higher severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are also at risk of retaining some neurological complications in the long-run. Treatment of such severe hyperinflammatory conditions will also be discussed, as well as the risks they may pose to the progression of the disease. For this review, articles pertaining information on the neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were gathered from PubMed and Google Scholar using the search keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", and "neurological dysfunction". The findings of the search were filtered, and relevant information were included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anosmia/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Dysgeusia/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Humans , Meningitis, Viral/virology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
13.
Intern Med ; 60(18): 2905-2910, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406769

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains the world's largest public health concern in 2021. A history of close contact with infectious patients is a factor that predicts a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Meanwhile, the precise predictive value of symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the predictive and discriminatory value of each clinical symptom suggestive of COVID-19. Methods This study enrolled participants who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using a nasopharyngeal swab between November 2020 and January 2021. All enrolled patients were evaluated for data regarding the presence and closeness of contact with infectious patients and comprehensive clinical features (i.e., fever, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia). Results Among the 1,744 tested participants, 144 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the test-positive group, self-reported cough, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia were significant predictors of COVID-19, independent from a history of close contact. In particular, the presence of dysosmia was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 42 patients with self-reported dysosmia, 25 (59.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 test-positive. Self-reported dysosmia was reported by 25 (17.4%) of the 144 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 15 (60.0%) of the 25 COVID-19 patients with dysosmia had accompanying dysgeusia. Conclusion The presence of dysosmia was reported by 10-25% of patients with COVID-19, and is a significant predictor of COVID-19 infection, independent from a history of close contact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Dysgeusia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
15.
J Oral Biosci ; 63(4): 319-326, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysgeusia is a prevalent qualitative gustatory impairment that may affect food intake and quality of life. The facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X) nerves are the three cranial nerves responsible for sensing taste. Typically, dysgeusia is considered a general term for all taste disorders. In addition, dysgeusia may be a symptom of underlying systemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, respiratory infections, and nutritional deficiencies. Various subjective and objective diagnostic approaches are available to aid clinicians, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. HIGHLIGHTS: Taste impairment can lead to a lack of enjoyment while eating, food aversion, and malnutrition, resulting in a decrease in the quality of life and loss of muscle mass. Therefore, the present review aims to address the probable etiologies, diagnostic aids, and management of dysgeusia. A broad search for studies was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, relevant studies found in the references of the selected articles were also studied. CONCLUSION: Oral health care providers should be aware of the possible etiologies of dysgeusia, diagnostic tools, and treatment options. Accurate diagnosis of the cause of taste dysfunction has a significant impact on the management of taste impairment.


Subject(s)
Dysgeusia , Quality of Life , Awareness , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Humans , Taste , Taste Disorders
17.
Nutr Rev ; 80(5): 1086-1093, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337279

ABSTRACT

Zinc supplementation is indicated for diarrhea and taste disorders, which are both features of COVID-19 . Nevertheless, this strategy has not been tested for the treatment of these secondary complications in the current pandemic. Through an updated review, a practical appraisal was considered as a means of providing a medical nexus of therapeutic zinc regimens as an adjunct in the management of COVID-19-related diarrhea and ageusia/dysgeusia. While diarrhea and taste disorders are consequences of COVID-19, zinc supplementation is useful for non-COVID-19 patients with these clinical problems. The overwhelming evidence for supplementing with zinc in diarrhea and pneumonia is associated with the treatment of children, while for taste disorders the use of supplementing with zinc is more examined in adults. Whereas COVID-19 is more prevalent in adults, precautions should be exercised not to translate the zinc dosage used for children with diarrhea and taste disorders into the current pandemic. Therapeutic doses of zinc used for adults (∼50-150 mg/day of elemental zinc) could be included in the treatment strategies for COVID-19, but this proposal should be examined through randomized studies.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adult , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Dysgeusia/drug therapy , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Taste Disorders/complications , Taste Disorders/drug therapy , Zinc/therapeutic use
19.
Neurol Res ; 44(1): 1-6, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate neurologic symptoms and findings in patients with COVID-19 infection hospitalized in a ward and intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective study. Hospitalized COVID-19 rRt-PCR positive patients in the ward and ICU were included in the study. A 54-item questionnaire was used to evaluate the patients. Patients were examined within 3 hours of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 379 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 56.1 ± 17.8. 89 of the patients were in intensive care. At least one general symptom was recorded in 95.5% of patients. The most common neurologic symptoms were myalgia (48.5%), headache (39.6%), anosmia (34.8%), and dysgeusia (34%). Neurological symptoms in ICU patients were higher than in the ward. 53.6% of patients had comorbidities. DISCUSSION: This study indicated that the prevalence of neurological symptoms was very high in patients with COVID-19. The percentage of neurological symptoms and findings was higher in patients hospitalized in ICU.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dysgeusia/etiology , Headache/etiology , Myalgia/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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