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2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 'Long COVID'-associated dyspnoea may persist for months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the causes of persistent dyspnoea, dysfunctional breathing (DB), defined as an erratic or inappropriate ventilation at rest or exercise, has been observed, but little is known about its occurrence and pathophysiology among individuals with 'long COVID'. We aimed to describe the occurrence and identify clinical predictors of DB among patients following SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed in 51 SARS-CoV-2 patients (median age, 64 years (IQR, 15)); male, 66.7%) living with 'long COVID' and persistent dyspnoea. CPET was classified into three dominant patterns: respiratory limitation with gas exchange abnormalities (RL); normal CPET or O2 delivery/utilisation impairment (D); and DB. Non-parametric and χ2 tests were applied to analyse the association between CPET dominant patterns and demographics, pulmonary function tests and SARS-CoV-2 severity. RESULTS: Among 51 patients, DB mostly without hyperventilation was found in 29.4% (n=15), RL in 54.9% (n=28) and D in 15.7% (n=8). When compared with RL individuals, patients with DB were younger, had significantly less severe initial infection, a better transfer capacity for carbon monoxide (median 85% (IQR, 28)), higher oxygen consumption (22.9 mL/min/kg (IQR, 5.5)), a better ventilatory efficiency slope (31.6 (IQR, 12.8)), and a higher SpO2 (95% (IQR, 3)). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that DB without hyperventilation could be an important pathophysiological mechanism of disabling dyspnoea in younger outpatients following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears to be a feature of COVID-19 not described in other viral diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
3.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 10, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740441

ABSTRACT

Dyspnoea or breathlessness is a common presenting symptom among patients attending primary care services. This review aimed to determine whether there are clinical tools that can be incorporated into a clinical decision support system for primary care for efficient and accurate diagnosis of causes of chronic dyspnoea. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar for all literature published between 1946 and 2020. Studies that evaluated a clinical algorithm for assessment of chronic dyspnoea in patients of any age group presenting to physicians with chronic dyspnoea were included. We identified 326 abstracts, 55 papers were reviewed, and eight included. A total 2026 patients aged between 20-80 years were included, 60% were women. The duration of dyspnoea was three weeks to 25 years. All studies undertook a stepwise or algorithmic approach to the assessment of dyspnoea. The results indicate that following history taking and physical examination, the first stage should include simply performed tests such as pulse oximetry, spirometry, and electrocardiography. If the patient remains undiagnosed, the second stage includes investigations such as chest x-ray, thyroid function tests, full blood count and NT-proBNP. In the third stage patients are referred for more advanced tests such as echocardiogram and thoracic CT. If dyspnoea remains unexplained, the fourth stage of assessment will require secondary care referral for more advanced diagnostic testing such as exercise tests. Utilising this proposed stepwise approach is expected to ascertain a cause for dyspnoea for 35% of the patients in stage 1, 83% by stage 3 and >90% of patients by stage 4.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Dyspnea , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Spirometry , Young Adult
4.
Chest ; 161(2): e91-e96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664780

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old South African man with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, OSA, and latent TB presented to the ER with gradually progressive dyspnea over months. He also reported occasional dry cough and fatigue at presentation but denied fever, chills, chest pain, leg swelling, palpitations, or lightheadedness. He was treated with a course of levofloxacin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia as an outpatient without improvement and had tested negative for COVID-19. He denied occupational or environmental exposures or sick contacts, though he had traveled back to South Africa 1 year before presentation. He had complex partial seizures for the past 22 years, which had been well controlled on phenytoin (300 mg daily). His other home medications included dulaglutide, sertraline, and atorvastatin and had no recent changes. He quit smoking 30 years ago after smoking one pack per day for 10 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution/methods , Lacosamide/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Phenytoin , Seizures/drug therapy , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247773, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus infectious disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidities, severe acute respiratory failures and subsequently emergency departments' (EDs) overcrowding in a context of insufficient laboratory testing capacities. The development of decision support tools for real-time clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 is of prime importance to assist patients' triage and allocate resources for patients at risk. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2 to June 15, 2020, clinical patterns of COVID-19 suspected patients at admission to the EDs of Liège University Hospital, consisting in the recording of eleven symptoms (i.e. dyspnoea, chest pain, rhinorrhoea, sore throat, dry cough, wet cough, diarrhoea, headache, myalgia, fever and anosmia) plus age and gender, were investigated during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. Indeed, 573 SARS-CoV-2 cases confirmed by qRT-PCR before mid-June 2020, and 1579 suspected cases that were subsequently determined to be qRT-PCR negative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled in this study. Using multivariate binary logistic regression, two most relevant symptoms of COVID-19 were identified in addition of the age of the patient, i.e. fever (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66; 95% CI: 2.97-4.50), dry cough (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.12), and patients older than 56.5 y (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.67-2.58). Two additional symptoms (chest pain and sore throat) appeared significantly less associated to the confirmed COVID-19 cases with the same OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.94). An overall pondered (by OR) score (OPS) was calculated using all significant predictors. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated and the area under the ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.73) rendering the use of the OPS to discriminate COVID-19 confirmed and unconfirmed patients. The main predictors were confirmed using both sensitivity analysis and classification tree analysis. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was observed between the OPS and the cycle threshold (Ct values) of the qRT-PCR. CONCLUSION AND MAIN SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed approach allows for the use of an interactive and adaptive clinical decision support tool. Using the clinical algorithm developed, a web-based user-interface was created to help nurses and clinicians from EDs with the triage of patients during the second COVID-19 wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Adult , Aged , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260652, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560976

ABSTRACT

Healthcare and residential care workers represent two occupational groups that have, in particular, been at risk of Covid-19, its long-term consequences, and related sick leave. In this study, we investigated the predictors of prolonged sick leave among healthcare and residential workers due to non-hospitalized Covid-19 in the early period of the pandemic. This study is based on a patient register (n = 3209) and included non-hospitalized healthcare or residential care service workers with a positive RT- PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 433) between March and August 2020. Data such as socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and the length of sick leave because of Covid-19 and prior to the pandemic were extracted from the patient's electronic health records. Prolonged sick leave was defined as sick leave ≥ 3 weeks, based on the Swedish pandemic policy. A generalized linear model was used with a binary distribution, adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidity in order to predict prolonged sick leave. Of 433 (77% women) healthcare and residential care workers included in this study, 14.8% needed longer sick leave (> 3 weeks) due to Covid-19. Only 1.4% of the subjects were on sick leave because of long Covid. The risk of sick leave was increased two-fold among residential care workers (adjusted RR 2.14 [95% CI 1.31-3.51]). Depression/anxiety (adjusted RR 2.09 [95% CI 1.31-3.34]), obesity (adjusted RR 1.96 [95% CI 1.01-3.81]) and dyspnea at symptom onset (adjusted RR 2.47 [95% CI 1.55-3.92]), sick leave prior to the pandemic (3-12 weeks) (adjusted RR 2.23 [95% CI 1.21-4.10]) were associated with longer sick leave. From a public health perspective, considering occupational category, comorbidity, symptoms at onset, and sick leave prior to the pandemic as potential predictors of sick leave in healthcare may help prevent staff shortage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweden/epidemiology
7.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(11): 862-869, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555237

ABSTRACT

The puerperium is a complex period that begins with placental delivery and lasts for 6 weeks, during which readaptation of the female organism and redistribution of blood volume occur. This period is conducive to the occurrence of thromboembolic events. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the virus responsible for COVID-19, the attention of the scientific community and health professionals has been focused on obtaining insights on different aspects of this disease, including etiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. Regarding the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, it is opportune to review the clinical conditions that can occur during this period and to investigate dyspnea as a postpartum symptom in order to avoid its immediate association with COVID-19 without further investigation, which can lead to overlooking the diagnosis of other important and occasionally fatal conditions.


O puerpério é um período complexo que se inicia com a dequitação placentária e dura por 6 semanas, no qual a readaptação do organismo materno e a redistribuição do volume sanguíneo ocorrem, além de ser também um cenário propício para eventos pró-trombóticos. No contexto da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, vírus responsável pela COVID-19, a atenção da comunidade científica e dos profissionais da saúde está voltada a elucidar os aspectos da doença, como a etiologia, a transmissão, o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Considerando o ciclo gravídico-puerperal, é oportuna a revisão de condições clínicas que ocorrem durante este período e que apresentam a dispneia como sintoma, a fim de evitar que ela seja automaticamente associada à COVID-19 sem investigações aprofundadas, o que pode levar à negligência do diagnóstico de outras condições importantes e que podem ser, por vezes, fatais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Placenta , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
9.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is prevalent in severe disease and consists of different dimensions that can be measured using the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) and Dyspnea-12 (D-12). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of MDP and D-12 over telephone interviews in oxygen-dependent patients, compared with other patient-reported outcomes (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT)) and with completion by hand. METHODS: Cross-sectional, telephone study of 50 patients with home oxygen therapy. Feasibility was assessed as completion time (self-reported by patients and measured), difficulty (self-reported) and help required to complete the instruments (staff). Completion time was compared with mMRC and CAT, and feasibility was compared with completion by hand in cardiopulmonary outpatients (n=182). Feasibility by age and gender was analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 136 patients approached, 50 (37%) participated (mean age: 72±10 years, 66% women). Completion times (in minutes) were relatively short for MDP (self-reported 6 (IQR 5-10), measured 8 (IQR 6-10)) and D-12 (self-reported 5 (IQR 3-8), measured 3 (IQR 3-4)), and slightly longer than mMRC (median 1 (IQR 1-1)) and CAT (median 3 (IQR 2-5)). Even though the majority of patients required no help, more assistance was required by older patients. Compared with patients reporting by hand, completion over the telephone required somewhat longer time and more assistance. CONCLUSION: Many patients with severe oxygen-dependent disease were unable or unwilling to assess symptoms over the telephone. However, among those able to participate, MDP and D-12 are feasible to measure multiple dimensions of breathlessness over the telephone.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Telephone
10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(12): 927-937, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The authors used cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to define unexplained dyspnea in patients with post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC). We assessed participants for criteria to diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of patients who recover from coronavirus disease (COVID) remain symptomatic. This syndrome is named PASC. Its etiology is unclear. Dyspnea is a frequent symptom. METHODS: The authors performed CPET and symptom assessment for ME/CFS in 41 patients with PASC 8.9 ± 3.3 months after COVID. All patients had normal pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray, and chest computed tomography scans. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), slope of minute ventilation to CO2 production (VE/VCO2 slope), and end tidal pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) were measured. Ventilatory patterns were reviewed with dysfunctional breathing defined as rapid erratic breathing. RESULTS: Eighteen men and 23 women (average age: 45 ± 13 years) were studied. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 59% ± 9%. Peak VO2 averaged 20.3 ± 7 mL/kg/min (77% ± 21% predicted VO2). VE/VCO2 slope was 30 ± 7. PetCO2 at rest was 33.5 ± 4.5 mm Hg. Twenty-four patients (58.5%) had a peak VO2 <80% predicted. All patients with peak VO2 <80% had a circulatory limitation to exercise. Fifteen of 17 patients with normal peak VO2 had ventilatory abnormalities including peak respiratory rate >55 (n = 3) or dysfunctional breathing (n = 12). For the whole cohort, 88% of patients (n = 36) had ventilatory abnormalities with dysfunctional breathing (n = 26), increased VE/VCO2 (n = 17), and/or hypocapnia PetCO2 <35 (n = 25). Nineteen patients (46%) met criteria for ME/CFS. CONCLUSIONS: Circulatory impairment, abnormal ventilatory pattern, and ME/CFS are common in patients with PASC. The dysfunctional breathing, resting hypocapnia, and ME/CFS may contribute to symptoms. CPET is a valuable tool to assess these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Adult , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Int Heart J ; 62(5): 1164-1170, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496595

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence of prolonged recovery in survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), even in those with mild COVID-19. In this paper, we report a case of a 39-year-old male with excessive body weight and a history of borderline values of arterial hypertension without therapy, who was mainly complaining of progressive dyspnea after being diagnosed with mild COVID-19. According to the recent guidelines on the holistic assessment and management of patients who had COVID-19, all preferred diagnostic procedures, including multidetector computed tomography (CT), CT pulmonary angiogram, and echocardiography, should be conducted. However, in our patient, no underlying cardiopulmonary disorder has been established. Therefore, considering all additional symptoms our patient had beyond dyspnea, our initial differential diagnosis included anxiety-related dysfunctional breathing. However, psychiatric evaluation revealed that our patient had only a mild anxiety level, which was unlikely to provoke somatic complaints. We decided to perform further investigations considering that cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) represents a reliable diagnostic tool for patients with unexplained dyspnea. Finally, the CPET elucidated the diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, which was the most probable cause of progressive dyspnea in our patient. We suggested that, based on uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors our patient had, COVID-19 triggered a subclinical form of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to become clinically manifest. Recently, the new onset, exacerbation, or transition from subclinical to clinical HFpEF has been associated with COVID-19. Therefore, in addition to the present literature, our case should warn physicians on HFpEF among survivors of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Adult , Humans , Male
13.
Clin Respir J ; 14(3): 214-221, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are likely to develop respiratory failure which requires noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Ventilation via a mouthpiece (MPV) is an option to offer daytime NIV. OBJECTIVES: To determine the preferred equipment for MPV by patients with NMDs. METHODS: Two MPV equipment sets were compared in 20 patients with NMDs. Set 1, consisted of a non-dedicated ventilator for MPV (PB560, Covidien) with a plastic angled mouthpiece. Set 2, consisted of a dedicated MPV ventilator (Trilogy 100, Philips Respironics) without backup rate and kiss trigger combined with a silicone straw mouthpiece. The Borg dyspnea score, ventilator free time, transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) and carbon dioxide tension (TcCO2 ) were recorded with and without MPV. Patient perception was assessed by a 17-items list. RESULTS: Carbon dioxide tension measurements and total perception score were not different between the two MPV sets. Dyspnea score was lower with the non-dedicated versus dedicated equipment, 1 (0.5) versus 3 (1-6), P < 0.01. All patients with a ventilator free time lower than 6 hours preferred a set backup rate rather than a kiss trigger. Sixty five percent of patients preferred the commercial arm support and 55% preferred the plastic angled mouthpiece. CONCLUSIONS: Dedicated and non-dedicated MPV equipment are deemed effective and comfortable. Individualization of arm support and mouthpiece is advised to ensure success of MPV. A ventilator free time lower than 6 hours seems to be a useful indicator to a priori set a backup rate rather than a rate at zero associated to the kiss trigger.


Subject(s)
Neuromuscular Diseases/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Ventilators, Mechanical/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous/methods , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Over Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Time Factors , Ventilators, Mechanical/trends , Young Adult
14.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 117-120, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436205

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a 55-year-old man with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus who presented with progressive breathlessness, chest pain and hyperglycaemia. An initial impression of a chest infection was made. Management was initiated with antibiotics, but this was unsuccessful, and he continued to desaturate. A screen for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) returned positive. There was no prodrome of fever or flu-like illness or known contact with a patient known to have COVID-19. This case is instructive as he didn't fit the typical case definition for suspected COVID-19. There is significant community spread in Ghana, therefore COVID-19 should be a differential diagnosis in patients who present with hyperglycaemia and respiratory symptoms in the absence of a febrile illness. Primary care doctors must have a high index of suspicion in cases of significant hyperglycaemia and inability to maintain oxygen saturation. Patients known to have diabetes and those not known to have diabetes may develop hyperglycaemia subsequent to COVID-19. A high index of suspicion is crucial for early identification, notification for testing, isolation, treatment, contact tracing and possible referral or coordination of care with other specialists. Early identification will protect healthcare workers and patients alike from cross-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/virology , Ghana , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Urban Health Services
15.
Respiration ; 101(2): 132-141, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multicentre studies focussing on specific long-term post-COVID-19 symptoms are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fatigue and dyspnoea, repercussions on daily life activities, and risk factors associated with fatigue or dyspnoea in COVID-19 survivors at long term after hospital discharge. METHODS: Age, gender, height, weight, symptoms at hospitalization, pre-existing medical comorbidity, intensive care unit admission, and the presence of cardio-respiratory symptoms developed after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were collected from patients who recovered from COVID-19 at 4 hospitals in Madrid (Spain) from March 1 to May 31, 2020 (first COVID-19 wave). The Functional Impairment Checklist was used for evaluating fatigue/dyspnoea levels and functional limitations. RESULTS: A total of 1,142 patients (48% women, age: 61, standard deviation [SD]: 17 years) were assessed 7.0 months (SD 0.6) after hospitalization. Fatigue was present in 61% patients, dyspnoea with activity in 55%, and dyspnoea at rest in 23.5%. Only 355 (31.1%) patients did not exhibit fatigue and/or dyspnoea 7 months after hospitalization. Forty-five per cent reported functional limitations with daily living activities. Risk factors associated with fatigue and dyspnoea included female gender, number of pre-existing comorbidities, and number of symptoms at hospitalization. The number of days at hospital was a risk factor just for dyspnoea. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue and/or dyspnoea were present in 70% of hospitalized COVID-19 survivors 7 months after discharge. In addition, 45% patients exhibited limitations on daily living activities. Being female, higher number of pre-existing medical comorbidities and number of symptoms at hospitalization were risk factors associated to fatigue/dyspnoea in COVID-19 survivors 7 months after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/virology , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Spain , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
16.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(12): 3682-3687, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although prolonged respiratory symptoms following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been described in adults, data are emerging that children also experience long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The respiratory sequelae of COVID-19 in children remain poorly characterized. In this study we describe health data and respiratory findings in pediatric patients presenting with persistent respiratory symptoms following COVID-19. METHODS: This study included patients referred to Pulmonary Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between December 2020 and April 2021 (n = 29). Inclusion criteria included a history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity or confirmed close household contact and suggestive symptoms. A retrospective chart review was performed and demographic, clinical, imaging, and functional test data were collected. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation to clinic was 13.1 years (range: 4-19 years). Patients had persistent respiratory symptoms ranging from 1.3 to 6.7 months postacute infection. Persistent dyspnea and/or exertional dyspnea were present in nearly all (96.6%) patients at the time of clinic presentation. Other reported chronic symptoms included cough (51.7%) and exercise intolerance (48.3%). Fatigue was reported in 13.8% of subjects. Many subjects were overweight or obese (62.1%) and 11 subjects (37.9%) had a prior history of asthma. Spirometry and plethysmography were normal in most patients. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) revealed exercise intolerance and significant tachycardia in two-thirds of the nine children tested. CONCLUSION: Exertional dyspnea, cough and exercise intolerance were the most common respiratory symptoms in children with postacute COVID-19 respiratory symptoms seen in an outpatient pulmonary clinic. Spirometry (and plethysmography when available), however, was mostly normal, and exertional intolerance was frequently demonstrated using the 6MWT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 51(3): 221-229, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telephone and video-based triage of dyspnoea has become commonplace and clinicians are faced with a new challenge in risk stratification of patients with dyspnoea due to suspected COVID-19. This review aimed to identify existing remote assessment modalities for acute dyspnoea which can be applied during pandemics. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and medRxiv for studies of remote assessment of dyspnoea [PROSPERO ID: CRD42020202292]. A total of 3014 abstracts were screened independently by two reviewers and 32 studies were progressed to full text screening. RESULTS: Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Commonly assessed clinical features included respiratory rate, work of breathing, counting time and mental status. All studies found remote triage modalities to be appropriate for detecting severe respiratory distress or the need for emergency level care. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based tools to remotely assess dyspnoea will reduce resource strain during current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
18.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14357, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416321

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarise the best available evidence on the frequency of long COVID-19 (post-acute COVID-19 syndrome), its clinical manifestations, and the criteria used for diagnosis. METHODS: Systematic review conducted with a comprehensive search including formal databases, COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 data sources, grey literature, and manual search. We considered for inclusion clinical trials, observational longitudinal comparative and non-comparative studies, cross-sectional, before-and-after, and case series. We assessed the methodological quality by specific tools based on the study designs. We presented the results as a narrative synthesis regarding the frequency and duration of long COVID-19, signs and symptoms, criteria used for diagnosis, and potential risk factors. RESULTS: We included 25 observational studies with moderate to high methodological quality, considering 5440 participants. The frequency of long COVID-19 ranged from 4.7% to 80%, and the most prevalent signs/symptoms were chest pain (up to 89%), fatigue (up to 65%), dyspnea (up to 61%), and cough and sputum production (up to 59%). Temporal criteria used to define long COVID-19 varied from 3 to 24 weeks after acute phase or hospital discharge. Potentially associated risk factors were old age, female sex, severe clinical status, a high number of comorbidities, hospital admission, and oxygen supplementation at the acute phase. However, limitations related to study designs added uncertainty to this finding. None of the studies assessed the duration of signs/symptoms. CONCLUSION: The frequency of long COVID-19 reached up to 80% over the studies included and occurred between 3 and 24 weeks after acute phase or hospital discharge. Chest pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and cough were the most reported clinical manifestations attributed to the condition. Based on these systematic review findings, there is an urgent need to understand this emerging, complex and challenging medical condition. Proposals for diagnostic criteria and standard terminology are welcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
J Breath Res ; 15(4)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function and impairment of exercise endurance in patients with COVID-19 after 3 months of the second wave of the pandemic in Turkey. A total of 51 consecutive COVID-19 survivors, mostly healthcare providers, still working in the emergency room and intensive care units of the hospital after the second wave of Covid 19 pandemia were included in this study. Cardiopulmonary exercise stress test was performed. The median of the exercise time of the COVID-19 survivors, was 10 (4.5-13) minutes and the mean 6.8 ± 1.3 Mets was achieved. The VO2max of the COVID-19 survivors was 24 ± 4.6 ml kg-1min-1which corresponds the 85 ± 10% of the predicted VO2max value. The VO2WRs value which was reported about 8.5-11 ml min-1per watt in healthy individuals as normal was found lower in Covid 19 survivors (5.6 ± 1.4). The percentage of the maximum peak VO2calculated according to the predictable peak VO2of the COVID-19 survivors, was found significantly lower in male patients (92 ± 9.5% vs 80 ± 8.5%,p: 0.000). Also, there was a positive correlation between the percentage of the maximum predicted VO2measurements and age (r: 0.320,p: 0000). The peak VO2values of COVID-19 survivors decreased, and simultaneously, their exercise performance decreased due to peripheral muscle involvement. We believe that COVID-19 significantly affects men and young patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Muscle Strength , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Breath Tests , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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