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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
2.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 20-23, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636011
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2499-2504, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217398

ABSTRACT

Various new clinical signs and symptoms, such as dysfunction of smell (anosmia) and taste (dysgeusia) have emerged ever since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic begun. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical presentation and factors associated with 'new loss/change of smell (anosmia) or taste (dysgeusia)' at admission in patients positive by real time polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All adult COVID-19 patients with new onset anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in study group. Equal number of age and gender matched COVID-19 patients without anosmia or dysgeusia at admission were included in the control group. A total of 261 COVID-19 patients were admitted during the study period of which 55 (21%) had anosmia and or dysgeusia. The mean (SD) age was 36 (13) years and majority were males (58%, n = 32). Comorbidity was present in 38% of cases (n = 21). Anosmia and dysgeusia were noted in more than 1/5th of the cases. Anosmia (96%, n = 53) was more common than dysgeusia (75%, n = 41). Presence of both ansomia and dysgeusia was noted in 71% of patients (n = 39). On comparing the cases with the controls, on univariate analysis, fever (higher in cases), rhinitis (lower in cases), thrombocytopenia, elevated creatinine and bilirubin (all higher in cases) were significantly associated with anosmia or dysgeusia. On multivariate analysis, only rhinitis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09-0.83; p = .02) thrombocytopenia (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-0.99; p = .01) and elevated creatinine (OR: 7.6; 95% CI: 1.5-37.6; p = .01) remained significant. In this retrospective study of COVID-19 patients, we found anosmia and dysgeusia in more than 1/5th of the cases. Absence of rhinitis, low platelet counts and elevated creatinine were associated with anosmia or dysgeusia in these patients.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adult , Anosmia/blood , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Dysgeusia/blood , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
5.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 154-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166623

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Smell and taste loss are characteristic symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study on 376 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza, Italy, from March to July 2020. All patients answered a phone questionnaire providing information on age, sex, smoking status, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression models including relevant covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 patients was 33.5 and 35.6%, respectively. Olfactory dysfunctions were significantly directly associated with current smoking and history of allergy, the multivariable ORs being 6.53 (95% CI 1.16-36.86) for current smokers versus never smokers, and 1.89 (95% CI 1.05-3.39) for those with an allergy compared to those without any allergy. Respiratory allergy in particular was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunctions (multivariable OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.17). Significant inverse associations were observed for patients aged 60 years or more (multivariable OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.57) and hospitalization (multivariable OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.89). Considering gustatory dysfunctions, after allowance of other variables a significant direct association was found for respiratory allergies (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.86), and an inverse association was found only for hospitalization (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that current smoking and history of allergy (particularly respiratory) significantly increase the risk for smell loss in COVID-19 patients; the latter is also significantly associated to taste loss. Hospitalization has an inverse association with the risk of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, suggesting that these may be symptoms characteristics of less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Anosmia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 171, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of this century has overwhelmed the healthcare systems of affected countries, and all resources have been diverted to coronavirus disease 2019. At the onset, coronavirus disease 2019 can present as any other acute febrile undifferentiated illness. In tropical regions, clinicians are increasingly challenged to differentiate these febrile illnesses without the use of diagnostics. With this pandemic, many of these tropical diseases are neglected and go underreported. Dengue is holoendemic in the Maldives, and dengue viruses circulate throughout the year. Reports about coinfections with dengue virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are scarce, and the outcome and the dynamics of the disease may be altered in the presence of coinfection. We have described the clinical manifestation and serial laboratory profile, and highlighted the atypical findings uncommon in dengue infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was a 39-year old Asian male, presented on day 6 of dengue infection with warning signs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that was done as per hospital protocol was found to be positive. Case 2 was a 38-year old Asian male, was admitted on day 5 of illness with symptoms of acute respiratory infection with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Evaluation of progressive leukopenia and thrombocytopenia showed positive dengue serology. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must be conscientious when working on the differential diagnosis of possible tropical diseases in cases of coronavirus disease 2019, specifically, when patients develop hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis with elevated expression of aspartate higher than alanine transaminase, which is frequently observed in dengue infection. Caution must be taken during the administration of intravenous fluids when treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and dengue coinfection, as coronavirus disease 2019 patients are more prone to develop pulmonary edema. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management are essential to avoid the devastating complications of severe forms of dengue infection. It is important to repeat and reconfirm the dengue serology in coronavirus disease 2019 patients to avoid false positivity. Diligence and care must be taken not to neglect other endemic tropical diseases in the region during the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dengue/complications , Leukopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Coinfection , Cough/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Dengue/therapy , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Fluid Therapy , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/physiopathology
7.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 142: 110626, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, clinical course and outcomes of olfactory and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 positive adolescents. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out from May to August 2020. The adolescents, aged 10-19 years, who were detected COVID-19 positive by RT-PCR with mild to moderate disease were included in the study. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes were studied: age, sex, general symptoms, olfactory and taste dysfunction. RESULTS: Out of 141 patients included in the study, there were 83 males (58.9%) and 58 females (41.1%). The age varied from 10 to 19 years with an average of 15.2 years. Forty patients (28.4%) had olfactory or taste dysfunction. Out of these 40 patients, 28 patients (19.8%) had both olfactory and taste dysfunction. Of the 34 patients (24.1%) who complained of olfactory dysfunction, 16 patients complained of hyposmia and 18 patients complained of anosmia. Dysgeusia was reported by 34 patients (24.1%). The duration of OTD varied from 2 to 15 days with an average of 5.7 days. CONCLUSION: Loss of smell and taste are common symptoms in COVID-19 positive adolescents. It recovers spontaneously within a few weeks, along with the resolution of other symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
9.
Ginekol Pol ; 91(12): 755-763, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061493

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the strengths and weakness of a symptomatic screening for COVID-19 in pregnant women. Analyze the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective observational study. SETTING: Mancha-Centro Hospital (Spain). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population: Symptomatic pregnant women with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Between the 12th of March and 17th of April 2020, all the symptomatic pregnancies were screened with diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2. Data collection was done by reviewing the medical records and telephone interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics, management, treatment, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty patients with positive COVID-19 diagnostic test out of thirty-four suspected. The most common symptoms were fever (70%), cough (65%) and myalgia (35%). A unique symptom of presentation in 20% of cases. COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed in 30% by chest X-ray and one case had pulmonary embolism associated diagnosed by CT-Scan. Thromboprophylaxis was indicated in 16 out of 20 patients. Eight women finished their pregnancy during the observation period. Type of birth: 25% natural birth, 12.5% assisted vaginal delivery and 62.5% caesarean section. We had three severe cases, two of them with intensive care support. All neonates had negative test for COVID 19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend universal screening of all pregnant woman for COVID-19 during the pandemic because of the limits of the symptomatic screening seen in this studio and the ratio of asymptomatic pregnancies with positive test for COVID-19 recently published.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cesarean Section , Cough/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Myalgia/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Adult , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Delivery, Obstetric , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Extraction, Obstetrical , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Gestational Age , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
10.
Brain Behav ; 10(11): e01839, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory and taste dysfunction (OTD) is a potential neurological manifestation of coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of symptoms of anosmia and dysgeusia for COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar from 1 June 2020 to 12 June 2020. All studies reporting symptoms of anosmia and dysgeusia in COVID-19-positive patients were included. A total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review. RESULTS: Symptoms of anosmia and dysgeusia were frequently reported by COVID-19-positive patients. Symptoms were more common in females and in younger patients. There was no direct association between the severity of COVID-19 and the presence of symptoms. However, some evidence was found for a longer duration of these symptoms and increased severity of COVID-19 infection in young patients. CONCLUSION: OTD is commonly reported by COVID-19 patients. Due to limited literature on the association between OTD and COVID-19, it is currently not possible to conclude that these symptoms alone can be used to diagnose COVID-19. However, the presence of OTD can potentially be used as a screening tool for COVID-19 especially in young and female patients. Further research is required to establish the true diagnostic value of these symptoms and efficacy as screening tools for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(11): 2221-2230, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Covid-19 can involve multiple organs including the nervous system. We sought to characterize the neurologic manifestations, their risk factors, and associated outcomes in hospitalized patients with Covid-19. METHODS: We examined neurologic manifestations in 509 consecutive patients admitted with confirmed Covid-19 within a hospital network in Chicago, Illinois. We compared the severity of Covid-19 and outcomes in patients with and without neurologic manifestations. We also identified independent predictors of any neurologic manifestations, encephalopathy, and functional outcome using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Neurologic manifestations were present at Covid-19 onset in 215 (42.2%), at hospitalization in 319 (62.7%), and at any time during the disease course in 419 patients (82.3%). The most frequent neurologic manifestations were myalgias (44.8%), headaches (37.7%), encephalopathy (31.8%), dizziness (29.7%), dysgeusia (15.9%), and anosmia (11.4%). Strokes, movement disorders, motor and sensory deficits, ataxia, and seizures were uncommon (0.2 to 1.4% of patients each). Severe respiratory disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 134 patients (26.3%). Independent risk factors for developing any neurologic manifestation were severe Covid-19 (OR 4.02; 95% CI 2.04-8.89; P < 0.001) and younger age (OR 0.982; 95% CI 0.968-0.996; P = 0.014). Of all patients, 362 (71.1%) had a favorable functional outcome at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0-2). However, encephalopathy was independently associated with worse functional outcome (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.11-0.42; P < 0.001) and higher mortality within 30 days of hospitalization (35 [21.7%] vs. 11 [3.2%] patients; P < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Neurologic manifestations occur in most hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Encephalopathy was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, independent of respiratory disease severity.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ataxia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chicago , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Movement Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/physiopathology
14.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(11): 1255-1257, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the pathogen causing the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) commencing in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Multiple reports have shown subjective loss of taste and smell as an early and hallmark symptom for COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in our clinical practice during July 2020 on patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 via polymerase chain reaction. All patients were categorized into 3 groups (supertasters, tasters, and nontasters) via taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide, thiourea, and sodium benzoate with taste strip testing. The results of the taste strip tests were correlated with clinical course. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (mean, 51 [range, 24-82] years of age; 44 [44%] women) were assessed. We found that 21 of 100 (21%) were nontasters, 79 of 100 (79%) were tasters, and 0 of 100 (0%) were supertasters (p < 0.001). Twenty-one of 21 (100%) (p < 0.001) of the patients requiring inpatient admission were classified as nontasters. All 79 (100%) (p < 0.001) of the patients who displayed mild to moderate symptoms not requiring admission were classified as tasters. CONCLUSION: Our results show objective data that taste disturbance, specifically global loss of taste, appears to correlate with the clinical course specific to each individual, because 100% of the patients requiring inpatient admission were classified as nontasters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925813, 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that spread from China is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The head and neck region can be variably affected in adult patients, and taste and smell disorders are typical manifestations. However, pediatric clinical signs are less severe, making the onset diagnosis challenging to interpret. The variability of nasal olfactory symptoms in children and adolescents is intertwined with possible warning signs, including gastrointestinal, ocular, or dermatological symptoms. We present a case involving a 15-year-old boy with clinically confirmed COVID-19 who had late-onset rash and transient taste and smell disorders. CASE REPORT The boy's clinical history revealed that a family member was positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the preceding 3 days, the boy's eating habits had changed; he perceived a metallic taste while eating and had a loss of appetite. He also had erythematous skin lesions on the lower limbs for the 2 previous days. A sore throat, nasal congestion, and a runny nose were reported on head and neck examination. A real-time polymerase chain reaction test was positive, confirming the initial diagnostic hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS SARS-CoV-2 virus infection in children and adolescents can be asymptomatic, but it can also occur with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Due to the unique immune characteristics of pediatric and adolescent patients, the correct interpretation of the gustatory and skin symptoms associated with specific laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the most appropriate management and supportive care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dysgeusia/etiology , Exanthema/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Exanthema/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 73(05-06): 171-175, 2020 05 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614107

ABSTRACT

By the spring of 2020 the COVID-19 outbreak caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has become a pandemic, requiring fast and efficient reaction from societies and health care systems all over the world. Fever, coughing and dyspnea are considered the major signs of COVID-19. In addition to the involvement of the respiratory system, the infection may result in other symptoms and signs as well. Based on reports to date, neurological signs or symptoms appear in 30-50% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with higher incidence in those with more severe disease. Classical acute neurological syndromes have also been reported to associate with COVID-19. A drop in the volume of services for other acute diseases has been described in countries with healthcare systems focusing on COVID-19. During the COVID-19 epidemic it is also important to provide appropriate continuous care for those with chronic neurological disorders. It will be the task of the future to estimate the collateral damage caused by the COVID-19 epidemic on the outcome of other neurological disorders, and to screen for the possible late neurological complications of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Nervous System/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Humans , Nervous System/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Microbes Infect ; 22(9): 481-488, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599130

ABSTRACT

Clinical descriptions about influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in COVID-19 seem non-specific. We aimed to compare the clinical features of COVID-19 and influenza. We retrospectively investigated the clinical features and outcomes of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and influenza in Nord Franche-Comté Hospital between February 26th and March 14th 2020. We used SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and influenza virus A/B RT-PCR in respiratory samples to confirm the diagnosis. We included 124 patients. The mean age was 59 (±19 [19-98]) years with 69% female. 70 patients with COVID-19 and 54 patients with influenza A/B. Regarding age, sex and comorbidities, no differences were found between the two groups except a lower Charlson index in COVID-19 group (2 [±2.5] vs 3 [±2.4],p = 0.003). Anosmia (53% vs 17%,p < 0.001), dysgeusia (49% vs 20%,p = 0.001), diarrhea (40% vs 20%,p = 0.021), frontal headache (26% vs 9%,p = 0.021) and bilateral cracklings sounds (24% vs 9%,p = 0.034) were statistically more frequent in COVID-19. Sputum production (52% vs 29%,p = 0.010), dyspnea (59% vs 34%,p = 0.007), sore throat (44% vs 20%,p = 0.006), conjunctival hyperhemia (30% vs 4%,p < 0.001), tearing (24% vs 6%,p = 0.004), vomiting (22% vs 3%,p = 0.001) and rhonchi sounds (17% vs 1%,p = 0.002) were more frequent with influenza infection. We described several clinical differences which can help the clinicians during the co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , France , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
19.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(4): 565-573, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591651

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The newly emerged coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), is threatening the world. Olfactory or gustatory dysfunction is reported as one of the symptoms worldwide. As reported so far, different clinical features have been reported according to outbreak sites and gender; most of the patients, who complained of anosmia or hyposmia, were Europeans. We had a fast review for novel articles about COVID-19 infection and olfactory function. OBSERVATIONS: Rapid reviews for COVID-19 or other viral infection and olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunctions were done in this review. Up to date, a lot of reports have shown that olfactory dysfunction is related to viral infections but no exact mechanism, clinical course, and definite treatment have been discovered, which is also same in COVID-19. In general, intranasal steroid (INS) and oral steroid for short time help improve the recovery of the olfactory function in case of olfactory dysfunction after virus infection. Considering severe respiratory complications and immunocompromised state of COVID-19, the use of steroid should be limited and cautious because we do not have enough data to support the usage of steroid to treat olfactory dysfunction in the clinical course of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In the days of pandemic COVID-19, we should keep in mind that olfactory dysfunctions, even without other upper respiratory infection or otolaryngologic symptoms, might be the early signs of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Nasal Lavage , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
20.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(12): 1701-1703, 2020 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437392

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoonotic disease that is dominated by pulmonary symptoms. However, recent reports of isolation of the virus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) coupled with radiological evidence of zones of necrosis in the brain, have elucidated the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2. The acute respiratory failure seen in patients with COVID-19 is alarming and could be due to the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the central respiratory regulatory centers in the brainstem. Appropriate interventions can be implemented to prevent severe outcomes of neurological invasion by SARS-CoV-2 to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with COVID-19. It is of paramount importance that the scientific community alerts the healthcare professionals of the pieces of evidence that can herald them on the covert neurological deficits in progress in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dysgeusia/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Ethmoid Bone , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
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