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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259010, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480464

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to stratify the early pneumonia trajectory on chest radiographs and compare patient characteristics in dyspneic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included 139 COVID-19 patients with dyspnea (87 men, 62.7±16.3 years) and serial chest radiographs from January to September 2020. Radiographic pneumonia extent was quantified as a percentage using a previously-developed deep learning algorithm. A group-based trajectory model was used to categorize the pneumonia trajectory after symptom onset during hospitalization. Clinical findings, and outcomes were compared, and Cox regression was performed for survival analysis. RESULTS: Radiographic pneumonia trajectories were categorized into four groups. Group 1 (n = 83, 59.7%) had negligible pneumonia, and group 2 (n = 29, 20.9%) had mild pneumonia. Group 3 (n = 13, 9.4%) and group 4 (n = 14, 10.1%) showed similar considerable pneumonia extents at baseline, but group 3 had decreasing pneumonia extent at 1-2 weeks, while group 4 had increasing pneumonia extent. Intensive care unit admission and mortality were significantly more frequent in groups 3 and 4 than in groups 1 and 2 (P < .05). Groups 3 and 4 shared similar clinical and laboratory findings, but thrombocytopenia (<150×103/µL) was exclusively observed in group 4 (P = .016). When compared to groups 1 and 2, group 4 (hazard ratio, 63.3; 95% confidence interval, 7.9-504.9) had a two-fold higher risk for mortality than group 3 (hazard ratio, 31.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-280.2), and this elevated risk was maintained after adjusting confounders. CONCLUSION: Monitoring the early radiologic trajectory beyond baseline further prognosticated at-risk COVID-19 patients, who potentially had thrombo-inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 39-45, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, mortality related to hospitalized patients with the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is approximately 4-5%. However, data on COVID-19 admissions from sub-Saharan Africa are scanty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile and determinants of outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted at a hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A prospective study involving 25 patients with real time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the treatment centre of the University Hospital, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana from 1st June to 27th July, 2020. They were managed and followed up for outcomes. Data were analysed descriptively, and predictors of mortality assessed using a multivariate logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 20.6 years, and 14 (56%) were males. The main symptoms at presentation were breathlessness (68%) followed by fever (56%). The cases were categorized as mild (6), moderate (6), severe (10) and critical (3). Hypertension was the commonest comorbidity present in 72% of patients. Medications used in patient management included dexamethasone (68%), azithromycin (96%), and hydroxychloroquine (4%). Five of 25 cases died (Case fatality ratio 20%). Increasing age and high systolic blood pressure were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Case fatality in this sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was high. Thorough clinical assessment, severity stratification, aggressive management of underlying co-morbidities and standardized protocols incountry might improve outcomes. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323020

ABSTRACT

The natural history of COVID-19 and predictors of mortality in older adults need to be investigated to inform clinical operations and healthcare policy planning. A retrospective study took place in 80 long-term nursing homes in Catalonia, Spain collecting data from March 1st to May 31st, 2020. Demographic and clinical data from 2,092 RT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were registered, including structural characteristics of the facilities. Descriptive statistics to describe the demographic, clinical, and molecular characteristics of our sample were prepared, both overall and by their symptomatology was performed and an analysis of statistically significant bivariate differences and constructions of a logistic regression model were carried out to assess the relationship between variables. The incidence of the infection was 28%. 71% of the residents showed symptoms. Five major symptoms included: fever, dyspnea, dry cough, asthenia and diarrhea. Fever and dyspnea were by far the most frequent (50% and 28%, respectively). The presentation was predominantly acute and symptomatology persisted from days to weeks (mean 9.1 days, SD = 10,9). 16% of residents had confirmed pneumonia and 22% required hospitalization. The accumulated mortality rate was 21.75% (86% concentrated during the first 28 days at onset). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a positive predictive value for mortality for some variables such as age, pneumonia, fever, dyspnea, stupor refusal to oral intake and dementia (p<0.01 for all variables). Results suggest that density in the nursing homes did not account for differences in the incidence of the infection within the facilities. This study provides insights into the natural history of the disease in older adults with high dependency living in long-term nursing homes during the first pandemic wave of March-May 2020 in the region of Catalonia, and suggests that some comorbidities and symptoms have a strong predictive value for mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyspnea , Fever , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/pathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/pathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 86-93, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 22 million people worldwide. Although much has been learned about COVID-19, we do not know much about its neurological features and their outcome. This observational study was conducted on the patients of Imam Hossein Hospital, and 361 adult patients (214 males) with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 5, 2020 to April 3, 2020, were enrolled. Data was gathered on age, sex, comorbidities, initial symptoms, symptoms during the disease course, neurological symptoms, and outcome. The mean age of the patients was 61.90 ± 16.76 years. The most common initial symptoms were cough, fever, and dyspnea. In 21 patients (5.8%), the initial symptom was neurological. History of dementia was associated with severe COVID-19 disease (odds ratio = 1.28). During the course of the disease, 186 patients (51.52%) had at least one neurological symptom, the most common being headache (109 [30.2%]), followed by anosmia/ageusia (69, [19.1%]), and dizziness (54, [15%]). Also, 31 patients had neurological complications (8.58%). Anosmia, ageusia, dizziness, and headache were associated with favorable outcome (P < 0.001), while altered mental status and hemiparesis were associated with poor outcome. The mortality rate of patients who had neurological complications was more than twice than that of patients without neurological complication (P = 0.008). Almost half of the patients experienced at least one neurological symptom, which may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Dementia appears to be associated with severe COVID-19. Mortality was higher in patients with neurological complications, and these patients needed more intensive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dementia/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Headache/complications , Paresis/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/complications , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/mortality , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/complications , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/mortality , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cough/complications , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/virology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/complications , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/mortality , Headache/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresis/diagnosis , Paresis/mortality , Paresis/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
Hum Antibodies ; 29(1): 49-54, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807231

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic in early 2020. This infectious disorder has a heterogeneous course ranging from asymptomatic disorder to a critical situation needing intensive cares. In the current study, we present a report of affected patients admitted in a single hospital in Iran. Eighty-two hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and paraclinical parameters were gathered and statistically analyzed. The median age (IQR) of the patients was 57.32 (45.75, 70) years. At primary evaluation, fever was present in 45.12% of the affected individuals. The most common clinical symptoms were dyspnea (81.71%) and cough (65.85%). Totally, 12 (14.63%) and 14 (17.07%) of patients had low and high WBC counts, respectively. Lymphopenia was detected in 36 (43.9%) of patients, while 6 (7.32%) of patients had lymphocytosis. High levels of Il-6 were detected in 4 (4.88%) of patients. CRP levels were elevated in 69 (84.1%) of patients. The median (IQR) of hospitalization was 7 (5, 9) days. Totally, 26 patients (31%) were hospitalized in ICU. All patients were discharged with good health conditions except for one patient who died. The current study shows the heterogeneous clinical manifestations and paraclinical parameters of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Lymphocytosis/physiopathology , Lymphopenia/physiopathology , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cough/mortality , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/mortality , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytosis/mortality , Lymphocytosis/therapy , Lymphocytosis/virology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/therapy , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/therapy , Obesity/virology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
8.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 10(4): 381-384, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427517

ABSTRACT

The spread of pandemic COVID-19 has created unprecedented need for information. The pandemic is the cause of significant mortality and with this the need for rapidly disseminated information for palliative care professionals regarding the prevalence of symptoms, their intensity, their resistance or susceptibility to symptom control and the mode of death for patients. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of published evidence for symptoms in patients with COVID-19 (with a specific emphasis on symptoms at end of life) and on modes of death. Inclusion: prospective or retrospective studies detailing symptom presence and/or cause or mode of death from COVID-19. RESULTS: 12 papers met the inclusion criteria and gave details of symptom burden: four of these specifically in the dying and two detailed the cause or mode of death. Cough, breathlessness, fatigue and myalgia are significant symptoms in people hospitalised with COVID-19. Dyspnoea is the most significant symptom in the dying. The mode of death was described in two papers and is predominantly through respiratory or heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: There remains a dearth of information regarding symptom burden and mode of death to inform decisions regarding end-of-life care in patients dying with COVID-19. Rapid data gathering on the mode of death and the profile of symptoms in the dying and their prevalence and severity in areas where COVID-19 is prevalent will provide important intelligence for clinicians. This should be done urgently, within ethical norms and the practicalities of a public health, clinical and logistical emergency.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Heart Failure , Myalgia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/mortality , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/mortality , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality
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