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1.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 30(6): 393-399, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152252

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysphagia and dysphonia are common presentations of both acute and long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of peer-reviewed publications in 2020 and early 2021 were expert guidance and consensus statements to support dysphagia management in multidisciplinary teams while protecting clinicians and patients from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. This review discusses dysphagia and dysphonia primary data published in 2021-2022, focusing on patient presentations, pathophysiology, and evidence for interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinicians and researchers amassed knowledge of the cross-system presentation of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with COVID-19, from severe disease requiring ICU stays to those with mild-to-moderate disease presenting to outpatient clinics. Pre-COVID-19 health status, hospitalization experience, presence of neurological symptoms, and impact of the virus to the upper aerodigestive and respiratory system need consideration in patient management. Long-term dysphagia and dysphonia manifested from COVID-19 require otolaryngologist and speech-language pathologist input. SUMMARY: Changes in immunity through population vaccination and variations in COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 mutations means prevalence data are challenging to interpret. However, there is no doubt of the presence of long-term dysphagia and dysphonia in our clinics. Long-term dysphagia and dysphonia are complex and a multidisciplinary team with a tailored approach for each patient is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Dysphonia/etiology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
2.
Dysphagia ; 37(6): 1349-1374, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606589

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an impact globally with millions infected, high mortality, significant economic ramifications, travel restrictions, national lockdowns, overloaded healthcare systems, effects on healthcare workers' health and well-being, and large amounts of funding diverted into rapid vaccine development and implementation. Patients with COVID-19, especially those who become severely ill, have frequently developed dysphagia and dysphonia. Health professionals working in the field have needed to learn about this new disease while managing these patients with enhanced personal protective equipment. Emerging research suggests differences in the clinical symptoms and journey to recovery for patients with COVID-19 in comparison to other intensive care populations. New insights from outpatient clinics also suggest distinct presentations of dysphagia and dysphonia in people after COVID-19 who were not hospitalized or severely ill. This international expert panel provides commentary on the impact of the pandemic on speech pathologists and our current understanding of dysphagia and dysphonia in patients with COVID-19, from acute illness to long-term recovery. This narrative review provides a unique, comprehensive critical appraisal of published peer-reviewed primary data as well as emerging previously unpublished, original primary data from across the globe, including clinical symptoms, trajectory, and prognosis. We conclude with our international expert opinion on what we have learnt and where we need to go next as this pandemic continues across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Communicable Disease Control
3.
Laryngoscope ; 132(6): 1251-1259, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence, degree, predictors, and trajectory of dysphagia, dysphonia, and dysarthria among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) during the first wave of the pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS: Adults with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted into 14 participating acute hospitals across ROI and referred to speech and language therapy between March 1st and June 30th, 2020 were recruited. Outcomes obtained at initial SLT evaluation and at discharge were oral intake status (Functional Oral Intake Scale), perceptual voice quality (GRBAS), and global dysarthria rating (Dysarthria Severity Scale). RESULTS: Data from 315 adults were analyzed. At initial SLT assessment, 84% required modified oral diets, and 31% required tube feeding. There were high rates of dysphonia (42%) and dysarthria (23%). History of intubation (OR 19.959, 95% CI 6.272, 63.513; P = .000), COVID-19 neurological manifestations (OR 3.592, 95% CI 1.733, 7.445; P = .001), and age (OR 1.034; 95% CI 1.002, 1.066; P = .036) were predictive of oral intake status. History of intubation was predictive of voice quality (OR 4.250, 95% CI 1.838, 9.827; P = .001) and COVID-19 neurological manifestations were predictive of dysarthria (OR 2.275; 95% CI 1.162, 4.456; P = .017). At discharge, there were significant improvements in oral intake (Z = -7.971; P = .000), voice quality (Z = -5.971; P = .000), and dysarthria severity (Z = -2.619; P = .009), although need for modified oral intake (59%), dysphonia (23%), and dysarthria (14%) persisted. CONCLUSION: Dysphagia, dysphonia, and dysarthria were widespread among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 and they persisted for many at discharge. Prompt SLT evaluation is required to minimize complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1251-1259, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deglutition Disorders , Dysphonia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Deglutition Disorders/complications , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Dysarthria/epidemiology , Dysarthria/etiology , Dysarthria/therapy , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/etiology , Hoarseness , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysphonia is a feature of the COVID-19 disease with different prevalence rates of occurrence among various nations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of dysphonia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted at Salahaddin General Hospital during the period from January to March 2021. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without dysphonia were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. The severity, duration, laryngoscopic finding, and fate of the dysphonia were registered too. RESULTS: Out of 94 subjects, there were 21 (22.3%) with dysphonia. The age was ranged from 23 to 101 years, with nearly equal gender distribution. Non-smokers were found in 52.1% of the cases. Dyspnea (100%), fever (100%), and cough (98.9%) were the most common presenting symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between the dysphonic and non-dysphonic groups regarding fatigue, nasal obstruction, and diarrhea (P-value<0.05). Mild dysphonia was found in 10 (47.6%) of the dysphonic cases. The most common laryngoscopic finding was the bowing of the vocal cords (5/18). Most of the patients (11/18) were with dysphonia for more than a month duration. Similar numbers were not recovered for a one-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dysphonia was 22.3%. Dyspnea, fever, and cough were the commonest symptoms. Fatigue, nasal obstruction, and diarrhea affected dysphonia. Bowing of the vocal cords was the most common abnormality. Most of the cases were with mild dysphonia, persisting for more than a month, and were not resolved during the follow-up period of one month.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, General , Humans , Iraq , Laryngoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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