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2.
Saudi Med J ; 43(4): 378-385, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between the hospitalization rates, symptoms, and laboratory parameters of pregnant women diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the gestational week, and determine their symptoms or laboratory parameters predictive of the need for possible admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the symptoms, laboratory parameters, and treatment modalities of 175 pregnant women with COVID-19 who were admitted to a tertiary referral hospital between March 2020 and March 2021 and investigated their association with pregnancy trimesters. RESULTS: The COVID-19-related hospitalization rates in the first trimester was 24.1%, second trimesters was 36%, and third trimester was 57.3%. Cough and shortness of breath were significantly higher in the pregnant women in their third trimester than those in the first 2 trimesters (p=0.042 and p=0.026, respectively). No significant relationship was found between pregnancy trimesters and the need for ICU admission. Shortness of breath at the first admission increased the need for ICU by 6.95 times, and a 1 unit increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) level increased the risk of ICU by 1.003 times. CONCLUSION: The presence of respiratory symptoms and the need for hospitalization increased significantly with later trimesters in pregnant women with COVID-19. The presence of shortness of breath or high CRP level at the time of admission could predict the need for ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Trimesters , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776193

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Cardiopulmonary and brain functions are frequently impaired after COVID-19 infection. Exercise rehabilitation could have a major impact on the healing process of patients affected by long COVID-19. (2) Methods: The COVID-Rehab study will investigate the effectiveness of an eight-week cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program on cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2max) in long-COVID-19 individuals. Secondary objectives will include functional capacity, quality of life, perceived stress, sleep quality (questionnaires), respiratory capacity (spirometry test), coagulation, inflammatory and oxidative-stress profile (blood draw), cognition (neuropsychological tests), neurovascular coupling and pulsatility (fNIRS). The COVID-Rehab project was a randomised clinical trial with two intervention arms (1:1 ratio) that will be blindly evaluated. It will recruit a total of 40 individuals: (1) rehabilitation: centre-based exercise-training program (eight weeks, three times per week); (2) control: individuals will have to maintain their daily habits. (3) Conclusions: Currently, there are no specific rehabilitation guidelines for long-COVID-19 patients, but preliminary studies show encouraging results. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT05035628).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue , Humans , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 'Long COVID'-associated dyspnoea may persist for months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the causes of persistent dyspnoea, dysfunctional breathing (DB), defined as an erratic or inappropriate ventilation at rest or exercise, has been observed, but little is known about its occurrence and pathophysiology among individuals with 'long COVID'. We aimed to describe the occurrence and identify clinical predictors of DB among patients following SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed in 51 SARS-CoV-2 patients (median age, 64 years (IQR, 15)); male, 66.7%) living with 'long COVID' and persistent dyspnoea. CPET was classified into three dominant patterns: respiratory limitation with gas exchange abnormalities (RL); normal CPET or O2 delivery/utilisation impairment (D); and DB. Non-parametric and χ2 tests were applied to analyse the association between CPET dominant patterns and demographics, pulmonary function tests and SARS-CoV-2 severity. RESULTS: Among 51 patients, DB mostly without hyperventilation was found in 29.4% (n=15), RL in 54.9% (n=28) and D in 15.7% (n=8). When compared with RL individuals, patients with DB were younger, had significantly less severe initial infection, a better transfer capacity for carbon monoxide (median 85% (IQR, 28)), higher oxygen consumption (22.9 mL/min/kg (IQR, 5.5)), a better ventilatory efficiency slope (31.6 (IQR, 12.8)), and a higher SpO2 (95% (IQR, 3)). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that DB without hyperventilation could be an important pathophysiological mechanism of disabling dyspnoea in younger outpatients following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears to be a feature of COVID-19 not described in other viral diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(2): 106-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766194

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old female was admitted to our hospital in April 2021 with dyspnea. She was discharged from the hospital 3 weeks ago due to the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Physical examination revealed an oxygen desaturation of 82%. The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) that showed a ground-glass pattern and a giant left atrial appendage ( Figure 1A ). Film array respiratory panel was negative, and pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed after bronchoscopy. Cardiac magnetic resonance corroborated the huge left atrial appendage ( Figure 1B ). No other structural or functional heart abnormalities were diagnosed. A giant left atrial appendage is a rare cardiac anomaly that can be congenital or acquired. In the literature, it is called a left atrial appendage aneurysm. The dilatation can be generalized or focused. Although it can occur in all age groups, it is predominant in patients in their 30s to 50s and most common in females.1 Patients can be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, or dyspnea. A number of recent cases in the literature have highlighted the diagnostic utility of CTA.2 While there is no standard treatment for this condition, surgical resection is the most frequent therapy. Another option reported in the literature is anticoagulant treatment for select cases.3 Closure of the left atrial appendage is a more recent and emerging intervention that can be considered. In our patient, we initiated anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events; however, we recommended left atrial appendage occlusion or surgical resection after completing the treatment for pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , COVID-19 , Heart Aneurysm , Heart Defects, Congenital , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Anticoagulants , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology
6.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022015, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754146

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity defined as positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. Up to April 25th 2021, eleven cases of POS after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia have been reported on Pubmed. Accordingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection may be considered as an emergent cause of POS due to an increase in ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. In this article we provide an update on the patient with POS after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia, which we previously reported and we discuss the case reports of POS due to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Posture , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742544

ABSTRACT

Dyspnea, shortness of breath, and chest pain are frequent symptoms of post-COVID syndrome (PCS). These symptoms are unrelated to organ damage in most patients after mild acute COVID infection. Hyperventilation has been identified as a cause of exercise-induced dyspnea in PCS. Since there is a broad overlap in symptomatology with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causes for dyspnea and potential consequences can be deduced by a stringent application of assumptions made for ME/CFS in our recent review papers. One of the first stimuli of respiration in exercise is caused by metabolic feedback via skeletal muscle afferents. Hyperventilation in PCS, which occurs early on during exercise, can arise from a combined disturbance of a poor skeletal muscle energetic situation and autonomic dysfunction (overshooting respiratory response), both found in ME/CFS. The exaggerated respiratory response aggravating dyspnea does not only limit the ability to exercise but further impairs the muscular energetic situation: one of the buffering mechanisms to respiratory alkalosis is a proton shift from intracellular to extracellular space via the sodium-proton-exchanger subtype 1 (NHE1), thereby loading cells with sodium. This adds to two other sodium loading mechanisms already operative, namely glycolytic metabolism (intracellular acidosis) and impaired Na+/K+ATPase activity. High intracellular sodium has unfavorable effects on mitochondrial calcium and metabolism via sodium-calcium-exchangers (NCX). Mitochondrial calcium overload by high intracellular sodium reversing the transport mode of NCX to import calcium is a key driver for fatigue and chronification. Prevention of hyperventilation has a therapeutic potential by keeping intracellular sodium below the threshold where calcium overload occurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Sodium
8.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 32(1): 10, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740441

ABSTRACT

Dyspnoea or breathlessness is a common presenting symptom among patients attending primary care services. This review aimed to determine whether there are clinical tools that can be incorporated into a clinical decision support system for primary care for efficient and accurate diagnosis of causes of chronic dyspnoea. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar for all literature published between 1946 and 2020. Studies that evaluated a clinical algorithm for assessment of chronic dyspnoea in patients of any age group presenting to physicians with chronic dyspnoea were included. We identified 326 abstracts, 55 papers were reviewed, and eight included. A total 2026 patients aged between 20-80 years were included, 60% were women. The duration of dyspnoea was three weeks to 25 years. All studies undertook a stepwise or algorithmic approach to the assessment of dyspnoea. The results indicate that following history taking and physical examination, the first stage should include simply performed tests such as pulse oximetry, spirometry, and electrocardiography. If the patient remains undiagnosed, the second stage includes investigations such as chest x-ray, thyroid function tests, full blood count and NT-proBNP. In the third stage patients are referred for more advanced tests such as echocardiogram and thoracic CT. If dyspnoea remains unexplained, the fourth stage of assessment will require secondary care referral for more advanced diagnostic testing such as exercise tests. Utilising this proposed stepwise approach is expected to ascertain a cause for dyspnoea for 35% of the patients in stage 1, 83% by stage 3 and >90% of patients by stage 4.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Dyspnea , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Spirometry , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264331, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long Covid is a public health concern that needs defining, quantifying, and describing. We aimed to explore the initial and ongoing symptoms of Long Covid following SARS-CoV-2 infection and describe its impact on daily life. METHODS: We collected self-reported data through an online survey using convenience non-probability sampling. The survey enrolled adults who reported lab-confirmed (PCR or antibody) or suspected COVID-19 who were not hospitalised in the first two weeks of illness. This analysis was restricted to those with self-reported Long Covid. Univariate comparisons between those with and without confirmed COVID-19 infection were carried out and agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to identify specific symptom clusters, and their demographic and functional correlates. RESULTS: We analysed data from 2550 participants with a median duration of illness of 7.6 months (interquartile range (IQR) 7.1-7.9). 26.5% reported lab-confirmation of infection. The mean age was 46.5 years (standard deviation 11 years) with 82.8% females and 79.9% of participants based in the UK. 89.5% described their health as good, very good or excellent before COVID-19. The most common initial symptoms that persisted were exhaustion, chest pressure/tightness, shortness of breath and headache. Cognitive dysfunction and palpitations became more prevalent later in the illness. Most participants described fluctuating (57.7%) or relapsing symptoms (17.6%). Physical activity, stress, and sleep disturbance commonly triggered symptoms. A third (32%) reported they were unable to live alone without any assistance at six weeks from start of illness. 16.9% reported being unable to work solely due to COVID-19 illness. 37.0% reported loss of income due to illness, and 64.4% said they were unable to perform usual activities/duties. Acute systems clustered broadly into two groups: a majority cluster (n = 2235, 88%) with cardiopulmonary predominant symptoms, and a minority cluster (n = 305, 12%) with multisystem symptoms. Similarly, ongoing symptoms broadly clustered in two groups; a majority cluster (n = 2243, 88.8%) exhibiting mainly cardiopulmonary, cognitive symptoms and exhaustion, and a minority cluster (n = 283, 11.2%) exhibiting more multisystem symptoms. Belonging to the more severe multisystem cluster was associated with more severe functional impact, lower income, younger age, being female, worse baseline health, and inadequate rest in the first two weeks of the illness, with no major differences in the cluster patterns when restricting analysis to the lab-confirmed subgroup. CONCLUSION: This is an exploratory survey of Long Covid characteristics. Whilst this is a non-representative population sample, it highlights the heterogeneity of persistent symptoms, and the significant functional impact of prolonged illness following confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection. To study prevalence, predictors and prognosis, research is needed in a representative population sample using standardised case definitions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Stress, Physiological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3284-3300, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726156

ABSTRACT

The clinical course of COVID-19 is variable, with clinical manifestation ranging from 81% mild course to 14% severe course along with 5% critical course in patients. The asymptomatic course is reported to potentially range between 20% and 70% (avg. 33%). A more severe course is seen in the elderly, those with various chronic diseases, and the immunosuppressed, where the case fatality rate is higher in these risk groups. The disease progresses with various symptoms, such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, malaise, myalgia, taste and smell disorders, diarrhea, sore throat, headache, and conjunctivitis. The disease begins with shortness of breath, indicative of lung damage, after an average of 7 to 10 days, and progresses in ARDS, sepsis, and septic shock. Some patients quickly enter shortness of breath, while others gradually develop shortness of breath and chest tightness and burning. The risk factors for a poor prognosis are age, comorbidities, and changes in laboratory tests. Secondary bacterial and fungal infections frequently develop with steroids and immunosuppressants, especially in the intensive care unit. Frequent complications in hospitalized patients include pneumonia (75%), ARDS (15%), acute renal failure (9%), and acute liver injury (19%). An increased incidence of heart damage is observed, including acute heart failure, arrhythmias, and myocarditis. Of the patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, 10%­25% present with prothrombotic coagulopathy, resulting in venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The most common extrapulmonary symptom is neuropsychiatric involvement, frequently accompanied by insomnia, an impediment to remembering, and an altered state of consciousness. During the course of COVID-19, patients undergo some pathological changes (severe lymphopenia, high levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, etc.) depending on the condition and exposure level of the affected systems as shown by various laboratory tests. The relevant tests are the guiding elements of risk assessment, clinical monitoring, disease severity, and prognosis setting and therapy decision-making processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Physiol Rep ; 10(4): e15197, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699962

ABSTRACT

Reduced exercise capacity and several limiting symptoms during exercise have been reported following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. From clinical observations, we hypothesized that an abnormal breathing pattern (BrP) during exercise may be common in these patients and related to reduced exercise capacity. We aimed to (a) evaluate a method to classify the BrP as normal/abnormal or borderline in terms of inter-rater agreement; (b) determine the occurrence of an abnormal BrP in patients with post-COVID; and (c) compare characteristics of post-COVID patients with normal and abnormal BrP. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients referred for CPET due to post-COVID April 2020-April 2021, we selected subjects without a history of intensive care and with available medical records. Three raters independently categorized patients' BrP as normal, abnormal, or borderline, using four traditional CPET plots (respiratory exchange ratio, tidal volume over ventilation, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen, and ventilation over time). Out of 20 patients (11 male), 10 were categorized as having a normal, 7 an abnormal, and three a borderline BrP. Inter-rater agreement was good (Fleiss' kappa: 0.66 [0.66-0.67]). Subjects with an abnormal BrP had lower peak ventilation, lower exercise capacity, similar ventilatory efficiency and a similar level of dyspnea at peak exercise, as did subjects with a normal BrP. Patients' BrP was possible to classify with good agreement between observers. A third of patients had an abnormal BrP, associated with lower exercise capacity, which could possibly explain exercise related symptoms in some patients with post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Respiration , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chest ; 161(2): e91-e96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664780

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old South African man with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, OSA, and latent TB presented to the ER with gradually progressive dyspnea over months. He also reported occasional dry cough and fatigue at presentation but denied fever, chills, chest pain, leg swelling, palpitations, or lightheadedness. He was treated with a course of levofloxacin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia as an outpatient without improvement and had tested negative for COVID-19. He denied occupational or environmental exposures or sick contacts, though he had traveled back to South Africa 1 year before presentation. He had complex partial seizures for the past 22 years, which had been well controlled on phenytoin (300 mg daily). His other home medications included dulaglutide, sertraline, and atorvastatin and had no recent changes. He quit smoking 30 years ago after smoking one pack per day for 10 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution/methods , Lacosamide/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Phenytoin , Seizures/drug therapy , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(3): e28639, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642427

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The development of pulmonary fibrosis is a rare complication of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Limited information is available in the literature about that, and the present study aimed to address this gap.This case-control study included 64 patients with post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis who were hospitalized for COVID-19.The percentage of patients aged ≥65 years (44%) who demised was higher than those who survived (25%). Male patients (62%) had higher mortality than female patients (37%). The most frequently reported clinical symptoms were shortness of breath (98%), cough (91%), and fever (70%). Most COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (81%) were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 63% required mechanical ventilation. Bilateral lung infiltrates (94%), "ground glass" opacity (91%), "honeycomb" lung (25%), and pulmonary consolidation (9%) were commonly identified in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis who survived. The findings for computed tomography and dyspnea scale were significantly higher in severe cases admitted to the ICU who required mechanical ventilation. A higher computerized tomography score also correlated significantly with a longer duration of stay in hospital and a higher degree of dyspnea. Half of the COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis (50%) who survived required oxygen therapy, and those with "honeycomb" lung required long-term oxygen therapy to a far greater extent than others. Cox regression revealed that smoking and asthma were significantly associated with ICU admission and the risk of mortality.Post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis is a severe complication that leads to permanent lung damage or death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Oxygen , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vitamins/therapeutic use
14.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Supl): 12-17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with high incidence and fatality, however, non-communicable diseases remain a global public health problem with even greater morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a lag in diagnosis and treatment of patients with heart disease, particularly the performance of exercise testing (ET), due to the fear of aerosol generation and viral dissemination. Although some centers carry out the tests with the use of masks, the information is still superficial and preliminary. The objective of the study was to describe the ergometric performance observed when performing exercise tests during the COVID-19 (PANDEMIC-G) pandemic and to highlight the differences with those results carried out in another time, when there was no COVID-19 (NO PANDEMIC). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out. PANDEMIC-G patients underwent ET between March 2020 and December 2020, once a biological triage was done and all of them wore N95 masks. They were compared to NO PANDEMIC patients that performed an ET between March 2019 and December 2019. Demographic and ergometric variables were presented and analyzed according to their type. All p < 0.05 were considered stochastically significant. RESULTS: A total of 361 ET were studied: 209 (58%) belonged to NO PANDEMIC and 152 (42%) to PANDEMIC-G. The number of ET stopped by dyspnea was greater in PANDEMIC-G (117) than in NO PANDEMIC (8). Exercise tolerance did not show significant changes. Systolic blood pressure, double product, and myocardial oxygen utilization were higher in PANDEMIC-G ET (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-era, fewer stress tests were performed, which were suspended more frequently due to dyspnea. Higher values of systolic blood pressure and myocardial oxygen utilization were observed in PANDEMIC-G as well.


OBJETIVO: La pandemia de COVID-19 se asocia con una alta incidencia y letalidad; sin embargo, las enfermedades no transmisibles siguen siendo un problema de salud pública mundial con una morbilidad y mortalidad aún mayores. Actualmente, existe un retraso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los pacientes con enfermedades cardíacas, particularmente en la realización de la prueba de esfuerzo (PE), debido al temor a la generación de aerosoles y la diseminación viral. Aunque algunos centros realizan las pruebas con el uso de tapabocas, la información aún es superficial y preliminar. El objetivo del estudio fue describir el desempeño ergométrico observado al realizar pruebas de ejercicio durante la pandemia COVID-19 (PANDEMIC-G) y remarcar las diferencias con las pruebas realizadas antes de ella (NO PANDEMIC). Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal. Los pacientes con PANDEMIC-G se sometieron a PE entre marzo y diciembre de 2020, una vez que se realizó un triaje biológico y todos usaron tapabocas N95. Fueron comparados con pacientes NO PANDEMIC, que realizaron una PE entre marzo y diciembre de 2019. Las variables se presentaron y analizaron según su tipo. Todos los valores de p inferiores a 0.05 se consideraron estocásticamente significativos. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron un total de 361 PE, donde 209 (58%) pertenecían a NO PANDEMIC y 152 (42%) a PANDEMIC-G. El número de PE detenidas por disnea fue mayor en PANDEMIC-G (n = 117) que en NO PANDEMIC (n = 8). La tolerancia al ejercicio no mostró cambios significativos. La presión arterial sistólica, el producto doble y la utilización de oxígeno del miocardio fueron mayores en las PE en el PANDEMIC-G (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONES: En la era COVID se realizaron menos pruebas de esfuerzo, que se suspendieron con mayor frecuencia por disnea. También se observaron valores más altos de presión arterial sistólica y utilización de oxígeno del miocardio en PANDEMIC-G.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Masks , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test/adverse effects , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Oxygen , Pandemics
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248009, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the start of the pandemic, millions of people have been infected, with thousands of deaths. Many foci worldwide have been identified in retirement nursing homes, with a high number of deaths. Our study aims were to evaluate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the retirement nursing homes, the predictors to develop symptoms, and death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all people living in retirement nursing homes (PLRNH), where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Medical and clinical data were collected. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on infection and symptoms development. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to evaluate 30 days mortality predictors, considering death as the dependent variable. We enrolled 382 subjects. The mean age was 81.15±10.97 years, and males were 140(36.7%). At the multivariate analysis, mental disorders, malignancies, and angiotensin II receptor blockers were predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection while having a neurological syndrome was associated with a lower risk. Only half of the people with SARS-CoV-2 infection developed symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and neurological syndrome were correlated with an increased risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 related symptoms. Fifty-six (21.2%) people with SARS-CoV-2 infection died; of these, 53 died in the first 30 days after the swab's positivity. Significant factors associated with 30-days mortality were male gender, hypokinetic disease, and the presence of fever and dyspnea. Patients' autonomy and early heparin treatment were related to lower mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: We evidenced factors associated with infection's risk and death in a setting with high mortality such as retirement nursing homes, that should be carefully considered in the management of PLRNH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/pathology , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Survival Rate
16.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(11): 862-869, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555237

ABSTRACT

The puerperium is a complex period that begins with placental delivery and lasts for 6 weeks, during which readaptation of the female organism and redistribution of blood volume occur. This period is conducive to the occurrence of thromboembolic events. In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the virus responsible for COVID-19, the attention of the scientific community and health professionals has been focused on obtaining insights on different aspects of this disease, including etiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. Regarding the pregnancy-postpartum cycle, it is opportune to review the clinical conditions that can occur during this period and to investigate dyspnea as a postpartum symptom in order to avoid its immediate association with COVID-19 without further investigation, which can lead to overlooking the diagnosis of other important and occasionally fatal conditions.


O puerpério é um período complexo que se inicia com a dequitação placentária e dura por 6 semanas, no qual a readaptação do organismo materno e a redistribuição do volume sanguíneo ocorrem, além de ser também um cenário propício para eventos pró-trombóticos. No contexto da pandemia de SARS-CoV-2, vírus responsável pela COVID-19, a atenção da comunidade científica e dos profissionais da saúde está voltada a elucidar os aspectos da doença, como a etiologia, a transmissão, o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Considerando o ciclo gravídico-puerperal, é oportuna a revisão de condições clínicas que ocorrem durante este período e que apresentam a dispneia como sintoma, a fim de evitar que ela seja automaticamente associada à COVID-19 sem investigações aprofundadas, o que pode levar à negligência do diagnóstico de outras condições importantes e que podem ser, por vezes, fatais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Placenta , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
18.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
19.
Respiration ; 101(4): 376-380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global crisis challenging the worldwide healthcare systems. Many patients present with a mismatch of profound hypoxemia and few signs of respiratory distress (i.e., silent hypoxemia). This particular clinical presentation is often cited, but data are limited. MAIN BODY: We describe dyspnea sensation as assessed by using the BORG scale in pulmonary patients admitted to the emergency room during a 4-week period and transferred to the respiratory department of Siloah Hospital, Hannover, Germany. From October 1 to November 1, 2020, 82 patients with hypoxemia defined as oxygen demand to achieve an oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≥92% were included. In 45/82 (55%) patients, SARS-CoV-2 was detected by PCR on admission. Among non-COVID patients, exacerbation of COPD was the main diagnosis (15/37, 41%). All subjects rated their perceived dyspnea using the modified Borg CR10 scale. Patients in the non-COVID group suffered from more dyspnea on the modified Borg CR10 scale (median 1, IQR: 0-2 vs. median 5, IQR: 3-6, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, "silent hypoxemia" as defined by the dyspnea Borg CR10 scale ≥5 was independently associated with COVID-19 and presence of severe hypocapnia with an odds ratio of 0.221 (95% confidence interval 0.054, 0.907, p 0.036). CONCLUSION: Among pulmonary patients with acute hypoxemia defined as oxygen demand, patients suffering from COVID-19 experience less dyspnea compared to non-COVID patients. "Silent" hypoxemia was more common in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is prevalent in severe disease and consists of different dimensions that can be measured using the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) and Dyspnea-12 (D-12). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of MDP and D-12 over telephone interviews in oxygen-dependent patients, compared with other patient-reported outcomes (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT)) and with completion by hand. METHODS: Cross-sectional, telephone study of 50 patients with home oxygen therapy. Feasibility was assessed as completion time (self-reported by patients and measured), difficulty (self-reported) and help required to complete the instruments (staff). Completion time was compared with mMRC and CAT, and feasibility was compared with completion by hand in cardiopulmonary outpatients (n=182). Feasibility by age and gender was analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 136 patients approached, 50 (37%) participated (mean age: 72±10 years, 66% women). Completion times (in minutes) were relatively short for MDP (self-reported 6 (IQR 5-10), measured 8 (IQR 6-10)) and D-12 (self-reported 5 (IQR 3-8), measured 3 (IQR 3-4)), and slightly longer than mMRC (median 1 (IQR 1-1)) and CAT (median 3 (IQR 2-5)). Even though the majority of patients required no help, more assistance was required by older patients. Compared with patients reporting by hand, completion over the telephone required somewhat longer time and more assistance. CONCLUSION: Many patients with severe oxygen-dependent disease were unable or unwilling to assess symptoms over the telephone. However, among those able to participate, MDP and D-12 are feasible to measure multiple dimensions of breathlessness over the telephone.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Oxygen , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Telephone
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