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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S1): e2022102, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879757

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is an often misdiagnosed clinical condition characterized by dyspnea and hypoxia in sitting or semi-sitting position, reversible in supine position. Although POS is typically associated with intracardiac shunts, it seems frequent also in SARS-CoV-2 related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). In fact, the prevalent involvement of the lung bases due to interstitial pneumonia can determine refractory positional hypoxemia, with marked desaturation in the sitting position and regression or improvement in the supine position, configuring the clinical picture of the POS. We present a clinical case of POS associated with acute respiratory distress from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in which refractory hypoxia would have required support by invasive mechanical ventilation if the syndrome had not been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 25: 183-192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879714

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with HIV may be more likely to become severely ill from COVID-19. The present meta-analysis aims to determine the impact of HIV/AIDS infection on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify relevant cohort studies to evaluate the association of HIV/AIDS infection with clinical outcomes of COVID-19. International databases, including PubMed (Medline), Web of Sciences, Scopus, and Embase, were searched from the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic until January 2022. We utilized the risk ratio (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to quantify the effect of cohort studies. RESULTS: Twelve cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis, which examined a total number of 17,786,384 patients. Among them, 40,386 were identified to be HIV positive, and 17,745,998 were HIV negative. The pooled analyses showed HIV positive patients who were co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 were 58% more likely to develop a fever (RR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.75), 24% more likely to have dyspnea (RR=1.24; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.41), 45% more likely to be admitted to ICU (RR=1.45; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.67), and 37% more likely to die from to COVID-19 (RR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.45) than HIV negative patients. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS coinfection with COVID 19 increased the risk of fever, dyspnea, ICU admission, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Dyspnea/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879124

ABSTRACT

The emerging entity, long COVID -19 is characterised by long-lasting dyspnoea, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and other symptoms. Cardiac involvement manifested as conduction abnormalities, left ventricle mechanical dyssynchrony, dyspnoea, palpitation and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) are common in long COVID-19. The direct viral damage to the myocardium or immune-mediated inflammation are postulated mechanisms. A woman in her forties presented with a 2-month history of chest pain, functional dyspnoea, palpitation and an episode of syncope after having been home-isolated for mild COVID infection. During clinical workup, a clustering of ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities including left bundle branch block, septal flash, and presystolic wave on spectral Doppler echocardiography, and POTS were detected. The echocardiographic findings together with POTS and persistent dyspnoea indicated the presence of a long COVID-19 state. The prevalence and clinical significance of these finding, as well as the impact on long-term prognosis, should be investigated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome/diagnosis
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3751-3759, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism as a potential complication that may occur late in the course of COVID-19 cases. The aim of our study is to evaluate the frequency of pulmonary embolism in patients with new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective observational study to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of consecutive patients presenting outpatient clinic diseases to the chest and a new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Dyspnea was evaluated according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was detected in 23.8% (25/105) of patients with new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. Proportion of pulmonary embolism in patients with NYHA classes I, II, III and IV were respectively 8.7%, 20.0%, 30.0% and 35.3% (p for trend=0.02). Compared to NYHA class I and II patients with dyspnea, those in NYHA classes III and IV showed a higher rate of pulmonary embolism [31.6% vs. 14.6%, OR: 2.7 (1.0 to 7.1), p=0.04, respectively]. In Logistic Procedures, NYHA classes of dyspnea (OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2 to 16.6, p=0.03) (NYHA class III and IV vs. NYHA class I and II) determine the likelihood of pulmonary embolism after COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism is common in patients with new or ongoing shortness of breath after a COVID-19 infection. Pulmonary embolism is more likely to develop in patients with higher NYHA classes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
6.
Chest ; 161(5): e299-e304, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866966

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old Asian male never-smoker living in the upper Midwest with a past medical history of congenital bilateral hearing loss sought treatment with a 1-week history of fever, fatigue, right-sided pleuritic chest pain, shortness of breath, productive cough with mild intermittent hemoptysis, night sweats, and unintentional 10-lb weight loss over 4 weeks. He was adopted from South Korea as an infant, and thus the family history was unknown. He worked in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning business, performing installations and repairs. There was no known exposure to animals, caves, rivers, lakes, or wooded areas. He travelled to South Korea and New Hampshire approximately 9 months previously. He did not take any medication.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Mediastinal Diseases , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnosis
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862847

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease entity caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The main symptoms of infection at the onset of the pandemic include dyspnea, cough and high fever. Ear-nose-throat (ENT) symptoms are among the ones presented by patients in the course of infection. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of ENT symptoms and to assess their severity and duration in COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 337 patients who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2, as confirmed by a PCR test. The study participants were >18 years old; the mean age was 43.98 years ± 13.47 SD. The convalescents completed a questionnaire that contained 26 questions, including 9 detailed questions related to ENT symptoms, such as sore throat, vertigo, dizziness, hearing disorders, olfactory disorders, taste disturbance, headache, cough and dyspnea. The severity of symptoms was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: The most reported ENT symptoms were olfactory disorders, which occurred in 72% of patients. The second most frequent symptom was taste disturbance (68%), VAS = 6.79 ± 3.01. Vertigo and dizziness were reported by 34% of respondents (VAS = 4.01 ± 2.01). Tinnitus was observed in 15% of patients, VAS = 3.87 ± 1.98; 14% of the subjects reported hearing impairment (VAS = 3.81 ± 2.37). Conclusions: Symptoms related to the sense of smell, taste and hearing are some of the most common symptoms in the course of COVID-19, which is important in the therapeutic and epidemiological management of patients. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of symptoms, especially those related to the hearing organ, may result in greater permanent damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Cough/etiology , Dizziness/complications , Dizziness/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Pharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Vertigo/complications
8.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(5): 632-635, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is an economic, social, and health challenge. During the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown, a telematics platform for respiratory physiotherapy and mindfulness was created, aiming to reduce dyspnea and anxiety and to increase quality of life in post-coronavirus disease 2019 patient. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was performed on post-coronavirus disease 2019 patients, with breathing exercises and mindfulness with remote supervision by a respiratory physiotherapist. Dyspnea on exertion (Mahler Scale), quality of life (EuroQol-5D score), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire) were measured before and after the rehabilitation program. RESULTS: A total of 20 subjects completed the program, with a significant decrease in the measures of dyspnea on exertion (p<0.001), state anxiety (p=0.004), and trait anxiety (p=0.001) and a significant increase in quality of life (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Coronavirus disease 2019 should be treated using a multidisciplinary approach that includes respiratory rehabilitation. At present, there are few studies on respiratory rehabilitation and mindfulness in post-coronavirus disease 2019 patients. The results of this study showed that the implementation of breathing exercises and mindfulness with remote supervision was effective in decreasing dyspnea and anxiety and in increasing quality of life in post-coronavirus disease 2019 patients during confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Anxiety/therapy , Breathing Exercises/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Dyspnea/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055308, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854342

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 can result in persistent symptoms leaving potential rehabilitation needs unmet. This study aims to describe persistent symptoms and health status of individuals hospitalised for COVID-19 according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of impairments, limitations in activity, and participation restrictions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study consisting in a telephone interview 3 months after hospital discharge. SETTING: This study was conducted during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic by the Local Health Authority of Reggio Emilia (Italy). PARTICIPANTS: Adult individuals discharged from hospital between April and June 2020 after COVID-19. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: hospitalisation for reasons other than COVID-19, inability to participate in the study, concomitant acute or chronic conditions causing disability. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed: dyspnoea (Medical Research Council), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), mood disturbances (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), limitations in activity (Barthel Index) and participation restrictions (Reintegration to Normal Living Index). We also collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, health status prior to COVID-19, COVID-related clinical manifestations and hospital care pathway up to discharge, rehabilitation interventions, accidental falls and emergency room access. RESULTS: 149 participants (men, 62%; average age 62 (±11) years) were enrolled, 35 of which (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) while hospitalised. Three months after hospital discharge, nearly half of the participants still suffered from dyspnoea (44%) or fatigue (39%). Almost all individuals (91.2%) recovered a good level of independence in activity of daily living, but 76% still suffered participation restrictions. Female sex was significantly associated with worse outcomes for all symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who had moderate or severe COVID-19 may perceive persistent symptoms which may result in reduced social participation. Sex differences should be monitored, as women may recover more slowly than men. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04438239.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Sex Characteristics , Treatment Outcome
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013665, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 illness is highly variable, ranging from infection with no symptoms through to pneumonia and life-threatening consequences. Symptoms such as fever, cough, or loss of sense of smell (anosmia) or taste (ageusia), can help flag early on if the disease is present. Such information could be used either to rule out COVID-19 disease, or to identify people who need to go for COVID-19 diagnostic tests. This is the second update of this review, which was first published in 2020. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms to determine if a person presenting in primary care or to hospital outpatient settings, such as the emergency department or dedicated COVID-19 clinics, has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook electronic searches up to 10 June 2021 in the University of Bern living search database. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We used artificial intelligence text analysis to conduct an initial classification of documents. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were eligible if they included people with clinically suspected COVID-19, or recruited known cases with COVID-19 and also controls without COVID-19 from a single-gate cohort. Studies were eligible when they recruited people presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. Studies that included people who contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection while admitted to hospital were not eligible. The minimum eligible sample size of studies was 10 participants. All signs and symptoms were eligible for this review, including individual signs and symptoms or combinations. We accepted a range of reference standards. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently selected all studies, at both title and abstract, and full-text stage. They resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the QUADAS-2 checklist, and resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Analyses were restricted to prospective studies only. We presented sensitivity and specificity in paired forest plots, in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space and in dumbbell plots. We estimated summary parameters using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis whenever five or more primary prospective studies were available, and whenever heterogeneity across studies was deemed acceptable. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 90 studies; for this update we focused on the results of 42 prospective studies with 52,608 participants. Prevalence of COVID-19 disease varied from 3.7% to 60.6% with a median of 27.4%. Thirty-five studies were set in emergency departments or outpatient test centres (46,878 participants), three in primary care settings (1230 participants), two in a mixed population of in- and outpatients in a paediatric hospital setting (493 participants), and two overlapping studies in nursing homes (4007 participants). The studies did not clearly distinguish mild COVID-19 disease from COVID-19 pneumonia, so we present the results for both conditions together. Twelve studies had a high risk of bias for selection of participants because they used a high level of preselection to decide whether reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing was needed, or because they enrolled a non-consecutive sample, or because they excluded individuals while they were part of the study base. We rated 36 of the 42 studies as high risk of bias for the index tests because there was little or no detail on how, by whom and when, the symptoms were measured. For most studies, eligibility for testing was dependent on the local case definition and testing criteria that were in effect at the time of the study, meaning most people who were included in studies had already been referred to health services based on the symptoms that we are evaluating in this review. The applicability of the results of this review iteration improved in comparison with the previous reviews. This version has more studies of people presenting to ambulatory settings, which is where the majority of assessments for COVID-19 take place. Only three studies presented any data on children separately, and only one focused specifically on older adults. We found data on 96 symptoms or combinations of signs and symptoms. Evidence on individual signs as diagnostic tests was rarely reported, so this review reports mainly on the diagnostic value of symptoms. Results were highly variable across studies. Most had very low sensitivity and high specificity. RT-PCR was the most often used reference standard (40/42 studies). Only cough (11 studies) had a summary sensitivity above 50% (62.4%, 95% CI 50.6% to 72.9%)); its specificity was low (45.4%, 95% CI 33.5% to 57.9%)). Presence of fever had a sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI 23.4% to 54.3%) and a specificity of 75.2% (95% CI 56.3% to 87.8%). The summary positive likelihood ratio of cough was 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.25) and that of fever 1.52 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.10). Sore throat had a summary positive likelihood ratio of 0.814 (95% CI 0.714 to 0.929), which means that its presence increases the probability of having an infectious disease other than COVID-19. Dyspnoea (12 studies) and fatigue (8 studies) had a sensitivity of 23.3% (95% CI 16.4% to 31.9%) and 40.2% (95% CI 19.4% to 65.1%) respectively. Their specificity was 75.7% (95% CI 65.2% to 83.9%) and 73.6% (95% CI 48.4% to 89.3%). The summary positive likelihood ratio of dyspnoea was 0.96 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.11) and that of fatigue 1.52 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.91), which means that the presence of fatigue slightly increases the probability of having COVID-19. Anosmia alone (7 studies), ageusia alone (5 studies), and anosmia or ageusia (6 studies) had summary sensitivities below 50% but summary specificities over 90%. Anosmia had a summary sensitivity of 26.4% (95% CI 13.8% to 44.6%) and a specificity of 94.2% (95% CI 90.6% to 96.5%). Ageusia had a summary sensitivity of 23.2% (95% CI 10.6% to 43.3%) and a specificity of 92.6% (95% CI 83.1% to 97.0%). Anosmia or ageusia had a summary sensitivity of 39.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 53.6%) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI 84.5% to 96.2%). The summary positive likelihood ratios of anosmia alone and anosmia or ageusia were 4.55 (95% CI 3.46 to 5.97) and 4.99 (95% CI 3.22 to 7.75) respectively, which is just below our arbitrary definition of a 'red flag', that is, a positive likelihood ratio of at least 5. The summary positive likelihood ratio of ageusia alone was 3.14 (95% CI 1.79 to 5.51). Twenty-four studies assessed combinations of different signs and symptoms, mostly combining olfactory symptoms. By combining symptoms with other information such as contact or travel history, age, gender, and a local recent case detection rate, some multivariable prediction scores reached a sensitivity as high as 90%. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most individual symptoms included in this review have poor diagnostic accuracy. Neither absence nor presence of symptoms are accurate enough to rule in or rule out the disease. The presence of anosmia or ageusia may be useful as a red flag for the presence of COVID-19. The presence of cough also supports further testing. There is currently no evidence to support further testing with PCR in any individuals presenting only with upper respiratory symptoms such as sore throat, coryza or rhinorrhoea. Combinations of symptoms with other readily available information such as contact or travel history, or the local recent case detection rate may prove more useful and should be further investigated in an unselected population presenting to primary care or hospital outpatient settings. The diagnostic accuracy of symptoms for COVID-19 is moderate to low and any testing strategy using symptoms as selection mechanism will result in both large numbers of missed cases and large numbers of people requiring testing. Which one of these is minimised, is determined by the goal of COVID-19 testing strategies, that is, controlling the epidemic by isolating every possible case versus identifying those with clinically important disease so that they can be monitored or treated to optimise their prognosis. The former will require a testing strategy that uses very few symptoms as entry criterion for testing, the latter could focus on more specific symptoms such as fever and anosmia.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Aged , Ageusia/complications , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Outpatients , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847376

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives. The aim of this study is to compare clinical and epidemiological characteristics and outcomes in patients with versus without nosocomial COVID-19 after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and to analyze the risk factors for severe outcomes of COVID-19 in a long-term hospital in Spain. Materials and methods. This retrospective, single-center observational study included all inpatients in a long-term hospital during a COVID-19 outbreak from 21 January to 15 March 2021. Results. Of 108 admitted patients, 65 (60.2%) were diagnosed with nosocomial COVID-19 disease (n = 34 women (52.3%), median age 77 years). In the univariable analysis, risk factors associated with nosocomial COVID-19 were dementia (OR 4.98 95% CI 1.58-15.75), dyspnea (OR 5.34 95% CI 1.69-16.82), asthenia (OR 5.10, 95% CI 1.40-18.60) and NECesidades PALiativas (NECPAL) (OR 1.28 95% CI 1.10-1.48). In the multivariable analysis, risk factors independently associated with nosocomial COVID-19 infection were dyspnea (aOR 7.39; 95% CI 1.27-43.11) and NECPAL (aOR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03-1.52). Of the 65 patients diagnosed with nosocomial COVID-19, 29 (44.6%) died, compared to 7/43 (16.2%) non-infected patients (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.61-10.67). Factors associated with mortality in nosocomial COVID-19 were confusion (aOR 3.83; 95% CI 1.03-14.27) and dyspnea (aOR 7.47; 95% CI 1.87-29.82). The NECPAL tool played an important predictive role in both nosocomial COVID-19 infection and mortality (aOR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.00-1.41). Conclusions. In a long-term hospital, nosocomial COVID-19 main clinical characteristics associated with infection were dyspnea and NECPAL. Mortality was higher in the group with nosocomial COVID-19; risk factors were confusion and dyspnea. The NECPAL tool may help to predict progression and death in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Aged , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(6): 2311-2317, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844372

ABSTRACT

Only a few data associated to wearability of facemask during exercise are available in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of wearing a facemask on perceived exertion (primary aim), dyspnea, physical performance, and cardiorespiratory response during a submaximal exercise test in children aged between 8 and 12 years. This study was performed in 2021 in healthy volunteer children from 8 to 12 years. They performed prospectively two 1-min sit-to-stand tests (STST), with or without a surgical facemask. The perceived exertion (modified Borg scale), dyspnea (Dalhousie scale), heart rate, and pulsed oxygen saturation were recorded before and after STST. The STST measured the submaximal performance. Thirty-eight healthy children were recruited (8-9 years: n = 19 and 10-11 years: n = 19). After the STST, the perceived exertion increased with or without a facemask (8-9 years group: + 1 [0.6; 1.4] and + 1.6 [1.0; 2.1] - 10-11 years group: + 1.3 [0.7; 1.8] and + 1.9 [1.3; 2.6]) and it was higher with the facemask. The difference between the two conditions in perceived exertion was not clinically relevant in any group (mBorgf: 0.56 pts and 0.68 pts, respectively). The different domains of dyspnea assessed with Dalhousie scale were not influenced by the facemask. The submaximal performance measured by the STST was not changed by the mask whatever the age group. The cardio-respiratory demand was not clinically modified.Conclusion: The surgical facemask had no impact on dyspnea, cardiorespiratory parameters, and exercise performance during a short submaximal exercise in healthy children.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Masks , Child , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Physical Exertion/physiology
14.
Nucl Med Commun ; 43(7): 756-762, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the effects of COVID-19 pneumonia on cardiac ischemia detected by myocardial perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) in patients presenting with chest pain and shortness of breath after recovery from COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Patients with a history of COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR test who underwent SPECT-MPI for the evaluation of ischemia with the complaints of chest pain and shortness of breath were screened for this study. Patients who underwent thorax CT during the acute period of the COVID-19 were included. Patients with and without pneumonia were determined based on computed tomographic criteria. The patients with a summed stress score of at least 4 on SPECT-MPI were considered to have abnormal MPI in terms of ischemia. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were included in the study. Sixty-five (24%) patients had ischemia findings on SPECT-MPI. Thorax CT showed pneumonia in 152 (57%) patients, and the patients were divided into two groups as pneumonia and nonpneumonia. Abnormal SPECT-MPI scores, which represented myocardial ischemia, were higher in the pneumonia group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the presence of hyperlipidemia and pneumonia on CT increased the risk of ischemia on SPECT-MPI (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.08-3.99; P-value = 0.029; and OR, 2.90; 95% Cl, 1.52-5.54; P-value = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pneumonia was identified as an independent predictor of ischemia on SPECT-MPI. Symptoms including chest pain and shortness of breath in patients who have had COVID-19 pneumonia may be attributed to coronary ischemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain , Dyspnea , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging/methods , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/methods
15.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 40(5): 356, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831365
16.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 115, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published studies suggest physical recovery from the COVID-19 is complex, with many individuals experiencing persistent symptoms. There is a paucity of data investigating the longer-term trajectory of physical recovery from COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal design was utilised to investigate the impact COVID-19 has on physical functioning at 10-weeks (T1), 6-months (T2) and 1-year (T3) post-hospital discharge. Objective measures of recovery included 6-Minute Walk Test Distance (6MWTD), frailty (Clinical Frailty Scale), quantification of falls following hospital-discharge, return to work status and exercise levels. Subjective markers included symptoms (COVID-19-Specific Patient Concerns Assessment), fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Score) and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) [Short-Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36-II)]. Univariate analysis was performed using t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Chi-squared test, paired analysis using one-way analysis of variance and Krustal Wallis testing and correlation analysis with Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: Sixty-one subjects participated. Assessments were conducted at a median of 55 days(T1), 242 days(T2), and 430 days(T3) following hospital-discharge. 6MWTD improved significantly overtime (F = 10.3, p < 0.001) from 365(209)m at T1 to 447(85)m at T3, however remained below population norms and with no associated improvement in perceived exertion. Approximately half (n = 27(51%)) had returned to pre-diagnosis exercise levels at T3. At least one concern/symptom was reported by 74%, 59% and 64% participants at T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom at T1(40%) and T2(49%), while issues with memory/concentration was the most frequently reported at T3(49%). SF-36 scores did not change in any domain over the study period, and scores remained lower than population norms in the domains of physical functioning, energy/vitality, role limitations due to physical problems and general health. Return-to-work rates are low, with 55% of participants returning to work in some capacity, and 31% of participants don't feel back to full-health at 1-year following infection. CONCLUSION: Hospitalised COVID-19 survivors report persistent symptoms, particularly fatigue and breathlessness, low HrQOL scores, sub-optimal exercise levels and continued work absenteeism 1-year following infection, despite some objective recovery of physical functioning. Further research is warranted to explore rehabilitation goals and strategies to optimise patient outcomes during recovery from COVID-19. CLINICAL MESSAGE: Hospitalised COVID-19 survivors report significant ongoing rehabilitation concerns 1-year following infection, despite objective recovery of physical functioning. Our findings suggest those who returned to exercise within 1-year may have less fatigue and breathlessness. The impact of exercise, and other rehabilitative strategies on physical functioning outcomes following COVID-19 should be investigated in future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055989, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is little in-depth qualitative evidence of how symptoms manifest themselves in outpatients with COVID-19 and how these in turn impact outpatients' daily lives. The objective of the study was therefore to explore the experience of outpatients with COVID-19 qualitatively, concerning the symptomatic experience and its subsequent impact on daily life. SETTING: Qualitative research study comprising virtual in-depth, open-ended interviews with outpatients and clinicians. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty US adult patients with COVID-19 were interviewed within 21 days of diagnosis. Patients were 60% female and 87% white, who had to self-report one of the following: fever, cough, shortness of breath/difficulty breathing, change/loss of taste/smell, vomiting/diarrhoea or body/muscle aches. Five independent clinicians were also interviewed about their experience treating outpatients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Transcripts were analysed thematically to organise symptoms and impacts of daily life into higher-order overarching categories, and subsequently propose a conceptual model. The adequacy of the sample size was assessed by conceptual saturation analysis. RESULTS: Patient-reported concepts were organised into six symptom themes (upper respiratory, lower respiratory, systemic, gastrointestinal, smell and taste, and other) and seven impact themes (activities of daily living, broad daily activities, leisure/social activities, and physical, emotional, professional and quarantine-specific impacts). Symptom type, severity, duration and time of onset varied by patient. Clinicians endorsed all patient-reported symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The manifestation of symptoms in outpatients is heterogeneous and affects all aspects of daily life. Outpatients offered new detailed insights into their symptomatic experiences, including heterogeneous experiences of smell and taste, and the impacts that symptoms had on their daily lives. Findings of this research may be used to supplement existing knowledge of the outpatient experience of mild-to-moderate COVID-19, to further inform treatment guidelines and to provide an evidence base for evaluating potential treatment benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Outcome Assessment , Qualitative Research
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7249, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821607

ABSTRACT

We analyzed symptoms and comorbidities as predictors of hospitalization in 710 outpatients in North-East Germany with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the first 3 days of infection, commonly reported symptoms were fatigue (71.8%), arthralgia/myalgia (56.8%), headache (55.1%), and dry cough (51.8%). Loss of smell (anosmia), loss of taste (ageusia), dyspnea, and productive cough were reported with an onset of 4 days. Anosmia or ageusia were reported by only 18% of the participants at day one, but up to 49% between days 7 and 9. Not all participants who reported ageusia also reported anosmia. Individuals suffering from ageusia without anosmia were at highest risk of hospitalization (OR 6.8, 95% CI 2.5-18.1). They also experienced more commonly dyspnea and nausea (OR of 3.0, 2.9, respectively) suggesting pathophysiological connections between these symptoms. Other symptoms significantly associated with increased risk of hospitalization were dyspnea, vomiting, and fever. Among basic parameters and comorbidities, age > 60 years, COPD, prior stroke, diabetes, kidney and cardiac diseases were also associated with increased risk of hospitalization. In conclusion, due to the delayed onset, ageusia and anosmia may be of limited use in differential diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. However, differentiation between ageusia and anosmia may be useful for evaluating risk for hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(4): 230-232, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821256

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Teleconsultation is an emerging tool whose utilization dramatically increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. Our aim was to determine its clinical accuracy. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out during the first wave of Covid-19. Patients were teleconsulted by either general practitioners or emergency doctors reporting clinical exam results to the ID physicians by phone. Five signs were specifically checked: dyspnea, fever, cough, anosmia and flu-like illness. Data collected by remote consultation were compared to face-to-face examination in an ID Department. RESULTS: From March to April 2020, 149 patients were seen by remote medical care. Dyspnea was found in 14.1% of the teleconsultation patients vs 3.4% in face-to-face consultation; fever in 47.0 vs. 15.4%; cough in 69.1 vs. 16.1%; anosmia in 3.4 vs. 1.3%; flu-like illness in 53.0 vs. 7.4% (all differences significant: P<0.001). CONCLUSION: We observed incongruency between remote and face-to-face consultation for the main clinical signs of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cough , Dyspnea , Family Practice , Fever , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Remote Consultation/methods , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(7): 2839-2847, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820928

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 235 million people since it was accepted as a pandemic in March 2020. Although a milder disease is seen in the pediatric age group, the extent of lung damage and its long-term effects are still unknown. In this study, persistent respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests were investigated in children with COVID-19. Fifty children with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in the study. Patients were evaluated for ongoing respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests 3 months after infection. Patients with and without persistent symptoms were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and also disease severity. Three months after infection, persistent respiratory symptoms were found to be present in 28% of patients; cough, chest pain and tightness, dyspnea, and exertional dyspnea were the most common symptoms. Three patients had an obstructive deficit, and one had a restrictive deficit. Four patients had impaired diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO). A significant decrease in FEV1/FVC and an increase in lung clearance index were found in the patients with persistent respiratory symptoms. Persistent respiratory symptoms were present in 50% of patients who had severe disease and 12.5% with non-severe disease. DLCO was also significantly lower in the severe disease group.   Conclusions: Our study suggests that the persistence of respiratory symptoms is not related to the severity of acute COVID-19 in children. The inflammatory process due to COVID-19 may continue regardless of its severity, and consequently, peripheral airways may be affected. What is Known: • As compared with adults, children with COVID-19 exhibit a milder disease course and lower mortality rates. However, due to the lack of follow-up studies on children, the long-term effects of their contracting the disease are unknown. What is New: • Although COVID-19 has been thought to have a milder course in children, respiratory system symptoms persist in approximately 30% of patients 3 months after infection. The persistent respiratory symptoms suggest that the inflammatory process due to COVID-19 may continue in some children, even if the clinical findings at admission are not severe, and that the peripheral airways may be affected accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Dyspnea/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2
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